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erpsp. I 

J^arbarH College fLibrare 



(Class Of x863) 

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''i&urge tgttur et fat et trtt Sommu0 tecitm^' 









NOV 27 1911 

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''Surge igitnr ct fac: et erit Bomintui tecum.*' 

No. CXXIV.— FEBRUARY, 1858. 
(new bbbies^ mo. lxxxyiii.) 


Iir continuation of the remarks made in a former paper, the applica- 
bility of naturalistic principles of representation to the great scenes and 
events of Scripture has now to be considered. In the last paper these 
principles were considered, mainly, in reference to the persons ; — ^the 
great characters — Apostles, Prophets, Saints, and Martyrs, both of 
Scripture and of ecclesiastical history ; and more especially with re- 
ference to His Person Who, though in the form of man, is in reality 
far above all men, and Who therefore must, of necessity, be unworthily 
represented, if delineated only in His human character. And in thus 
carrying on these remarks, from the persons to the scenes in which, 
while they were on earth, they were the principal actors, much which 
would otherwise have to be said, will have been already anticipated. 
But yet there remains also much which will serve to bring out in still 
greater clearness the unfitness of any such principles, even in the field 
to which naturalistic painters chiefly confine themselves — the scenes 
and events recorded in the Bible. It cannot have escaped the eye of 
any one, who has paid any sort of attention to the subject, that the na- 
turalistic school chiefly delight in Bible scenes as the subjects for their 
windows, in preference to single figures. In fact, it is here, in this 
preference, that one of the most obvious difl^erences between this school 
and that which has taken the mediseval painters exclusively for their 
model, is to be looked for : and it is therefore on this their own pecu- 
liar ground that the fitness or unfitness, of their principles of represen- 
tation in sacred art shall now be further tested. 

In the first case, then, what is there to be gained by the introduction 
of these principles into the school of glass painting ? More correct 
drawing, it is said, of the figures, greater truthfulness and accuracy in 
the details. So far as the correct delineation of the human form is se- 
cured by the adoption of naturalistic, or any other, principles of repre- 
sentation, little opposition to their introduction need be feared ; but 


2 Seme Remarks on Glass Paintiry. 

with regard to the second object, which it is thus proposed to ensure, 
the question will have to be met. Whether what will thus be gained 
is a sufficient counterbalance for that which must inevitablf follow their 
universal adoption ; viz., first, the omission of that which, whether the 
subject chosen be a person, or an event, must always in such subjects 
be an essential element ; and, secondly, the liability to have introduced 
into our paintings that which not being required by the subject, would 
by its introduction be injurious to the reverent effect of the whole. 

I. If we torn our thoughts backward for a moment, and try to re- 
collect any particular picture of this kind which we may have seen, 
and then try to analyse in our own minds what that was which ren- 
dered a naturalistic representation — say, of our Loan — not merely un- 
worthy, i.e., one which failed to give us all the ideas which are de- 
manded in our conception of His Person, but positively offensive to us, 
it will be seen that what in all such cases was wanting, was the Dimme 
element, — the absence of any sign, the symbol of His Godhead — ^that 
He is aught beyond what His form would proclaim Him to be. Where, 
in fact, a mere human representation of CnaisT would fail in giving 
any adequate conception of Him to our minds, would be in its failing 
to mark that union of the Divine with the human nature, which is. to 
9peak reverently, the great characteristic of Christ : that which, to 
our minds at least, distinguishes Him among the Divine Three, and. 
equally raises Him far above all of that race whose nature He has as- 
sumed into Himself. And it is just this point — this union of the two 
natures — ;which naturalistic principles must always fail in reaching, for 
the simple reason that there is nothing like it in all nature. Men can- 
not here copy or imitate, simply because there is nothing from which to 
copy : their favourite principle of " direct imitation/' is, in this instance 
at least, at fault ; and they disdain to have recourse to non-natural ex- 
pedients, consistently on their principles, because none such exist in 

How then do they attempt to meet this difficulty ? Not by the re- 
yerent expedient, adopted of old, of the nimbus or glory encircling the 
head, while there is infused into the form and countenance as much of 
majesty and dignity, as well as patient godlike sweetness, as art can 
compass : no such expedient as this necessary for the expression of that 
which is above nature, meets their favour, consistently, as has been 
observed — because no such nimbus or glory was seen in His life on 
earth to enwrap His head ; but the result is, what in fact is an untrue 
representation — :a representation of only His human character ; a suf- 
fering dignified person, it is true, stands before us ; but still only a 
dignified person — not " Goo manifest in the flesh." 

And the same remark will apply, though of course with much less 
force, to their representations of saints. These fail, chiefly, in also 
what may be called the Divine element : they are, it may be, good 
men, and holy and true and patient men ; men who have hazarded their 
lives for the faith ; yea, and who would do so again, were it required 
of them. All this is marked in their figures and countenances, and we 
can see it and trace it, and admire its truthfulness. But when all this 
is done, is there not something more than this still wanting ? It is 

Stnne Remarh tm Glass Painting. 8 

Hot BO much good and holy» and true and patient men ^sX we are 
thinking of when we name the worthies of old, but saints : not such 
men as we see around us, and meet every day and know, but something 
hiT higher than these — more Godlike, more like Him Whose eminent 
servants tbey in life were. We desire to have in their representations 
something to mark that they are now not merely washed and sanctified, 
as we believe, such men are on earth, but glorified also with the light 
of that blessedness which is to be enjoyed only in the immediate pre- 
sence of Christ. A saint» in its peculiar and technical sense, in the 
sense in which it becomes a word of art, is not merely a good and 
holy man, but a visibly glorified being. 

Now to a])p]y this to the question more immediately in hand : there 
is a similar want found in naturalistic representations of the great 
scenes and events of Scripture. In fact, here, in what is more pecu- 
liarly their own special field, the condemnation of naturalistic principles, 
as applied to devotional paintings, (and to such a class glass painting 
must be held to belong,) will be seen to be most strong. 

These principles are satisfied if the events selected, as the subject of 
the picture, are given faithfully in all their details just as they occurred, 
or if that should be impossible, just as we may conceive them to have 
occurred. Now there is in all such scenes an element — to us the most 
important element — which, in neither of these ways, can naturalistic 
principles ever reach, for the very simple reason that it never could 
have met the eye of a spectator, but which, if it be omitted, entirely 
changes their character ; i.e. the light in which these events affect men 
in their relationship to God. The view which a naturalistic painter 
takes of his subject is, in all cases, just that view, and no more, which 
a sjpectator, were he present at those scenes, might be conceived to 
take : whatever would not fall, or may be conceived not to have fallen, 
within the range of vision occupied by a man so placed would not, by 
his principle of direct imitation, fall within his view, and therefore 
could not legitimately be represented in his picture. Whenever, 
then, his subject be of such a nature that its real character could not 
be ascertained at the time by those who were present, there will al- 
ways be danger, at any rate, of his version falling below the true 
dignity of his original, even if he is not guilty of positive mis-repre- 
sentation. And of such a nature, it can be shown, the events of Scrip- 
ture really are. 

Let his subject be that in which modem art more especially delights* 
and which is, in truth, the most momentous event which the world 
ever saw — the Crucifixion. How very dififerent does this now appear 
to us who know its true value and meaning from what it must have 
seemed to them who stood by and were witnesses of it ! To us it 
stands forth as the highest and grandest moral act that the world has 
ever witnessed ; to them who were present at it, either as spectators, 
and of course still more to them who were actors in it, all its finer 
features — the moral constituents of the scene, the undying love which 
prompted it, the unflinching constancy that went through with it, the 
nnhesitating submission to His Fathbr*s will, the total absence of self, 
or any thought of self that marked the sacrifice — all these would be 
hidden, unseen, not because they were not there, but because there 

4h Some Remarks on Glass PahUing. 

-were alio there other dements which for the time would be of a more 
prominent character. 

It can easily be conceived that, among the crowds who must have 
been present at that last and most impious scene, there may have been 
present many of vastly different shades of character and ways of 
thinking, and whose feelings, with regard to the act itself then being 
put into execution before their eyes, would also be vastly different. 
There would be there the energetic, earnest Peter, yet with his energy 
somewhat tempered and subdued by what bad passed between himself 
and his Lord, and its consequent sorrow ; and rising mingled with it 
and struggling into existence within his breast, the unwelcome con- 
sciousness of weakness : to a certainty there would not be wanting the 
faithful, loving John — type of a far different class of mind — conscious 
only of his own strong, unchanging love, and, in the strength of this, 
feeling and owning no weakness which that could not supply ; to such 
the scene before them would be an act of the darkest blasphemy, an 
open defiance of Ood. To the earnest, hearty believer in the law, 
such as S. Paul before his conversion, it would be an act of simple 
merited justice, a becoming sacrifice to the majesty of the outraged 
law : to the calculating practical Roman, in whose view everything 
must be sacrificed to the maintenance in its integrity of the Imperial 
sway, it would be a wise concession to the infuriated passions of the 
mob, a mere question of words and of their l%w» to which it was 
well for a ruler to give way at the cost of a single life, sooner 
than to risk an outburst among the people : to the soldiers it would 
be merely obeying their superior officers, without concern whether 
He were innocent or guilty of the charge laid against Him; their 
orders were plain and must be obeyed ; they must put Him to death : to 
the half disciple, the undecided halter between two opinions, who could 
see much on both sides, and who therefore though not prepared to give 
up his faith in the law, was yet ready to acknowledge that the teach- 
ing of the Scribes and Pharisees, the accredited leaders of the people, 
was deficient in spirituality, savoured more of this world than of Ood» 
and who could also see what that was which made the Pharisees so 
clamorous for His death, it would be an act of murder : lastly, and 
marking most predominantly the character of the crowd, would be 
those who would enter heart and soul into what was being done, the 
bitter and malignant enemies of Christ : but to none of all these, 
not even to the most instructed of His disciples, would it be what it 
really was — the closing scene of that which was to be the reconcilia- 
tion of man to God. 

Now it can be very readily imagined that in such a crowd, as it 
swayed to and fro under the infiuence of these various passions, heav- 
ing and swelling with a hoarse murmur as such crowds only can heave 
and swell, that which would most readily catch the eye of a spectator, 
supposing any such to have been present, would be this conflict of 
feelings, contrasted with one suffering and prostrate form, borne down 
with the weight of a superhuman sorrow ; and could we further sup- 
pose such a spectator — supposing such a thing were possible-— con- 
templating the scene with an artist's eye, this contrast would be the 
point he would select to bring out in his picture. 

Same Remarks on Glaes Painiing. 5 

But, it may veil be asked, ahoold we relish such a picture ? Could 
-we even say that it represented, truly for us, the Crucifixion? 
Could, i.e., such a picture of evil triumphant over good — and this 
would be its true character — represent man's triumph over evil ? And 
such a triumph of man, in the Person of his great Representative and 
Head, the second Adam, a triumph over evil, the Crucifixion in reality 
was, even at the moment when to the eye of sense it seemed to be hia 
final defeat. It may very safely be said that in such a picture would 
be wanting the to us most important element of a spiritual meaning ; 
there would be truly there the conflict of human passions, elements 
inost easily comprehended by the eye of sense ; but there would be 
wanting every indication that might help to mark, like Christ's own 
mysterious words, " It is finished," that there was more in that sacri- 
fice than men thought ; every thing that might serve as the distant 
signs of the coming victory — the first yielding of the banded powers 
of evil, unseen as yet but by the eye of faith, the far-o£F sounds that 
herald the approaching conqueror, the first faint flushes, as it were, of 
the dawn on the world's long night of sin. 

Or to take the same scene again, at another point of time, which is 
also a favourite moment with the painter : after the sacrifice is com- 
plete, and the lifeless form hangs from the cross in all the flaccidity of 
recent death, with every muscle and tendon relaxed, except those that 
are distorted with the unnatural position of the body. Here is what 
is, in fact, the most appalling feature of death — ^the total absence of 
all power and energy ; the sign that man has indeed become that 
which the curse pronounced on him willed that he should become, a 
mere clod of earth, insensible as the soil beneath the feet of his fellow 
man. It is this wliich even in ordinary cases of death is so revolting 
to the thoughts of the natural man, before he has begun to look upon 
death in the light which revelation throws on it ; and the efiect of 
which is best seen in the shrinking fear of a child when suddenly made 
acquainted with death for the first time. But when to this, which is 
in itself revolting enough, there is added a representation of death in 
another stage of its progress, when it is as it were battling with its 
victim, in the writhing contortions of the bodies of the two thieves. 
can it be thought that this either represents faith's view of the sacri- 
fice of Christ ? It may represent truly enough the usual features of 
death, such as we see it, and were it the object to depict its victory 
over man, and not on the contrary the victory of man over death, such 
a representation might be allowed. But when the very reverse of all 
this is the case, surely some other characteristic than powerlessness 
and defeat should be conspicuous. Yet this last is the prevailing cha- 
racteristic in such pictures — powerlessness displayed in His Form Who 
is the sole fount of life. 

Another instance is furnished to us in what is equally with the Cru- 
cifixion a favourite subject for pictorial illustration — the Nativity. It 
may well be a question whether naturalistic representation could ever 
be equal to the reverent treatment of so high and mysterious a subject* 
The traditional treatment of this subject, which is familiar to us, par- 
takes largely of an ideal character i the scene of the event variously 

6 Some Remarks on Glass PaifUing. 

rendei^ed as a cave, or as an open ehed, or again as in a rich flowery land- 
scape with broken ruins, typical of the ruined state of men which thcr 
Child just horn was again to restore ; the symbolical ox and ass gazing 
on the Divine Infant, sometimes kneeling in His Presence; — the 
Virgin Mother, not in the distressing weakness which accompanies the 
natural birth, but sitting up and fondling her Infant, or adoring Him 
as He lies before her : the Infant lying before her in the rude manger, 
or in its cradle, or on the ground, sometimes pillowed on a sheaf of 
wheat, typical of that mystical union which should hereafter make the 
material bread a mean for conveying His spiritual Presence to the faith- 
ful soul ; with an allusion, also, doubtless, to His own words, " I am 
the Bread of Life :** by His side also the crown of thorns ; or, perhaps* 
the same truth is otherwise expressed by the cross held in his hand ; or 
again His relationship to the souls of men is hinted at in the bird — 
tlie type of the soul — ^resting on his hand ; the lamb lying on the floor, 
as though it had been brought by the shepherds, a symbolical offering, 
to the Mysterious Child : in the distance, perhaps, the same shepherds 
attending their flocks, with the Angels, sometimes in the mystic num- 
ber. Three, appearing to them : a thing, in point of time, naturalisti- 
eally impossible to be given in one and the same picture. All these are 
fiamiliar to us ; and though they be all of such a nature as to be, in the 
modem view, liable to be called in question, — some of them to be 
peremptorily banished as in the nature of things impossible : it may 
very fairly be doubted whether the mode, which a rigid regard to his- 
torical accuracy would in this case substitute in their place, as more in 
accordance with the course of nature which, it is said, is never unneces- 
sarily interrupted, would as well represent what the Nativity really was 
to us — an event out of the usual course of nature — the Advent of the 
Loan of Life, as many of the older representations ; even though these 
be of so rude a 'character as to be symbols, to be looked upon as con- 
ventionally suggestive of the Nativity rather than as actually repre- 
sentative of it.^ 

In point of fact, it may be said that the events recorded in Scripture, at 
least in their effects, are of so stupendous a kind — are so completely 
above aught else in time, as to be out of the reach of a principle which 
might still be perfectly adequate to the correct delineation of the ordi- 
nary events of human life. Though, even here, there may very well 
be a question whether the moral life of men does not always-— cer- 
tainly it will in its grander features — present elements of a higher 
grade than can, at first, be seen even by ^e closest observer. Perhaps 

^ A. carious instsDce of a blending of two different principles of representation Is 
exhibited in a window, lately pot up in the parish chorcb of Halifax, Yorkshire. In 
the upper compartment of a window in the lower compartments of which the Cruci- 
fixion, with two of its attendant scenes, our Lord before Caiaphas, and our Lord 
before Pilate, is given eyidently on naturalistic principles,— there is represented 
the Resurrection, in which our Lord is seen rising from the tomb, — ^in this instance 
an open grave, not a cave, as the usual places of sepulture among the Jews were, 
and as we know this was, also, from what is recorded of it in Scripture, and as it 
lis, also, rendered in the picture from which the window painting is copied, — and 
bearing in His hand the banner qf the croM,— a thing certainly not true to nature ; 
and the whole represented under a Gothic ettnopy. 

Some Bemarki on Glass PainHnff^ T 

it a true that lio one single action of men can ever be iightHf e^ti* 
mated in its fall bearing, in a moral point of view* in the moment when 
it 18 being done : no such insight into the character of the agents can 
be so gained, by a human eye, as to preclude the possibility of som^ 
hitherto secret and unknown motive coming unexpectedly into play; 
and so entirely cba iging the character of the deed. It is this secret 
character, however* which constitutes the true nature of the act, which 
makes it an act of heroism, or may show it to be one which calls for 
the severest condemnation. The same act done by different men may 
be of a very different nature : what in the one may be an act of mere 
reckless daring, may in the other be an instance of the highest heroism 
and sacrifice of self to the interest of others. And in some way, if 
his is to be a praiseworthy — even a correct — version of such deeds, the 
painter must strive by some means to mark his perception and recog-< 
nition of this hidden secret quality : otherwise his highest effort, if it 
be confined only to outward detail, will fail in being satisfactory. 

How and by what means it is proposed that this difficulty shall be met^ 
shall be considered in a future paper. At present, it is enough to point 
out the inadequacy of naturalistic principles, when applied to the repre* 
sentation of scenes like those of Scripture. * And, if in all such scenes 
the main point to be kept in view is in every instance that which it i$ 
to us, any such ]3iinciple must be inadequate, because in all such 
pictures the aspect chosen for representation is the aspect which it 
bore to the actors, or to the spectators at it. The artist places himself 
in the position of an invisible spectator, and there faithfully notes down 
in his mind for reproduction all that meets his eye ; and supposing that 
the true character of the scene, at which he is thus, as it were, present, 
could have been, then and there, so ascertained by him, we might well 
have been contented with and thankful for so faithful a delineation, 
E.g. supposing the Nativity had been nothing more than what it 
seemed to those who stood by, or who had witnessed any of the extra* 
ordinary events that preceded or accompanied it ; i.e., the birth of an 
extraordinary child under circumstances which could be accounted for 
only under the supposition of a miracle ; — and none of these events, so 
fiar as we are acquainted with them, are tn themselves inconsistent with 
the notion that Christ was merely a man ; though taken in connection 
with those of His later history, they are conclusive evidence as to His 
Godhead. — a faithful and accurate representation of these circum- 
stances, as far as it is in the power of the painter's art to reproduce 
them, would be all that could in fairness be demanded of him. 

But will it be said that such a man's conception of the Nativity 
would not be raised by his being told that the event at which he had 
been present was, not merely the birtii of a miraculous child, but the 
Advent in the flesh of the Son of God, and that in Him was fulfilled 
all the types and prophecies of old, in a sense far exceeding all that 
the mind of men had ever in their wildest dreams conceived ? Can it 
be said that, after he had been told all this, he would not feel as if 
there was nothing in all nature like it ; and that so feeling and thinking, 
he would not endeavour to throw round his conception of such a stu- 
pendous truth, something of lus feelings regarding it ? that he would 

8 Some Remarks an Glass Painting. 

not ransack all the resources of his art to embody this, his feeling^ 
rather than conception, and yet feel it too little ? and that, in conse* 
quence, he would not feel what in general was adequate to express his 
feeling, would, in this instance at least, fall short of what he felt 
stirring within him V- 

Now all that in this respect the old painters did, was to attempt 
to express this feeling of theirs. They cared not so much for the 
outward details, except just so far as these were essential to the right 
conception of the subject ; beyond this they were unessential. What 
in their view was essentia], was to mark the superhuman character of 
the events which they handled. And just as if in a landscape the eyes 
be intently fixed on any one particular point, all the rest become 
proportionably less seen — some of them wholly unnoticed ; so it was 
in their view of our Loan's life and actions. So intently was the 
gaze of their thoughts fixed on the unmistakeably Divine character 
impressed on all — so completely were they in their view the life of 
the world, not merely the life of the men of that time, the time in 
which they were wrought ; but the life of men of all time, as well of 
the men of their own age, as of the men of all former ages ; that^ 
seemingly careless of the proprieties of time, they seem almost un« 
consciously^-at any rate with no great offence to the unity of the 
scene — to have introduced among the personages present in their pic- 
tures portraits of the men of their own age. This would, of course, in 
the view of a naturalistic painter be a gross offence, because a thing 
manifestly false and impossible ; yet in their hands it served only to 
bring out still more clearly what was their view of the relation of 
these events to their own daily life, and their sense that what our 
Loan did, and that what His Apostles were commanded to teach and 
do in His Name» was not for this or that age alone, was not confined 
to one generation or to two, but was for all times and all ages, and for 
every generation as long as the world shall last. They felt that the 
subjects of their pencils were no common subjects ; were not even» 
like the events of ordinary history — ^the wars, and battles, and sieges, 
and exploits, of nations and men — events which had been once and 
might be again, as often, if so be, as the life of other nations and men 
passed through the same stages of moral progress or decay. The 
events with which they dealt were sui generis^ never again to occur, 
because that which God had once done. He had done for all time ; 
and in their perception of the universality of what our Loan had done 
and suffered, all else seemed to be of little or no moment by compari-: 
son. Such at least is the visible character impressed on many of their 
works, and which makes them what they were evidently intended to be, 
so eminently calculated for devotional pictures ; but which naturalistic 
pictures, from having another object in view, never can be with effect. 

(To he continued,) 

^ That this is no, perhaps even unconsciously, is shown by the instance, given in 
the former note, of the window of Halifax parish church, of the blending of two 
different principles of representation in one and the same window. It shows how 
entirely inadequate is the most accurate rendering of outward details, to give its true 
character to an event so palpably above nature as the Resurrection. 


Thb deatrnetion of a churdi by fire, with deliberate intention and fore^ 
thought, 18 happily a thing of such rare ooevrrence amongst ne, that it 
may be doubted whether there is any instance upon record, eicept the 
burning of York Minster by the fanatic Martin. And though in the 
case of the church now under consideration, there it too much reason 
to suqiecc that the fire was the act of an incendiary, still we are wilUng 
to give the peipetrator the benefit of a doubt, and to hope, though it 
is certain that the church was sacrilegbusly entered for the sake 
of plunder, that the eonfiagration may have arisen from some acci- 
dental circumstances which cannot now be traced. 

However this may be, the ancient parish church of Hawarden was 
discovered to be on fire some hours before daylight on the morning of 
October 20di. Before the engines oould arrive from Chester, which 
they did widi great promptitude, the whole of the roof of the nave and 
aisles, and all the fittings of that part of the chureh were completely 
destroyed, and at six o'clock Al.m. the flames were rapidly extending to 
die tower and chancel. By dint of the most laudable and well-directed 
exertions the progress of the flames was at length arrested, but not 
before the chancel roof had been materially injured. In other respects, 
however, the chanoel was not seriously damaged, beyond what arose 
from smoke and water and melted lead ; and the tower^ with the elock 
and fine peal of bells, had only a narrow escape, as the flames had 
actttally reached the ringing loft. The nave is now desolate and roof* 
less as seme of our rained monastic churches. The arcades indeed 
remain, but much shattered by the action of fire. The outer walls are 
quite untouched, and the tower being also entire, the external character 
of the church, except for the broken windows of the nave, is just the 
same as before, and as viewed from some points presents not the 
slightest indication of the sad calamity that has occurred. 

Thus, by a grievous misfortune, has Hawarden church obtained 
a celebrity which it never had before ; for hitherto it has received far 
less notice than it deserved, both for its ample dimensions and its 
somewhat singular plan. And this is the more remarkable as the place 
Is conspicuously situated and very accessible, distant only six miles 
from Chester, and near to the Holyhead railway. However, at the 
meeting of the Archaeological Institute at Chester in July last, both 
the church and the neighbouring castle were esamined witii some care, 
and it is hoped that the public will have the benefit of the researches 
ihoi carried on, at least m regards the castle. 

Hawarden ehurch is dedicated to a Welsh saint, who was the fint 
bishop of Bangor, to whom a few other churches in Wales are also 
dedicated. It is a spacious structure, of imposing, but not exactly 
fiitttwres^ue appearance, and derives much importance from its lofty 
sifee.^ The plan is remarkable, from having a central tower and yet 

1 The length of the church from west to east v 119 feet, of which the chsiipel is 
48 feet ; the nave (inclading the tower) 71 feet. 
VOL. XIX. c 

10 8. DeinioPs, Hawarden. 

Dot being cruciform, for the aisles are carried past the tower without tran- 
septs. The chancel is large and has a coextensive aisle on the south » 
known as the •• Whitley chancel," from having once been a private 
chapel of that family. This aisle being wider than that of the nave, 
aerves to break in some degree the stiff outline of the south front. 

The arrangement is therefore this — ^a nave with north and south 
aisles — a central tower rising over the east end of the nave — a chancel 
with south aisle and a south porch. 

The original features appear to be Middle-Pointed, of a plain and 
•evere character, with Third-Pointed alterations and insertions; but 
there have been at different periods extensive obliterations of ancient 
features, especially of windows, with partial reconstruction of the 
walls ; and it was only recently that by means of progressive improve- 
ment and restoration the church began to present anything like a 
satisfactory appearance either as to architectural character, or ritual 
arrangements. There must have been a church in the parish at a very 
early period, but in the present fabric not a vestige can be discovered of 
anything anterior to Edward II. The material is a coarse sandstone for 
the most part, not admitting of much ornament, and the masonry is gene- 
ndly rough and inferior. Perhaps altogether the original character is 
rude and provincial, though not wanting in dignity. The marks, which 
are clearly distinguishable in the west gable, show that the north and 
south walls of the nave have at some period been raised, and the roofs 
of the aisles made equal in height to that of the nave, which, on the 
other hand, has been lowered to a flat pitch, for the mark of the origi- 
nal roof is plainly seen in the west face of the tower, as also that of the 
chancel on the east face. A line of heavy battlements has also been 
added both to the nave and to the aisles, though there is no room for 
anything like a clerestory above the arcades. The roof of the nave 
which was totally destroyed in the fire, was of the time of Charles I., 
not very bad of its kind, but heavy and entirely unsuitable to the 
lofty arcades, on the points of which it almost encroached. In the 
aisles, and also in the chancel, the roofs were of still more ordinary 
description. The arcades, which still remain, consist of three unusu- 
ally large pointed arches, springing from massive octagonal pillars with 
plun capitals, Middle-Pointed in character, but very plain. There 
never seems to have been a clerestory. 

In 1764 a large sum of money was spent on the repairing and 
" beautifying'' the western portion of the church, when the windows 
were replaced by new ones of bad design; new pews erected, and 
the whole of the interior covered with plaster, which gave it a very 
modem look. The late fire having entirely destroyed this covering* 
of plaster, the masonry of every part is now laid bare, and has a rough 
and patched appearance, which needs improvement. The arcades have 
been much injured by being cut and otherwise tampered with, inde- 
pendently of the damage done by the fire, so that it is clear that they 
must be at least partially rebuilt. Two original small Middle-Pointed 
windows, now closed up, may be seen at the west end of each aisle ; 
the other windows, which replace those of 1764, are of Third-Pointed 
character, inserted since 1846. 

S. DeinioPs, Hawarden, 11 

The west and south doorways are good Third-Pointed, with square 
heads, and enriched spandrils and jambs. The latter is within a porch» 
also Third>Pointed, with a p]ain stone roof» which seems to be of later 
date. The tower also is Third-Pointed, rather low and heavy in its 
proportions, having a plain battlement and double transomed belfry 
windows. The arches on which it stands, at the centre of the quasi 
cross, may be of earlier date. Those on the north, south, and west, 
opening to the nave and aisles, very much resemble the other arches of 
the nave, but have of course more massive piers, formed of clustered 
semi-octagonal pillars. They have, however, one remarkable feature in a 
kind of ornamental chamfer just above the capitals, rather at variance 
with the general simplicity. The eastern, or chancel arch, is lower 
than the others, and is rather a defect in the view looking into the 
chancel. There are arches across the aisles of the nave, ranging with 
the western piers of the tower, in connection with which are also small 
flying buttresses, evidently introduced for the purpose of strengthen- 
ing the tower. The east end of the north aisle, which forms a quasi- 
transept, is supposed to have been formerly a private chapel belonging 
to the mansion called Daniel's Ash. The window at its east end has 
been long closed, but in the wall are indications of a shallow piscina 
marking the place of an altar. 

The chancel is of good proportions, and the large aisle or chapel on 
its south side co-extensive with it. The east end of the latter had been 
partitioned off and used as a vestry. More recently the modem wall 
was taken away, and the organ placed so as to form the partition; 
bnt this having been removed and greatly injured during the con- 
fusion caused by the fire, the whole aisle is now open to the east end. 
Though this portion of the church still presents a very tolerable appear- 
ance, and has escaped in a great degree the devastation experienced by 
the nave, it is certain that very little original work remains, except the 
north wall, the sedilia, and the arcade dividing the chancel from the south 
chapel, or Whitley chancel. This arcade consists of three pointed arches, 
upon octagonal piers of irregular and dissimilar form, all which were 
coated with plaster, and seem to have been otherwise tampered with 
in the repairs of 1816. Eastward of the arcade is a solid wall, ranging 
with the sanctuary, in which are three equal sedilia of Middle-Pointed 
character, having good mouldings and trefoiled, remarkable also for 
having small apertures through the piers.^ The only original window is 
a smaJl Middle-Pointed one of two lights at the north-west of the 
chancel, which is a lychnoscope, or low-side-window. There was also 
on the north side a debased window, for which a Middle-Pointed one 
has been lately substituted. 

In 1816 the whole of the east and south walls were rebuilt, when a 
thorough repair of the eastern part of the church was made at much 
expense, its previous condition having been one of neglect and dilapi- 
dation. As might be expected at that period, the alterations, with the 
best intentions, were done in the worst possible style, and it has been 
the work of late years to undo what was then perpetrated, by the sub- 

} A piscina was added in 1846 to the east of the sedilia. 

12 & DeinioPs, Hawardeu. 

Btitution of o«k stalk and open seats for the pews then erected, and of 
Middle-Pointed windows filled with stained glass, by Wailes, for the 
'* Carpenter's Gothic*' specimens of 1816. It is with no ordinary feel- 
ings of thankfulness that we record the preservation of these, the 
most important of recent improvements, and the continuance of divine 
service in the chancel and sooth chapel, which has been effected by 
covering the damaged roof with felt and erecting a temporary wall 
of separation from the ruined nave. 

There are no ancient or interesting monuments, and no records 
whatever of the Montalts, the Stanleys, or other illustrious possessors 
of the Castle of Hawarden. Those of the Ravenscrofts, Whitleys, and 
others, are not of a style or period entitled to notice here. There re- 
mains a fine lofty carved standard, which was probably connected with 
the chancel stalls, and is of rather remarkable character. On the 
poppy head is sculptured on both sides an eagle surrounded by vine 
branches and grapes, holding in its beak an inscribed scroll. On one 
side is written, *'In Domino confido.*' On the other, "Spero in 
Domino." On the stem is represented a griffin's head and various 
armorial devices. 

The ancient font was many years ago ejected from the church, to be 
replaced by a modem one of white marble : but in 1 845, its bowl, 
which had long been catching water in the churchyard, was repaired 
and mounted on a new stem, and placed near the west end of the nave. 
This, however, was destroyed in the fire, together with everything else 
in that part of the church. 

From the above statement it will be seen that S. Deioiol's church has 
already undergone more sweeping changes than fall to the lot of mos( 
churches. Before 1764, its architectunl history is almost a blank* but 
an ancient print represents the somewhat unusual feature of a double 
tier of windows in the south aisle, of which the upper were square- 
headed, the lower pointed. But it is not easy from this to determine 
their exact character. There is also a tradition of its having been 
filled with open benches, and annually strewed with rushes. 

In 1764 the nave was repaired and new pewed, new windows in- 
serted, and the walls and arcades plaistered. At the same time, it k 
said that the east end of the south aisle was enclosed for a vestry. 

In 1816, the chancel and Whitley chancel were extensively repaired 
and in a great measure rebuilt^ when nearly every ancient feature was 
swept away. 

Between 1845 and 1857, various improvements were effected, and 
principally by gradually replacing with better work the unfortunate 
operations of 1764 and 1816. What was then done in the chanoel 
and its south chapel may still be seen, but the handsome new oak seats 
of the nave are destroyed. 

The recent and destructive fire now makes further and more ezten* 
sive operations necessary, and an opportunity is afforded, if sufficient 
funds can be raised, for restoring thk church in the most effeotive 
manneri under the able direction of Mr. Scott. 

The most deplorable events are overruled for good, even when we 
are unable to perceive it In the present case we may say that good 

Liitcis an Church Bells* 13 

has already oome out of eviU in the excellent feeling that has been 
•hown in and out the parish, and in the liberality with which contri* 
butiona have been made in all quarters for the restoration of ihis House 
of Gon. And further good may yet be expected to arise, when the 
proposed restoration shall have been completed ; when those who from 
their earliest days have looked on this church with affection and re- 
Terence, may be permitted to see it rise from its ashes in renewed 
beauty, yet without any violent change in its general character, — with* 
out the loss of one marked or important feature, or of any of those 
cherished associations* which, always highly valued » are never more so 
than when we realise the danger of losing them* 


An AccewU of Cknrch Bells ; with some Notices of Wiltshire Bells and 
Bell Founders : containing a copious List of Founders, a comparativs 
Scale of Tenor Bells, and Inscriptions from nearly Five Hundred 
Parishes in various Parts of the Kingdom. By the Rev. William 
C. LuKis, M.A., F.S.A., one of the Secretaries of the Wilts Archae- 
ological and Natural History Society. J. H. Parker : London and 
Oxford, 1867. 

Wb are delighted to receive from an old member of our Society, and 
n contributor to our Transactions, the present excellent monograph oo 
Church Bells. Mr. Lukis has long beien known as a campanologist, 
and his volume, while in many respects unlike, is upon the whole 
8uperk)r» to the earlier compilations on the same subject ^y Messrs. 
Blacombe and Gatty. The original paper was read in IS54, at a 
noeeting of the Wiltshire Archseological Society ; it is now republished, 
with important additions, and some illustrations. First we have, most 
properly, a picture of a bell, with its parts technically described in 
English and in Latin. Mr. Lukis has found — we observe — no Latin 
equivalent for the *' sound-bow." After some pertinent remarks on the 
neglected state of belfries, and the bad habits of bell-ringers, Mr. Lukis 
proceeds to give some account of bell-foundries. These were much 
more numerous than has usually been thought. On Wiltshire bells 
alone Mr. Lukis finds the names or initials of forty-nine founders ; and 
he has collected altogether a list of upward of one hundred and fifty 
founders, and of forty-seven distinct foundries. One foundry seems 
to have existed in SalMbury for two hundred and fifty years, from 1480 
to 1731 ; but with the exception of an alias for one of its streets, as Bell« 
founder's Street, no vestige or tradition of it remains now in that city. 
Mr. Lukis grieves, as all Wiltshire men must do, over the un- 
pardonable destruction of the belfry at Salisbury, and the oonseqMent 
loss of its famous peal of eight. He says that this peal must have 
equalled the beautifid bells of S. Saviour's, Southwark, so well knowa 

14 Lukis on Church Bdk. 

to Londoners. Its sixth bell alone survives, and is in use for the 
cathedral clock. After the Wiltshire foundries — the history of which 
is sketched from the bell inscriptions, so assiduously collected 
by Mr. Lukis — the paper goes on to notice the more celebrated 
foundry at Gloucester, which, beginning at least as early as 1310» 
exists to this day. It is amusing enough to trace the characters of 
the founders by the epigraphs they generally employed. Some of 
these are pretty enough ; for instance, on a bell at Aldboume, " On 
earth bells do ring, in heaven angels sing, halleluiah ;" but others are 
in abominable taste, celebrating only the " benefactor's praise," or the 
names of the churchwardens and makers. And we may remark here« 
that greater vulgarity of sentiment, or degradation of design, could 
scarcely have been imagined than was displayed in the inscriptions and 
patterns selected for Mr. £. B. Denison's " Big Ben '* at Westminster. 
There was an opportunity — not, perhaps, too late even now to be 
recovered in the new casting— of introducing some pleasant conceit, or 
at least some graceful ornamentation, instead of the mere glorification 
of the individuals concerned in the work. 

The custom of casting bells on the spot, by itinerant founders, seems 
to have prevailed more widely than would have been expected. 

" There can be little doubt," sajt Mr. Lukit, " that many bells were cast 
in the locahties where they are found, by itinerant bell-foundert ; e. g., the 
bell (1657) of S. Lawrence Chapel, Warminster, was cast in a field close by. 
It was supposed to contaiu a great deal of silver ; and to insure the same 
metal being used, the bell wai cast on the spot. Some additional silver 
was thrown into it, it is said, by the inhabitants who were interested in the 
progress of fusing and re-casting the bell. The second bell (1681) of the 
present peal, at Cog^eshall, in Essex, is said to have been cast in a barn there^ 
Similar mstances might be multiplied." 

The careful list of English bell-founders, compiled by Mr. Lukis. 
has considerable archaeological interest. One of them, who died at 
Wenlock, in 1546, was a priest. The following is from the registry 
of that parish : 

*' 1646, May 26. Buried out of tow tenements in Mardfield Street, next 
St. Owen's Well, Sir William Corvehill, Priest of the Service of our Lady in 
this Church, &c. He was well-skilled in geometrjr, not by speculation, but 
by experience : could make organs, clocks, and chimes ; in kerving in ma- 
sonry, and silk- weaving and painting, and could make all instruments of 
music ; and was a very patient and good man, borne in this borowe, and 
sometyme monk in the monastery ... All this county had a Kreat loss 
of Sir 'William, for he was a good bell-founder and maker of frames.^ 

The next section treats of the composition of bell- metal, and the 
following one of the methods of casting and tuning. Then the hanging 
comes to be considered, and this part is illustrated by careful working- 
drawings of a bell, with its cage, frame, stock, and wheel, of the most 
approved construction. The well-known half-wheel at Dunchideock. 
Devon, a work of the fifteenth century, and which, in its mouldings, 
might profitably be copied in modem frames, is also figured. The h^ 

Lukis on Church Bells. IS 

wheel catoe into use. Mr. Lukis thinks, about 1677. In the nexf 
question, as to the superiority and priority of Mr. Baker's, or Mr. Deni- 
son's, invention of a method for making a bell revolve round its ver- 
tical axis, on a strong central bolt passing through its crown — in order 
to aUow the clapper to strike some other part of the sound-bow, Mr. 
Lukis decides, and we think rightly, in favour of the former gentleman. 
He gives sections of both plans, so that any reader may decide for 
himself, with the benefit of Mr. Lukis' lucid explanation. The supe- 
riority of Mr. Baker's scheme, in substituting iron for wood in the stock 
and frame, is almost too obvious to be pointed out. 

The campanology of Wiltshire would seem to be nearly exhausted 
by Mr. Lukis. He gives us a list of all the early bells, with their dates 
and inscriptions, and with illustrations of some of their devices. Many 
of the epigraphs are curious ; and in his collection Mr. Lukis has not 
confined himself to his own county. At Northfield, the result of a 
▼estry- meeting is thus irreverently immortalised in the legends of the 
six bells that form the peal : •« We now are six, though once but five." 
" And against our casting some did strive." " But when a day for 
meeting they did fix.*' " There appeared but nine against twenty- 
six." " Thomas Kebble and William Jarvis did contrive." '^ To 
make us six that were but five.'* 

Still more interesting are the remarks that follow on the art of bell- 
ringing. The art was first formalised about 1667, by Fabian Stedman, 
of Cambridge, the author of " Tintinnalogia." Mr. Lukis, who is 
evidently himself a ringer, talks with enthusiasm about changes and 
grandsire-triples. The greatest feat of change-ringing seems to have 
been achieved at Leeds, in Kent, where thirteen men in twenty-seven 
hours rang 40,320 changes, on April 7th and 8th, 1761. The de- 
generacy of modern *' youths " is pathetically lamented by our author, 
who, we verily believe, would like to form one of a society that should 
begin to ring the complete changes on twelve bells.- It is calculated 
that these changes, 479,001,600 in number, would take 75 years, 10 
months, and 10 days, to ring, at the rate of 720 changes in the hour. 

We must make room for a quotation, curious on more accounts than 
one. It comes from Aubrey's ** Natural History of Wilts :" 

*' Mr. Fenraby, the minister of Bishop's Canninf^s, was an ingenious man 
and an excellent musician, and made severall of his parishioners good mu- 
sicians, both for vocall and instrumental! music. They sung the Psalms in 
consort to the organ, which Mr. Ferraby procured to be erected. When 
King James I. was in these parts, he lay at Sir Edwsrd Bavntun's, at Brom- 
bam. Mr. Ferrabv then entertained his Majesty at the Bush in Cotefield» 
with bucoliques of his own making and composing* of four parts, which 
were sung by his parishioners who wore frocks and whippes like carters. 
Whilst his Majesty was thus diverted, the eight bells (of which he was the 
cause) did ring, and the organ was played on for state ; and after this musical 
entertainment, he entertained his Majesty with a foot-ball match of his own 
parishioners. This parish in those days would have challenged all England 
for mnsiqne, foot-ball, and ringing. For this entertainment his Majesty 
made him one of his Chaplains in ordinary." 

The final sections are about the spoliation of church bells at the 

16 Mr. Scott^s Remarkt 

time of the Reformation, and the respective sizes and weights of the 
tenor bells in English peals. These vary from a weight of 4 cwt., and 
a diameter of 26 inches, at Wootton Rivers, to 67 cwt., and 71i inches 
of diameter at Exeter Cathedral. Like a good antiquary Mr. Lukis 
has enriched his treatise with copious appendices and indices. Mr. 
EUacombe has supplied him with a list of works on bells and belU 
riuging. Then there is an immense collection of bell inscriptioDs 
arranged in counties, and concluding with specimens from the Chan- 
nel Islands and some French examples. We congratulate Mr. Lukis 
on having compiled a very amusing and useful work. 


Remarki tm Seeukr and Domestic Architecture, Preeemt and Futvre. 
By OaoBOB GbLBsaT Scott, A.R.A., Author of *<A Plea for the 
faithful Restoration of Ancient Churches.** London : John Murray. 

Wb can speak in terms of unmixed commendation of Mr. Scott's recent 
volume. In fact, most of his arguments might have appeared in our 
own pages, and much that he has ably and vigorously said has, in sub* 
stance, been anticipated in our own articles. Not that this detracts in 
any way from the merit or interest of Mr. Scott's disquisitions. It is 
rather a gratifying proof that the progress of architectural thought 
among us proceeds in parallel lines ; and we can feel more certain of 
the truth of our conclusions when we find them reached by different 
roads by independent thinkers. There is not much, therefore, in this 
excellent volume that will be novel to our own readers. But we gladly 
welcome a fellow-laboarer so well qualified for his task ; and it is of high 
importance that the general public should have tiie important arguments 
employed by Mr. Scott addressed to them in so persuasive a form and 
so admirable a spirit. 

The volume, which has been for some time in preparation, comprises 
a series of almost independent essays, bearing upon the subject of the 
fitness of the Pointed style, not only for all possible purposes and re* 
quirements of the age, but to be the starting point, so to say, for the 
developement of a new style, such as hs» been dreamed of as the archi- 
tecture of the fliture. Like all other thoughtful men, who have turned 
t^eir attention to the subject, Mr. Scott has mourned over the utter 
debasement of what he calls our '* vernacular domestic architecture.*' 
In town and country alike he finds, in our modem houses, shops, fac- 
tories, and barns, a hideous degradation of art and a total loss of beanty, 
fitness, or proportion. The contrast of the " bnttder's style/' as exem- 
plified in our suburbs, not only with the exquisite remains of the do- 
flMStxr mtthilectnre of the middle ages, bait with the tvaditionai Pointed 

an Secular and Domestic Architecture* 17 

ivhich, as Mr. Scott most traly remarks^ existed in many rural districts 
till within a comparatively late period, — and which indeed still survives 
more or less in the less accessible corners of England — forms the sub- 
ject of the first chapter. Our author attributes to the " deluge*' of the 
great war, from 1793 to 1815, the utter eversion of a correct architec* 
rural taste in the public mind ; and he enforces the pregnant truth, 
that, in all styles except the vulgar vernacular of our day, •• the great 
principle holds good that no mean or contemptible architecture exists J* 
He next proceeds to consider the late revival of Pointed architecture — 
which he considers a fait accompli as far as regards ecclesiastical struc- 
tures — in its bearing upon domestic or secular building. He asserts 
that the task now before us is to revolutionize civil architecture, and to 
bring it back, as has been done so successfully in religious edifices, to 
onr true national type. The impediments to any greater success than 
has yet been accomplished in this direction Mr. Scott considers to be 
the unreality of many modem attempts at secular Pointed, for which 
he invents the term ** masquerading ;" the want of uniformity of style ; 
the antiquarian feeling that shrinks from any departure from the beaten 
road of precedent, and the fatal error of considering ecclesiastical and 
secular architecture as so distinct that the same person cannot practise 
both. As to the second of these he pleads for Middle-Pointed being 
chosen as the groundwork of secular Gothic just as it has come to be 
in ecclesiastical work. And we are equally at one with him in his 
remarks as to the possibility and expediency of further developement 
of this style, and as to tbe identity of the principles which must govern 
Pointed architecture in all its possible applications. 

Mr. Scott next devotes several chapters to the consideration of 
various important architectural details, external and internal, giving us 
the results of his own experience and reflection, and pointing out how 
the Neo-Pointed style may, in his opinion, most successfully adapt 
itself to modem wants and habits. He ridicules with some humour 
those who complain that a Gothic house is usually dark in comparison 
with an Italian one ; but we must in candour say that modern archi- 
tects have too often given good grounds for the assertion. Gothic 
houses, as built of late, generally are dark and gloomy. Their win- 
dows are often small, ill-placed, blocked by heavy monials, and further 
obscured by heavy ornamental lead- work. We thoroughly agree with 
Mr. Scott that no style can better admit of large windows than the 
Pointed, but few of our modern designers have had the courage to avail 
themselves of their privilege. One of the most successful, and yet un- 
pretending, Gothic apartments we have seen, is a morning-room added 
by Mr. Tmefitt to an old north country hall — ^in red brick with timber 
monials, — where the windows, in contiguous lights, actually occupy 
nearly two whole sides of the room. Even here the windows are 
needlessly high from the floor. Mr. Scott*s own domestic archi- 
tecture probably avoids tbis error of inadequate fenestration, which is 
continually to be found in the parsonages built by architects of great 
and deserved reputation. Our author argues that a window may be 
flat-headed, or arched — and that in any form, according to circum- 
stances ; that it may, or may not, have monials, according to taste ; 


18 Mr. Beoifn Remarks 

and in fact he wonld tolerate any licence of treatment that was not 
plainly against the style. His own preference iDcliQes to sash windows 
or to metal casements; in which we can scarcely agree with him. 
The French casement, translated into Pointed, is, in all respects, we 
think, more convenient, and more efficient as against wind and rain. 
However, tastes may fairly differ in such matters ; and Mr. Scott avoids 
dogmatism in his very pleasant discussion. On the question of roofs 
we agree with our author very thoroughly. He holdly asserts that 
a steep roof is practically better than a flat one as well in the south 
as in the north of Europe, and he attributes the usually flat roofs of 
Italy rather to classical tradition than to climatic adaptation. He is 
for moderation, and discretion, in using any pitch of roof that may suit 
the materials at hand or the taste of the employer. And in meeting the 
objection that a building, deprived of Pointed arches, a high roof, and 
monialled windows, would not be GK)thic in any sense, he replies* — 

*' Introduce all these beautiful characteristics of style wherever you can ; 
they give yon the best arch, the best window, and the best roof; then why 
not use them ? But if circumstances forbid die use of one, or perhaps two 
o£ them, do not despair^the resources of the style are unlimited, and if your 
mind is embued with its true feeling, you will still produce a good building ; 
and even if it should ever be your hard fate to have to build without auy of 
the three, you may still find means of throwing character into your building, 
and making it eifective,— -certainly a great deal better than if you were to 
throw aside vour style in despair, and return to the hackneyed architecture 
of the day, which systematically rejects A these beautiful features." 

Our author goes on to assert the same liberty of bending the style 
to any legitimate requirement of our own age or habits of life in various 
other particulars — such as woodwork, ceilings, chimney-pieces, grates, 
and staircases. There is great common-sense in his conclusions about 
the employment of plaister, distinguishing between its use and its 
abuse ; and the section on grates is equally convincing — though we 
think he might well have made a step in advance and advised the more 
frequent use of stoves in place of the open grate, as both most rational 
and most economical. But Mr. Scott has not gone into the further, 
but most important question, how far our present domestic architecture 
ought to improve upon the past in such things as fire-proof floors, build- 
ing in flats, and the like. He is content to deal merely with the ex- 
hibition in Pointed of the common features of modem houses. In the 
matter . of coloured decorations and painted glass Mr. Scott professes, 
as might be expected, to keep the via media between the extreme me* 
diaevalists and the haters of all polychrome. He protests loudly against 
merely antiquarian colouring, and denies that any of us have as yet any 
knowledge of the true principles of polychrome or any eye for harmony 
of colour. He pleads, therefore, for cautious progress, and for an 
earnest study of nature as a guide in this necessary but difficult revival. 
We like especially his advocacy of a rich style of painting for the in* 
temal woodwork of a house. He is quite right both in hii estimate 
of the gloominess of the fiavourite staining that is adopted as a substi- 
tute for paint in modem domestic Pointed, and also in his due appre- 

on Secular and Domestic Architecture. 19 

ciation of the prospectiye shabbineas of the stained and varniahed deal 
that looks so well when first done. All his observations on this part of 
his subject, and especially on the application of higher art to the deco- 
ration of our walls, are exceedingly worth attention. 

Our own readers will have anticipated nearly all that Mr. Scott can 
say as to the freedom of choice of materials allowed in Pointed work. 
Of course he argues for coloured construction where it can be had ; 
and we are glad to see that he recognizes the extraordinary beauty of 
the use of different coloured marbles in the cathedral of Genoa. No- 
thing would be easier* it would seem» than to follow his advice as to 
making bricks thinner and longer than the common shape, and as to 
moulding them and giving them various colours, and especially as to 
the introduction of terra cotta ornaments, properly treated. But as 
yet how little has been done in this direction ! We presume that the 
great difficulty is the expense of any change from the old routine. Mr. 
M in ton has given us tiles at no excessive cost ; but terra cotta is not 
to be had proportionably cheap. Gothic metal- work also is procurable 
from several excellent manufactories, but the price as yet is inordinate ; 
and it is next to impossible to procure, at a moderate rate, all the metal 
fittings required for an ordinary dwelling-house. Mr. Scott urges 
upon the school of architects whom he represents the high importance 
of attempting to deal with the iron- architecture of the age. He com- 
mends Mr. Butterfield*8 cast-iron beams in the clergy-house at All 
Saints, Margaret Street, and Mr. Slater's iron church, designed for our 
Instrwmenta Ecelenastica ; and he calls attention to the fact that the 
prize design for the Oxford museum^ by Messrs. Deane and Woodward, 
showed how well the Pointed style could adapt itself to the condi- 
tion of combining a glass and iron roof with walls of common con- 

He proceeds to sketch out in the subsequent chapters the general 
characteristics of domestic builctings in the country and in town. He 
enlarges on the freedom and bold irregularity of design suitable or 
allowable for situations where the area is practically unlimited; and 
strengthens his position by quotations from Pugin and Mr. Ruskin. 
We can wish for nothing better than for the widest possible publicity 
of Mr. Scott's most readable disquisitions on the respective characters 
of cottages, villas, country-houses, town- houses, warehouses, shops, 
public-buildings, and railway stations. We wish we could transfer to 
our pages his vigorous denunciations against suburban villas, and his 
protest against the further destruction or deformation of Hampstead 
Heath. For the latter beautiful district, (of which Mr. Scott has be- 
come an inhabitant, since he wrote these pages,) he even recommends 
an exceptional legislation : — 

''A committee of taste to be appointed by the Crown; the ground to be 
laid out by the most eminent landscape gardeners, to be nominated by such 
committee ; that no house shall be below a certain grade, nor have less than a 
certain quantity of ground ; that the committee shall have an absolute veto 
upon the design proposed ; that no house be built without a regular architect; 
and that one or two architects be appointed by the committee, without whose 
approval no design should be earned ouf 

20 Mr. Scott's Remarks 

This is a mere artist's Tision, and Mr. Scott, in his sounder judg- 
ment, would repudiate the principle of such governmental interference. 
The suggestion is paralleled, though far exceeded, by the extraor* 
dinatily wild dreamings of Mr. Ruskin, in his latest work on the 
Political Economy of Art : in which* viewing everything through a 
painter's spectacles, he clamours for the establishment, by Government, 
of Trial Schools throughout the country for the discovery of artistic 
merit, for Government manufactories of drawing paper, for legislative 
regulation of the prices of books and paintings, and other like extra* 

Mr. Scott's observation of the actual tradition, even to this day, of 
a substantially Pointed method of design in the farm-houses and cot- 
tages of the counties that comprise the great oolitic chain of hills 
running through England, opens a wide field of inquiry. The same 
fact may be noticed, we believe, in all the districts where good build- 
ing stone is obtainable. The masons, in short, have preserved the old 
type and manner of work. These local styles deserve a far more 
careful investigation than they have received. We need not express 
our full concurrence with Mr. Scott, that such types should not be 
needlessly departed from in new designs for such districts. And here 
we must make room for an extract of some length : 

''Nothing can be more humbling than to examine into the multiplied 
proofs of the fact, that during the last five centuries, in which we consider 
ourselves to have been gradually progressing in civilization, there has been an 
eaually progressive deterioration in taste. Whether we examine it by means 
of our cath^rals, our parish churches, the mansions of the nobility, or hum- 
ble rural structures, we find the same results, — that the earliest display the 
greatest natural perception of beauty, which gradually diminishes till we reach 
our own age, when we find in the more ordinary structures that it has utterly 
vanished, and in others that it is a mere exotic. So true is this, that in the 
single item of chimney-stacks, the uninstructed bricklayer in a country vil- 
lage of the 16th or 16th century extemporized, probably without a drawing, 
and unconscious of efibrt, a composition more elegant and better propor- 
tioned than the best architect of the present day can mvent by the most care- 
ful study of every part. The reason is obvious : — they were working at their 
own architecture, which had grown up with them, which was formed upon 
the material they bad at hand, and was suited to the climate and their natural 
wants : generation after generation had always done their best with it, and 
nothing really ugly existed. ... To get into a healthy state, we ought to 
work ont the whole problem afresh ; but as this is impossible, let us at least 
take our hints from the examples of unsophisticated times in our own country, 
and those whose customs were allied to it : let us not so to ancient Greece 
or Rome for example ; but to the remains of our own villages and farmsteads, 
where the hand of the destroyer has still left us myriads of examples — not 
for us to copy, but on which we can at least reform our ideas." 

In pursuing the subject of rural architecture, Mr. Scott is naturaUy 
led to discuss the question of the proper minimum of accommodation 
required in the cottages of labourers. Nothing can be better than his 
observations upon the immorality of overcrowding the sleeping apart- 
ments of the poor, and his appeal to the owners of property, to prevent 
such abominations on their estates. A better sense of duty on the 

on Secular and Domestic Architecture. 21 

important subject is, we believe, gradnally prevailing, and we are glad 
to see Mr. Scott taking so active an interest in the cause. 

The Chapter on Buildings in Towns is not less instructive than its 
predecessors, and abounds in suggestions for the remedy of the ad« 
mitted ugUness of our common street architecture. It is a bold thing 
to accuse the famous Rue de Rivoli of dulness and monotony ; and, 
while agreeing with Mr. Scott in much that he says in depreciation of 
it, we think that he has scarcely done justice to the dignity of its 
material and the general stateliness of its design. Surely it is better 
than Harley Street or Baker Street, and has at least none of the vul- 
garity of the Tottenham Court Road, llie use of brick, the treatment 
of shop-fronts, and the lodgings of the town-poor, form subsidiary 
subjects of discussion, before Mr. Scott arrives at works of a more 
public character. Giving all due praise to the design of the Houses 
of Parliament, Mr. Scott desiderates an advance upon that in future 
buildings of national importance. And here he once more disclaims 
the wish to assist a merely archaeological revival. He says : — 

'* I am no mediievaliat ; I do not advocate the styles of the middle ages as 
such. If we had a distinctive architecture of our own day worthy of the 
sreatnets of onr age, I should be content to follow it ; but we have not ; and 
Sie middle ages having been the latest period which possessed a style of its 
own, and that style having been in part the property of our own country, I 
strongly hold that it has greater primd facie claims to be used as the nucleus 
of our developements than those of ancient Greece or Rome. . . As the age 
of Pericles is the culminating point in the architecture of the old world, so 
is onr Edwardian period (the age of Dante and Giotto) that of the architec* 
ture of the new world. From these points, as seems the lot of human arts, 
each degenerated, and while our civilisation in other respects has been won- 
derfully developing itself, we have in architecture committed the fatal error of 
adopting the s^le of the ancient world, instead of developing our own.'' 

The mediseval domestic architecture of Italy, affords, by universal 
consent, the most valuable hints for enlarging the capacities of our 
northern Gothic, and Mr. Scott, in common with others, has much 
modified his secular style of design from this source. He defends the 
propriety and consistency of this course with some arguments which 
he addressed, in the first instance, to the meeting of the Ecdesiological 
Society in 1855, and which appeared at the time in this journal. The 
traces of such study were apparent in the admirable designs by Mr. 
Scott for the Government Offices, which, in our judgment, deserved a 
foremost place in the late most unsatisfactory competition : and it is a 
cause for deep regret, that we have no hope of seeing actually built 
that practical exemplification of most of the theories which are ad- 
vanced in the volume now under notice. Mr. Scott's remarks on 
Public Buildings extend, with more or less fulness, to palaces, col- 
leges, hospitals, town halls, and markets. As for warehouses and 
factories, the fine examples at Nuremberg, and other commercial cities 
of Germany, afford, as is well known, many hints for their appropriate 
design. Mr. Scott has noticed some warehouses, of the date of the 
last century, at Boston, and the new great goods-station at Notting- 
ham, as having much of the bold and noble character of ancient work. 

22 Mr. Scott an Secular and Domestic Architecture. 

Mills and factories present far greater difficulties of design; and 
engine chimneys are still a crta to architects. We wish Mr. Scott 
had been more explicit in his suggestions for improving the chimney- 
shafts of our manufacturing towns. He says, truly enough, that they 
" may be made magnificent objects," and asks, with reason, " What 
would the mediaeval builders have thought of a city being rendered 
ugly by the presence of a hundred towers ?*' He protests also against 
the mere treatment of a chimney shaft as a campanile — a practice 
which has lately been introduced at Manchester : but, beyond this 
negative opinion, we do not see that Mr, Scott gives any advice of 
hints as to the proper treatment. In another department of commer« 
cial architecture, it has been tauntingly asked whether the Pointed 
schools of architeots could devise anything grander or m(Nre suitable 
for mere retail warehouses than the " palatial " structures of New 
Cannon Street. Mr. Scott replies that, grandiose as those imitations 
of Florentine palaces may be, they are certainly but little fitted for 
their present homely and pacific destination as haberdashers* maga- 
zines ; and, in particular, he enlarges on the absurdity of the gigantic 
cornices, which, to the peril of human life, are followed, in everything 
but their solidity and safety, in the modem reproductions. We must 
not omit however to state, that our author does ample justice to the 
spirit that has inaugurated this notable improvement in our general 
street architecture. 

A chapter follows on Restorations, advocating the well-known cau- 
tious and conservative principles which Mr. Scott has, in a former 
work, applied to ecclesiastical remains. This gives occasion to an 
interesting digression about the late unfortunate error at Alnwick 
Castle, where the Duke of Northumberland, having restored the ex- 
terior, under the care of Mr. Salvin, in its origmal Pointed style, 
employed Canina, and an importation of Italian artizans, to transform 
the interior into a Roman palazzo. The following conclusions from 
this unlucky business are a fair hit against the Classicists : — 

" I will not dwell longer on this subject, than to call attention to two sin- 
gular and not uninttructive considerations which it sugsests. The firiit is 
this, — that though the so-called ' revival of art ' took place in Italy some 
three or four centuries back, and all Europe has been working at it ever since, 
it appears, on the evidence of the most distinguished architect in Rome, that 
its oest productions are the works of its first revivers. This certainly does 
not say much for it as a prcgreaewe art. The second is not unlike it } it is 
this, — that though the revived Roman architecture was transplanted into 
Eneland some two hundred and fifty years since, and is considered by our 
architects to be so thoroughly acclimatized and naturalized, that they stand 
by it as if it were as much the Englishman's birthright as Magna Cbarta 
itself, the unwelcome fact has at length oozed out, that if we wish to cany 
out the style in its perfection, the proper course is to import arobitecta from 
Rome to do it ! Surely this is sufficient proof that it remains an ezotic art I" 

The next essay is on the boundaries of truth and falsehood in " ar- 
chitecture." Mr. Scott is not a bit too severe on the vulgar shams 
and counterfeits of his art, and he gives the lamented Pugin the credit 
of being the first to see and expose the trickeries of ue design and 
materials of modem building. It is in reply to the objections of 

BuTffes on the Capttah of the Dog^B Palace. 28 

opponents that Mr. Scott undertakes to define where tmth ends and 
fjedhicy hegins in matters arelatectfrral : for he remarks that the usual 
answer to the arguments of the new school is some attempt to confuse 
the question by propounding difficulties, in Which it is at first sight 
hard to determine the limits of permissible counterfeit. He illustrates 
the boundaries of truth and falsehood in art by l^e parallel deniaaro»- 
tions in morals, and finds that it is the MeiUion to deceive which must 
be in all cases avoided. This test accordingly is applied to various 
disputed qnestionfr-— gilding, Teneering, staining wood, &c. Mr. Scott 
decides, we observe, in favour of parcel-gilding in plate as being better 
and safer than whole-gtlding. The whole discnssion is of high vidue 
and interest. 

A concluding chapter on the Architecture of the Future, sums up 
most of our author's arguments. The veTf wish for such a distinctive 
new style is claimed as an off-shoot of die Pointed revival. We are 
glad to see so bold an assertion of a jucKcious ecleclicism, and so hope- 
ful an anticipation of the adoption into the new developement of every 
feature that is really good in existing styles. The dome in particular 
is to be borrowed from Byzantium. And there is a prospective as 
welt as a retrospective element. 

^ Our architeeture most unite within itself all thai can be learned from the 
past, all that is demanded by the present, and all which will be developed by 
the future — the style we select for our starting point being die bond oi union 
which will cement all these elements into one perfect and homogeneous 
whole. As again the style of the future must be unlimited in its comprehen- 
siveness, so must it be also universal in its applicability. Like sll genuine 
styles, its root must be in the temple, but its oranches must entwine them- 
selves into everjr object for which architecture is needed, excepting only tuch 
objects as are in their own nature vicious or misohievous, which I would 
^adly leave as an heirioom to other styles." 

We quit this excellent and most useful volume with the heartiest 
recommendation of it to our readers ; and we sincerely wish God speed 
to Mr. Scott and his professional fellow-labourers in the course of 
architectural developement and progress which these pages so ably in- 
dicate and defend. 


A PAPxa by Mr. Buzgea, on the Iconography of the celebrated capitals 
of tJie Ducal Palace of Venice, which appeared in a late number of M. 
Didron'a Amudee ArchSologiquee, has reached us in the form of a 
separate brockmre^ The subject, already discussed by Mr. Street, and 
at great length by Ma. Rusldn, was not exhausted, and we have read 
the present essay with great interest. Mr. Burgee, having made his 

' Vemtte.-^Ieonogrtgifhie d§$ Ckapiteautf du PaUuM Ducal par William Bmiges, 
Arehitecte, et Didron ain6, Directear des "Annsles Arch^logiqnes." Paris. 
DIdron, 1857. 

24 Burges on the Capitals of the Bog^e Palace. 

notes and sketches in Venice, on his return through Paris, informed 
M. Didron of his intention to publish his theory of the iconography of 
these capitals. The latter gentleman had also lately visited Venice 
and made his memoranda. He proposed therefore to print Mr. Burges' 
paper in the Annales, and to add his own notes in further explanation. 
The result is not very felicitous, for the two authorities are at variance 
in various important particulars. We confess, we think, that the Eng- 
lish iconologist is as a rule the most trustworthy guide. Not only 
has he paid more attention to the subject, but his practised architec- 
tural eye has been like another sense to him in questions of style and 
date, and M. Didron is too exclusively an archaeologist for his opinion to 
be taken implicitly in a matter where other qualifications are required. 
Without a plan it would be impossible to give our readers a satisfac- 
tory idea of the rival theories. Suffice it to say, that Mr. Ruskin 
and Mr. Burges agree in assigning the twenty -five columns and capitals, 
that fece the sea and turn the comer of the Palace into the Piazzetta, 
to the fourteenth century, between 1341 and 1349; while, in their 
opinion, the remaining capitals, up to the one bearing the Judgment of 
Solomon, near S. Mark's, are later copies, made about 1423. M. Didron 
dates the capitals in precisely the contrary order, esteeming the Justice 
capital "le premier en date, le premier en importance, le premier 
en signification.'* A very beautiful engraving of this disputed capital, 
taken from a photograph of Mr. Ruskin's cast, graces the volume ; and 
in spite of M. Didron's arguments in the text, and his instruction to 
the engraver to subscribe the words " XIV® si^cle " to the plate, we 
are convinced that the later date is the more true one. The style of 
the armour in which Solomon's soldier is dressed is alone nearly de- 
cisive of the point. The work however, is a very fine one for this 
date, and this may partly excuse the French antiquary for claiming it 
for the preceding century. There are other illustrations, excellently 
engraved, and of great beauty and interest ; and both Mr. Burges and 
M. Didron adduce a vast amount of curious iconographical information 
in the text and its notes. Each of them labours to construct an icono- 
logical scheme or plan which will embrace the whole series of sculp- 
tured capitals ; and, as might be expected from the author of the 
Manuel d'Iconographie on the one he^d, and on the other from the 
joint-author of the lille competition designs, and (since then) the de- 
signer of an iconographical system in our own pages for the decoration 
of Cologne, there is much learning and ingenuity expended by both 
gentlemen in the attempt. But both schemes seem to us ra^er far- 
fetched, and we are inclined to venture the heretical suggestion that 
after all these capitals were carved at haphazard. Our readers in 
general will probably agree with us when we give the sequence of 
subjects of part of the series. They are as follows : — Enfance, Oiseaux, 
Chevaliers, Enfeuits, Empereurs, Dames, Vices et Vertus, Monstres. 
Vertus, Vices, Oiseaux, Vertus et Vices, Lions, B^tes, Dames et 
Chevaliers, Venitiens, &c. It is difficult to believe that any deep 
significance can be made to appear in such elements. However, we 
gladly recommend this careful tractate to all students of iconology, 
and should be glad to see it in an English dress. 




The Hhtory, Architecture, and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church of 
S, Canice, Kilkenny. By the Rev. Jamks O&atcs, A.B., and JoHir 
O. AuausTus Peik. Dublin : Hodges, Smith and Co., 1 857. 

Wk have on more than one occasion had to remind the English reader 
that Ireland possesses an ecclesiology and cathedrals of its own. In a 
letter from a contributor, published in our number for June. 1852, 
we gave a brief description of one of the most interesting of these 
cathedrals, that of S. Canice, in the city which is named after that 
church, Kilkenny, serving as the mother church of the territorial 
diocese of Ossory. It is therefore with the more pleasure that we are 
now enabled to revert to this church, as it is monographed in a most 
satisfactory manner by the writers whose names head this article, in a 
handsome quarto volume, brought out with full and well executed 
illustrations, chiefly designed by Mr. Oraves, the whole being very 
creditable to the bookseller to the University of Dublin. 

The two sections into which the treatise divides itself are entitled 
respectively " the Cathedral*' and " Monumental Antiquities." The 
first of these commences with noticing the humble cell raised of wicker 
work at Saigher or Seir in Upper Ossory, by S. Kieran, about 402, 
(previously to S. Patrick's days) which even in the Saint's time grew 
to be a populous monastery, and which in its wild churchyard, and the 
larger septum, of which the traces can still be seen, still shows vestiges 
of a very early antiquity. In about a century and a half, probably 
between 558 and 577. S. Canice, however, (the friend of S. Columba) 
transferred the cathedra from Seir to Aghabo, also in Upper Ossory, in 
the Queen's County. We shall not attempt to follow out the history of 
this originally cathedral, then monastic, and now wholly parochial church, 
further than to state that its choir, built in 1234, and still retaining 
interesting vestiges of First-Pointed, was destroyed about thirty years 
since, to give place to " an unsightly modem structuro." The second 
chapter brings us to Kilkenny itself. When the great church at that 
place was originally built, how it assumed par esceUenee the name of S. 
Canice, and how by degrees the city clustered round it, cannot now be 
accurately traced. That there was a church at some early period stands 
confessed by the continued existence, immediately adjoining the south 
transept, of a " round tower." The date, however, of this tower may, 
according to our authors, range between the lifetime of S. Canice and 
the end of the tenth century. The Four Masters record in 1085 the 
destruction by fire of " Ceall-Cainnigh," probably the then church of 
Kilkenny, while in 1845 the moulded base of a double jamb shaft, 
" ornamented with a grotesque and bearded human face," of the Roman- 
esque style of the eleventh century, was discovered by one of the 
authors in an inverted position in the walling of the south transept on 
the removal of some earth. Other remains were also discovered, which 
seem to prove that the actual choir formed the nave of this churoh* 


26 S. Canice Cathedral, Kilkenny. 

while the chancel extended eastward. So we may conclude that there 
was an early church on the spot, and that it was rebuilt in the later 
days of independent Irish architecture. Strongbow's son-in-law and 
successor, the Earl Marechal and Earl of Leinster built, or rather re- 
built, Kilkenny castle in 1207, and made it the chief seat of his 
almost sovereign power. Shortly before this date he had procured the 
election' of Hugh de Rous as Primus Anglicus Episcopus Ossoriensis, 
and by exchanges of land secured his own footing in the domains 
of the still independent Macgillapatricks, and the removal of the see 
to his own liege town of Kilkenny. No portion of the actual structure 
can be attributed to Bishop Rous, which seems to owe its origin to his 
successor, Peter Malveisin, who died in lt229» and with whose date the 
architectural characteristic of the choir — around-headed side windows, 
but otherwise First-Pointed details — would correspond. How far the 
structure throve under William of Kilkenny the next Bishop we know 
not ; but we find the great architect-prelates in his immediate suc- 
cessor, Hugh de Mapilton (1251 — 1256) and in Geoffrey S. Leger, 
who governed the Church, after a short intercalated episcopate from 
1257 to 1286, from whose hands it came out substantially as we now 
behold it, and as it is depicted in the plan which, by the kindness of the 
publisher, we are enabled to reproduce. In 1324, during the time 
of Bishop de Ledrede, William Outlaw, as part of his pardon for 
the crime of witchcraft, in which he was involved with his mother, 
Alice Kyteler, had to cover with lead the eastern portion of the lady 
chspeL However, in 1332, on Friday, May 22, the belfry fell along 
with a great portion of the choir, (the roof it must mean, as the side 
windows of Malveisin's are still in existence) and broke down the 
side chapels. The Bishop was then, and for many years more, in 
trouble with the king about this case of witchcraft. In 1354, how- 
ever, he was actually at work at restoration, and that year filled the 
choir windows with painted glass, of which the history of the Gospel in 
the eastern triplet was peculiarly famous. The groining of the tower 
was restored by Bishop Barry in 1460, a work which still exists. 
The Reformation saw the fanatic Puritan, John Bale, invested with 
the mitre of Ossory, who on his accession broke down the statues 
in the church, but spared De Ledrede's windows. In 1630 there 
is a curious entry for supplying a *' small sancte bell" for the lady 
chapel, then used as a parish church. What could have been wanted 
at that date with a sancte bell ? The troubles of Charles the First's 
reign were heralded in 1641 by the not very reverent proceeding on 
the part of the rebels — Roman Catholics of course — of breaking open 
the cathedral, and robbing it of its chalices, surplices, ornaments, 
records, and writings, making gunpowder in S. Patnck*s church, and 
digging up the tombs and graves in the churches of Kilkenny, under 
colour of getting moulds wherein to make gunpowder. 

These sacrilegious proceedings were followed by the formal restora- 
tion of Roman worship in the cathedral by Bishop Roth, a famous 
antiquarian, and the friend and correspondent, strange to say, of Arch- 
bishop Usher. A large monstrance presented by him to the cathedral 
has lately been given to the Roman Catholic cathedral by the family 

S, Canice Cathedral, Kilkenny. 27 

to which it had descended. In 1645, the Nuncio Rinuccini made a 
ceremonious entry into Kilkenny, and in the year following induced 
Roth to issue an interdict against the peace then concluded. The 
Bishop shortly afterward separated himself Arom the Italian's yiolent 
policy. It is recorded, however, to the credit of his taste, that he of- 
fered to purchase the east window for £700, and to that of Roth's pa« 
triotism, that he refused the offer. It would have heen better had he 
closed with it, for in 1650, Cromwell's troopers, among numerous 
other acts of sacrilege, (the unroofing the cathedral included) destroyed 
these windows. Strange however to say, so early as 1 658, the Puritan 
corporation passed an order to repair the church. The Restoration 
brought back again the deposed Anglican Bishop WiUiams, who as he 
himself says, spent more than £400 of his own in repairing the choir. 
In 1675, Bishop Parry, chiefly at his own expense, furnished the 
church with a peal of six bells, two of which were recast early in the last 
century, and the remainder in 1851, and left money to buy plate. 
However, the plate now in use was the gift of his successor Otway, 
rich, as it seems by the description, though of course debased in style. 
In 1756, Richard Pococke, the celebrated oriental traveller, succeeded 
to the see, and immediately set to work with great zeal and munificence 
though scanty knowledge of mediaeval art to refit the choir as we now 
see it ; with oaken throne, stalls, pews and galleries in Ionic, and 
therefore of course sadly jarring with the pile. This prelate likewise 
built the Doric colonnade from the north transept to the palace. We 
now come to a happier epoch in the promotion of the actual dean. Dr. 
VignoUes, in 1 843, who has chiefly at his own expense re-opened and 
glazed most of the windows, and cleared the arches and pillars of 
manifold coats of whitewash. The chapter repaired the parish church 
(a chapel to the east of the north transept) and raised its roof to the 
original pitch. At the same time the shingled pyramidal capping of 
the ancient tower of the seventeenth century was removed. This we 
think a very questionable improvement. The cathedral is represented 
with it in the woodcut given in Mr. Petit's Church Architecture. In 
1853, anew organ was bought from Messrs. Bevington, which had 
been erected by them at the Dublin Exhibition, consisting in all of $2 
stops and 1430 pipes. 

We are now brought to the architectural description of the church, 
in describing which the accompanying plan will save us much labour. 
The external length is 212 ft. 3 in. by 1 17 ft. at the transepts, and 63 ft. 
by 10 at the nave and aisles. Internally the nave measures 107 ft. 
by 28 ft. 3 in, the north aisle being 14 ft. 7 in. and the south 13ft. 8 in. 
wide. The north transept 38 ft. 10 in. by 28 ft. 1 1 in. The south al- 
most the same size. The tower is 26 ft. square, and the choir measures 
73ft. 10 in. by 28 ft. 8 in. G. is the *' parish church," H. the '* north 
chapel," I. the foundations of the anchorite^s cell, and L. tbe lady 
chapel, and K. the ancient chapter-house. A writer of the seventeenth 
century describes the bishop's throne as an apse (i.e. dais) raised on 
stone steps to the right as you enter near the altar, i. e. on the north 
side, an unusual position. The nave windows, as will be observed, are 
coupled under two arches, and exhibit the faintest rudiments of tracery 

28 S. Camc€ Cathedral, Kilkenny. 

in an unpierced qnatrefoil in the head ; the quatrefoiled pillars have 
boldly moulded basea and capitals, and the clerestory is composed of 
a series of large bold quatrefoils set lozenge wise. The west window 
is a large unequal triplet, while the west door, which is, it will be seen, 
double, is remarkably beautiful, composed of a richly moulded central 
trumeau, with a circular semi-shaft in the centre, having bold 
arch mouldings, the two doorways being respectively cinqf oil-headed. 
The tympanum contains in the centre a large richly moulded quatrefoil, 
which formerly contained an image, flanked by smaller quatrefoils with 
angels in adoration. We may once for all call attention to the re- 
markable predominance of the quatrefoil in this cathedral, both in its 
architectural members and its ornamental details. 

Internally the central light of the western triplet is stopped short by 
a kind of blank fenestration, representing in simpler form the features 
of this door. Of the other doors the most remarkable is the north 
door of the nave. The external arch is pointed, and under it in the 
tympanum is the ever-recurring quatrefoil. But the internal one is 
round-headed and composed of a circular bowtel running all round and 
divided into lengths by fifteen bold annulations, in fact a Romanesque 
type with pointed details. The parapets of the nave, the tower, and 
the choir are all stepped — an Irish peculiarity. Excepting the tower 
there is no groining to be found ; the roof of the nave being open* 
We need hardly remark that the triforium is absent, and so the interior 
in spite of its plan, does not fully embody the cathedral idea. 

In the north transept still exist the carved ends of a stone seat or 
stall of Kilkenny marble, with some First-Pointed foliage, but for all 
that popularly termed S. Kieran's Chair. In their general contour 
these strikingly resemble the so-called Patriarchal Chair of Canter- 
bury, and serve to confirm P^re Martin's theory of its date. The 
font of Early First-Pointed, is composed of a square fluted block, with 
a circular basin, supported on one large and four small circular shafts. 
Some fragments of the painted glass were found in the course of the 
excavations of 1846, and show that when complete it was of fine 
Middle-Pointed character. Those encaustic tiles which have been 
found, and of which specimens are engraved, show considerable fancy 
in their designs. The mouldings and foliage, we may once for all re- 
mark, are the very best First- Pointed character. The material em- 
ployed 18 a mixture of limestone which has worn well, and of sand- 
stone which has generally perished. 

Into the next chapter on the round tower we do not enter, as we 
should not be able to do justice to it without going somewhat at 
length into its peculiar branch of ecclesiology. Our readers will perceive 
the position of this tower by the plan. 

We have hitherto said nothing of the general aspect of the churchy 
and yet this merits a more extended notice than we are able to give 
it, standing as it does most picturesquely on the top of a steep hiU in 
a populous town, yet quiet and secluded itself in its lime-grown yard, 
forming with the princely castle of the Butlers the twin ornament of 
the city of marble pavements and smokeless coaL 

The second section is devoted to the monuments still existing in the 

8. Canice Cathedral, Kilkenny. 29 

church, the earliest being an effigy of a bishop, probably Roger of 
Wexford, who died in 1280, and the more recent a high tomb, of a knight, 
of which the canopies over the weapons prove it to be of the 16tb, 
although the effigy has chain mail, which was in those days out of 
date in England. It is supposed to be the tomb of the ninth Earl of 
Ormonde. The more curious monumental slabs are engraved, and as a 
consecutive series seem to establish the curious fact that the souffle of 
the renaissance in religions art was for some reason or other, a round 
century, if not a century and a half later in making itself heard in 
Ossory at least, than in the average of western Europe. For example, 
the slab of Bishop Gafney, who died in 1576, presents us with an in- 
terlaced cross bearing six trefoils, an early pastoral staff, and a mitre 
of a very satisfactory mediseval outline, and a legend in black letter. 
Upon tins the writers observe, *' the mitre and pastoral staff of the 
prelate are carved on the monument, and the form is doubtless a 
tolerably faithful representation of the new mitre ' set with precious 
atones/ given by Bishop Snell to his church," [early in the fifteenth 
century.] " The crozier " (i.e. staff,) " is also of much earlier fashion 
than the age of Bishop Gafney. It is extremely probable that cross 
slabs were manufactured beforehand, and kept in stock by the masons 
of the period ; this may account for the fact, that the reformed prelate 
is commemorated by a style of monument in general use before 
the Reformation, but subsequently almost entirely confined to the 
members of the Roman Catholic Church in Ireland." Even were 
we to admit this conjecture, it would not account for so great an 
anachronism as these monuments on a whole present, an anachronism 
going back so far as to present us in several instances with " Runic " 
interlacings in the crosses. Besides the inscriptions in black letter 
could not have been kept in stock, and Bishops were surely not 
snch frequent objects of interment as to render it worth while to lock 
up capital in their monumental slabs. Besides, it must not be for- 
gotten, that even in England the mitre was occasionally worn, and the 
staff carried, and both of them constantly represented on monuments 
till a far later date than the interment of Bishop Gafney. The pecu- 
liarity in his case is, that both are of so severely correct a form. 

The tomb of a bishop, who died in 1 578, and of a chaplain, Richard 
Gafney, are described as having similarly interlaced crosses to those 
of the last named bishop. The slab of William Donoghou, a burgess, 
who died in 1 607, is even more elaborate, and presents a cross with 
runic-like interlacements, the three points terminating in fleurs-de-lys, 
while right and left of the upper limb the sun and moon are shown, 
and the emblems of the Pftssion flank the shaft. The slab of the Lady 
EUena Butler, by marriage Countess of Thomond, who died the same 
year, is described as being similarly adorned. Not to mention any more 
of the numerous crosses of the later portion of the sixteenth century, we 
find on the tomb of Burgess HoUohan (died 1 609) and of his wife, the 
date of whose death is left blank, and was therefore no doubt subsequent, 
a cross of the most pronounced mediseval design, rising from two steps, 
annulated near the head, and that composed of four equal bands with 
fieure-de'lys at the points, and from these recessed bands meeting in the 

30 Transactions of the New York EccUsiological Society. 

intermediate spaces, and aleo tipped with fleura-de-lfs (seven therefore 
in all). It requires the evidence of the legend (in black letter of course) 
to believe in the date. Bishop Deane, who died in 1612, is more 
economically commemorated, for the inscription is carved in the middle 
of the slab of a former chancellor of the church, John de Cashell, de- 
ceased in 1394. An elaborate renaissance high tomb erected in his life- 
time still commemorates the Roman Catholic Bishop Roth, who for so 
many years kept possession of the church and see during the days of the 
confederates. The tomb of Richard Clonan, without a date, but appa- 
rently of the end of the sixteenth or commencement of the seventeenth 
century, might almost pass muster for the thirteenth or fourteenth, being 
plainly assimilated with the three points terminating in pointed trefoils, 
while the emblems of the shoemaker's trade are grouped round the 
head. Later of course we reach those pompous and tasteless monu- 
ments which have formed the staple of sepulchre non-art down to our 
own day, but it is satisfactory to observe that the last recorded tomb is 
a specimen, apparently elaborate, of the revived Christian art of our 
time, in the high tomb of the late lamented Marquis of Ormonde (de- 
ceased in 1854) executed by Mr. Richardson. 

Our authors promise in their preface a sequel to this volume, con- 
taining the history of the see of Ossory, to which they postpone the 
memoirs of various Bishops of Ossory, whose tombs are described. We 
cordially hope that the engagement thus contracted may with all due 
speed be redeemed ; for we can without flattery say, that the writers 
appear to us to have shown in their actual production, the qualities es- 
sential in such a work, patience, accuracy, intelligence, and a spirit 
alike removed from ignorant credulity, and flippant scepticism. The 
stores of curious information about men and things which may be 
made public in the annals of an important see occupying the debatable 
land between the Pale and the fastnesses of the Irishry, are such 
as cannot fail to invite the attention of many readers, and to reward the 
toil of the writer who enters on his task with the intention of thoroughly 
working it out. 



It was only in our last number, that we were expressing our regret at 
the premature extinction of our daughter Society of New York. We 
had heard that it had become a mere Church Building Association, 
and had ceased to concern itself with theoretical ecclesiology. Nor in 
this altogether negatived by the welcome but most unexpected appear- 
ance, since our last issue — from the publishing office of Mr. D. Dana, 
of New York, — of a handsome quarto volume of Transactions of the 
New York {icclesiological Society for 1855. The volume bears the 
date 1857, and for all we know, the Society no longer exists. At 
least there is, in the part before us, neither name of office-bearer, nor 

Transactions of the New York Ecclesiological Society. 31 

promise of continuation. We hope very sincerely, that we may be 
wrong in our surmise, and that we may have to welcome many more 
fasciculi, as good as the present one, from the other side of the Atlantic. 
Five papers are printed in these Transactions. The first two are by 
the Rev. John H. Hopkins. Jun., M.A., and are entitled respectively, 
I* The Cathedral System in the City," and " the Cathedral System 
in Rural Dioceses." Both are able and plain spoken documents ; and, 
aa our readers know, we have always thought the want of a cathedral 
system one of the greatest practical evils of the American Church. 
Mr. Hopkins considers the absence of cathedrals and their organization 
to be " one of the many ill results of the Popish corruption and £ras« 
tian mal-practice that have so largely tainted the channel through 
which our historical Church has descended to us from the apostles of 
our Lord." He enlarges on both these subjects, and enunciates some 
wholesome truths about the mockeries and abuses and inefficiency of 
our English cathedrals^ which might well be laid to heart by our deans 
and chapters. It is scarcely to be wondered at, that the corruptions 
of our own cathedral system are one of the greatest obstacles to the 
introduction of "anything like it," as Mr. Hopkins says, into the 
United States. Accordingly he goes back to the primitive idea of the 
cathedral system, and attempts a sketch of the manner, in which, in 
his opinion, that system ought to be represented at this day in New 
York. The cathedral church should be cruciform, and large enough 
to hold eight or ten thousand worshippers, besides a choir of five hun- 
dred. There must be neither pews nor pew-rents. "The vast area 
of its nave and transepts should be for ever free from the pollutions of 
bargain and sale. Its lofty walls should never re-echo to the sound of 
the auctioneer's hammer." Choral service twice a day, and still more 
often on Sundays and Festivals ; a staff of from twelve to twenty-four 
clergy — all mediocriter docti in piano cantu, forming a body of city 
missionaries, under a dean, precentor, treasurer, and chancellor ; these 
four having sufficient income for the maintenance of a wife and family, 
but the canons living in a brotherhood ; — such form the elements of 
Mr. Hopkins' scheme. Round this centre are to be grouped chorister's 
schools, seminaries for the priesthood, a church-hospital, a sisterhood- 
bouse, a dispensary,, an infirmary, an asylum for aged clergy, and a 
library. The basis of this great developement is to be in New York» 
" the estate of Trinity," which Mr. Hopkins calls " an immense irre- 
sponsible money power, over which the Bishop, as such, can exercise 
no authority whatever." We can only say, that we wish heartily that 
at least a beginning might be made of some such comprehensive 
scheme. It is most desirable that such views should be put before 
American Churchmen, and there is no harm in the first draft of the 
plan being somewhat inordinate in scale. The second paper, by the 
same author, on the Cathedral System in Rural Dioceses, applies the 
same principles to the altered circumstances of the case. But we ob- 
serve no suggestions for raising the required funds : the want of which 
will be, we presume, the main impediment to any cathedral develope* 
ment in the American dioceses. Indeed these zealous papers inciden- 
tally reveal many of the drawbacks of a purely voluntary system, as 

32 TVahsactions of the New York EccUiiological Society. 

experienced hj tihe Charchmen of the United States. For example, 
we read of a " committee being empowered to go and hear Mr. So-and- 
ao preach ; and off they start, with a blank call in their pocket.*' And 
it is evident that the clergy are rarely endowed with snfficient incomes 
to insure their independence, or their ability to live in moderate com- 
fort without pecuniary anxieties. We gready wish that Mr. Hopkina' 
papers might be read and weighed on both sides of the Atlantic. 

The same gentleman contributes another more technical paper on 
the subject of Apsidal Chancels. This abo is carefully written, and is 
very well worth reading. Mr. Hopkins insists strongly on the east 
end of British chancels being not only a demonstrative proof of the 
Irish origin of the English Church, but an evidence that the Roman 
missionaries under S. Augustine of Canterbury had far less success 
than is usually supposed. We dissent from Mr. Hopkins' somewhat 
severe remarks on the mission of S. Gregory. It is to be hoped that we 
may look back with affectionate gratitude to S. Augustine*s Christian 
labours in this country without undervaluing the former British 
Church, and Mr. Hopkins' anti-papal bigotry, in one so catholic- 
minded as he seems to be, is we presume, to be set down as an adap- 
tation to Transatlantic Protestant feeling. In spite however, of this 
historical argument for the retention of the square-ended chancel — 
(and we may observe that the curious instance of the Vercelli church 
having been built by Bnglish influence in Italy with a square east end 
seems unknown to our author) — Mr. Hopkins argues for the present 
adoption of an apsidal east end in preference to the old plan. And 
this on the three grounds of greater catholicity, of more perfect beauty, 
and of more convenient arrangement — as allowing the celebrant to 
stand, facing the people, at the east side of the altar. A fourth rea- 
son is added, — that a square east end almost always involves a great 
east window, the effect of which is to throw the altar into obscurity 
and Insignificance ; and finally, Mr. Hopkins indulges in some arbi- 
trary and original symbolism in fieivour of a circular apse, into which 
we shall not follow him. The whole essay is highly creditable. The 
next paper, which is anonymous, is an elaborate dissertation on the 
Adaptation of Painting and Sculpture to the adornment of Churches. 
After an introduction, the writer adduces the testimony of Holy Scrip- 
ture, of the Primitive Church, and of the '* Standard of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church,** in defence of religious aesthetics, and concludes 
with an argument on the expediency of the use of art in church deco- 
ration. His discussion of the iconoclastic excesses, the documents. 
Articles of Visitation, Injunctions, &c. of the early days of the English 
Reformation is very remarkable : and his conclusion is identical with 
that which has always been maintained in this journal, viz., that the 
true mind of the Church of England was to reform abuses, and not to 
forbid the lawful use of the decorative arts. After quoting examples of 
sculpture and painting in English churches, the author gives American 
instances of the like employment of the fine arts : — 

** The altar window of Trinity, New York, contains the figures of our Lord, 
the four Evangelists, S. Peter> and S. John Baptist, in its seven lights. The 

TVansaetions of the New York Ecclemlogieal Society* 88 

windows of Holy Trinity, Brooklyn, fonn in tbemieWes a pictorial Bible. 
Grace Church, New York, is adorned with four marble statues outside, and 
with multitudes of canopied saints inside, in the aisles and transepts, besides 
haring a fine altar window representing our Lord in i^lory, and several other 
corresponding pictures of saints. The church of the Holy Apostles, and that 
of S. Clement, New York; the church of the Holy Cross, Troy; S. Paul's, 
Beaton; and (I believe) Christ Chureh» HartfOrd, may be mentioned as hav- 
ing oil paintings suspended over their several altars. The church of the 
Annnndation, New York, has an altar-piece from the hand of one of our 
well-kaown seulntors. Grace Church, Van Vorst, and S. Paul's, East Chea- 
ter, are additional instances which at tlus time occur to me ; and no doubt 
the list could be very much enlarged. But these are enough to show that 
the Church mind in the United States is already far above the dead level of 
puritanical prejudice, and to encourage us to hope for the best residta in the 
fotore from an inereasing breadth of views among the dergy and people." 

The last paper in these Transactions is an interesting description of 
the rich modem altar plate of Trinity Chapel, New Yoric. If we re- 
member rightly some of the designs used in our own manulacture of 
church plate, by Mr. Keitb, were sent to New York, as some sort of 
guide to the local artists, and many hints from them seem to have 
been adopted. The set consists of two chaHces, two patens, a large 
paten on a foot, and an alms-dish. Each piece i$ dinoribed in the 
letter-press, and figured in a coloured engraving. Nothing can be 
better than the intention of design in this first specimen of revived ec- 
clesiastical metal- work in America, and we hope it may lead the way 
to still greater improvement. But if we may judge from the enginv- 
ings, much of the execution is coarse, and the style of art^ in the 
figures and subjects, fat from first-rate. Not that this is to be won- 
dered at. It is more surprising that artizans could have done so well, 
who probably have never had the opportunity of seeing a genuine 
specimeu of tiie work of the mediaeval metallurgists. This New York 
plate is of good shapes, (excepting the large paten,) and is paroel-gUt, 
chased and enamelled very richly, with symbols, groups, figures, and 
inscriptions. The artists deserve to be recoided. The nmnufiae- 
tnrers were Messrs. Cooper and Fisher, of Amity Street, New Yovk. 
The chasings were done by a Oermau, Mr. Segel, and ti^e engraving 
and enamelling by Mr. H. P. Horlor. The description concludes, in 
words to which we gladly assent ; — " Take the Whole together, wis 
doubt not that Churchmen in general will rejoice to see that the ser- 
Tice of God's Altar is, in our day and in our land, at length found to 
be worthy both of the cost and the thoughtful care and labour which 
have been freely and lovingly bestowed, in this work. Upon the holy 
vessels of His sancttiary/' 




Proceedings of the Liverpool Architectural and Jrcheologieal Society. 
Volame II., Part III. Session 1852-1853. Liverpool, 1857. 

Thb publication of a further part of these Transactions concludes the 
second volume, and brings down the account of the operations of the 
Society to the close of the session of 1853. It commences with an 
account of the Society's excursion to Manchester, the results of which 
are afterwards made the subject of a paper by Mr. H. P. Horner. 
Among the more scientific papers, read before the Society, we observe 
m Reix>rt upon Messrs. Davison and Symington's Process for Desic- 
cating Timber, and one on Improvements in Drying, Warming, and 
Ventilation, by Mr. T. Reid. Mr. S. Huggins contributes an essay on 
Some of the Principles of Design in Architecture, having particular 
reference to Ecclesiastical Buildings. He chiefly discusses the re- 
spective merits and proportions of towers and spires, passing on after- 
wards to the proper nature of ornamentation. The latter subject is 
afterwards more folly developed by the same gentleman in a paper on 
the Decoration of S. Paul's Cathedral. New windows with monials, 
stained glass in the choir, and partial structural polychrome with 
historical paintings and sculpture, and a fresh treatment of the dome, 
in symbolical devices, form the basis of Mr. Huggins' suggestions. 
Mr. Frank Howard, in the two next papers, on Nature and Art, aims 
at showing how, and under what limits, art may be said to have nature 
for its guide. Some interesting Notes on French Buildings, chiefly 
ecclesiastical, are given by Mr. J. A. Picton, F.S.A. His criticisms 
touch upon old buildings, restorations, and new works : and he visited 
Paris, Tours, Poitiers, Angers, Bourges, Blois, Orleans, Chartres, and 
Amiens. Architecture as an Exponent of Civilization — an agreeable 
paper — is Mr. E. H. Strype's contribution to the volume. Mr. R. D. 
Chantrell describes and figures an ancient pillar, discovered in taking 
.down the old parish church at Leeds. This gentleman does the Eccle* 
siologist the honour to call it a " mischievous tissue of imbecility and 
fanaticism." It had probably criticised some of his designs less fa- 
vourably than might have been wished. After this we scarcely dare 
say how wildly ridiculous Mr. Cockerell's explanation of the rude frets 
and reliefs of this cross appear to us. We merely quote, therefore, 
without farther comment, two or three sentences in their native gram- 
mar : — " This I conceive to relate to the Boodhists, or worshippers of 
the sun, who preceded the Romans in Great Britain ; and in Ebora- 
cum, Burgdurun, and Caicaria, have been found proofs of Roman 
Boodhism. The compartment above this contains a second figure, 
with the face of a man, the hair curled, as in the first, a moustache, 
(to denote virility,) the wings and claws of a bird ; doubtless the che- 
rubim of the Hebrews." And the conclusion of the whole : — " This 
pillar proves an acquaintance with the Persian, Egyptian, Indian, Mo- 

' Hangings far Cologne Cathedral. 85 

sale, and Greek mythology, and shows the universality of the teachings 
also of the ancients, even hefore Abaris was sent from Ireland to 
instruct the Greeks. Much more might be said upon this pillar, which 
will suggest itself to the initiated in a certain craft, though it cannot 
be made public !*' We are dumb ! This is followed by two papers, 
by Mr. Boult, on Cologne and its Cathedral, and the Entrance to the 
Port of Liverpool. Mr. C. Verelst is the author of a Discourse on 
Freemasonry in Architecture, which is too sketchy to be valuable. 
The remaining papers are, the Report of a Committee appointed by 
the Society to consider the best method of improving Liverpool, and 
an essay on the Application and Treatment of Porticoes in Modem 
Buildings, by Mr. W. H. Leeds. The Society is still five years in 
arrear of its Transactions. 


In the K&lner Domblatt for November, (received since the publication of 
our last number) we find an article by one of our honorary members, of 
which the following is a translation. It originaDy appeared in a perio- 
dical entitled •• Church Ornament, a Magazme for Female Handy- work, 
edited by the Revds. — Laib and D. Schwarz." fKircben-echmuck, 
ein Archiv fur weibliche Haudarbeit, redigirt von den Pfarrem Herren 
Laib und D. SchwarM.) (Vol. I., No. 6.) This periodical,^ the editor 
of the Domblatt remarks, is, on account of the entertaining and in- 
structive nature of its contents, particularly to be recommended to the 
ladies, who will also find in it interesting patterns and such like things, 
chiefly after ancient originals. 

" Abont six years ago, the present contributor directed attention to the 
above-named undertaking and ite significance with regard to the revival of 
Christian Art* What was then expressed as a hope, is now realised: the 
magnificent work, testifying of noble self-denial and unwearied perseverance, 
is finished, and will toon adorn the place of ite destination. There is the less 
occasion for me to repeat here what I have already said about ite conception 
and treatment in general, as well as ite execution in particulars, because even 
the most minute description would not convey even an approximate represen- 
tation of the effect of the new ornament. I will therefore only remark, witii 
reference to the Church-technics {Tempel-Technilc) which have been adopted, 
that in the mosaic style, quite analogously to the composition of Btamed glass 
windows, all local colours are executed by means of pieces of silk fastened 
upon lining-linen, while the contours as well as the shadows are done in needle- 
embroidery. In order to give an idea of the extent of the work, we may sUte 
that it comprises a surface of about 960 square feet, and is thoroughly covered 
with ffroups of figures in rich architectural frammg. By the nature of the 
I, criticism wffl here find a rich and easUy reaped field, especially as it was 

1 PabUshed by Metzler, at Stattgsrt. 
s See the Domblatt, No. 81. 

83 An Improvement m Organ Building. 

impovtible to produee the composition m a whole before the commeneeDieiit 
of the exeeutioa, and lo to bring the total effect before the eye : besides that 
the means for overcoming the great difficulties of the execution, in which so 
many hands were to take part, could only be forthcoming by little and little. 
In undertakings of this kmd, we must too frequently, as has been well and 
ofken sfiid, learn to walk by tumbling. It would, however, be qnite unjusti- 
fiable if4he oviticism were directed from the position of modem ea$eUpaiiiiHng, 
As in tiiA oase'ofiStluned vnndows, so also in thjs« the peculiarity of the mate- 
ria), the^ artistic me^ps at command in general, as well as the obiect of the 
work,fuaid thespace. which it is to occupy, must be taken most strictly into con* 
sideration. /Weaving, embroidery, and painting, differ very essentially frona 
one another, and it is quite faulty to aim, in the former, at the effects of the 
latter, however often this wrong path may have been taken. When, for ex- 
ample, in the Gobelins manufactory at Paris, very celebrated pictures, not at 
all designed for this object, are used aspatterns for worked hangings, a mis- 
take is committed in first principles. Wliere however, as is the case here, we 
have to do with a truly monumental work, the total effect is all that need be 
gasped by the eye : the work must be thoroughly subservient to the whole, 
m which it has chiefly to fulfil a decorative purpose. If this point be steadily 
kept in view, even the severest judgment will not be able to avoid paying a ^ 
large tribute of aclmowU dgment to the Conservator J. A. Rambonx, who has 
furnished the designs with a readiness which deserves especial thanks, and to 
the ladies of Cologne, who through a series of years, amidst manifold hindrances 
and difficulties, have brought the work to completion. More particularly, 
however, it deserves to be remarked that, without the most energetic and sefr- 
denying eapennaendetusej it would have been ({nite impossible to render so 
many isolated powers serviceable for such an object through so long a time, 
and to conduct the undertaking to a happy termination. It is understood that a 
monography respecting it is to be looked for, in which it may be allowed to 
point ou^ those persons who take especial interest in the object. 

" Apart from the consideration that the Cathedral of Cologne has, through 
this work, been enriched with a becoming ornament, the cause of Christian 
art has also been materially advanced thereby, and that on a side where there 
is much need of progvess, and where also still further Imits may be expected, 
and indeed haw sire^ wpeated* Hardly anything can be more advantageous 
for this cause than that the female world CFrtmenweUJ should again bestow its 
active sympathies upon it, as was the case in earlier times,— that it should 
lend a hand to bring the principles which rule in architecture and the imita- 
tive arts into recognition m all things related to them ; inasmuch as a way 
will thus be prepared whereby those principles will find entrance into every 
sphere of life, however remote. 



A SMALL organ has lately been put up in the Chapel School, at Hay- 
ward's Heath, Sussex, (a recent building noticed in our 17th volume, 
p. 311,) which, though of course not absolutely perfect, comes nearer 
to our matured notions of a model organ for a small church, than any 
other instrument with which we are acquainted. It has a compass of 
four octaves and a third, namely from CO to i* in alt, and contains at 
present three stops, namely Open Diapason and P^cipd, both of 

On Bad Taste in Floral Decoration. 87 

jotted metal throughout, and Clarabella treble mth Stopt Diapason 
baas. ProTision is also made fo^ a Flute stop. There are pedal keya 
from CC to E and two composition-pedals, aJbio a blowing pedal and 
bellows-handle, both moveable. The most remarkable feature how 
eter is the frpnt» which faoes the chancel on ita north side. It contains 
nineteen Open Diapason pipes, from Ff^ to middle o^, arranged ae- 
oording to their natural order, that is, the largest to the left hand, and 
the rest diminishing gradnally towards the right. This is in accord* 
ance with the representations which have come down to us of ancient 
oigan6,4t least of those earlier than the 15th century, and ezpiesses 
the general nature of the instrument much more clearly than any 
Qthec anangement, mati^rially different, can do. The front pipea 
are kept Irom, falling QutWArds by means of a wooden bar which crosses 
the body of each in the middle, and is consequently inclined to the 
horizon at an angle intermediate to the inclinations of the lines of the 
tope of the pipes* qnd of their mouths. The. ends of this bar are 
mortised into the quadrilateral heads of two turned posts at each 
side of the front. The ol^her sides of the case are plainer, but in 
accordance with the style of the front. The six largest metal pipea 
are pfeoed at the left-hand or west side of the- instrument; -on:, a lower 
level than the rest ; this arrangement being necessary in pon^eqnenoe 
of the limited height of the organ-aisle* For an instrument of its 
•ize. namely about six feet in width by three in depth, it would hwrdly 
indeed be desirable to have Wger pipes in front. 

The organ is builtt according to a plan drawn out by a member of 
the Ecdesiological Society's Committee, by Mr* Eagles of the Hack* 
aey Road, London, and does him much credit, except that the lower 
pipes of the Open. Diapason are too weakly voiced. The ; working 
drawinga for the front wcm pwpared by Mr» O. P. fipdley.^ the aretu^ 
tect of the building. 



DxAK SiB, — ^Truth and natural treatment are no less necessary in little 
things than in great. I am led to this observation by the character 
of the evergreen decorations which are now becoming so prevalent at 
Christmas, and some of the chief Christian festivals. They are now a 
regular part of ecclesiastical ornament, and, if worth doing at all, are 
worth thought and attention. Now I think that, in many instances, 
the whole nature of the thing is totally lost sight of. The real archi- 
tecture of a church is often disguised and marred by a sham vegetable 
one. Those very architects who dislike the perpetual arcaded reredos, 
so fashionable some time back, will countenance and allow a false one 
of the very same character, formed out of laths and evergreens, ac- 
tually covering the whole east end, and its wall ornaments. To my 
mind nothing seems more unreal and wretched than this Tegetable 

38 The Movement against Pews, 

construction, a few bits of holly seeming to support the masonry 
above. It reminds one of the twaddling derivation of Pointed archi- 
tecture from interlacing boughs, or the frontispieces to German songrs 
and almanacs. 

But this is not all, we have texts and other devices^ carved, as it 
were, out of box, &c., after the fashion of the trees in the shape of fat 
lions or poodles in Mr. Punch's garden ; or the mustard and cress 
Johns and Maries in our own, when we were babies. If we want 
texts, or legends, at all, they should be honestly written or emblazoned. 
The wreath also, that most obvious, and, if well and variously made, 
prettiest of all floral decorations, is used the worst. A wreath may 
properly hang down, crown a capital, wind round a shaft, rest on a 
string course, or over a label. How usefully and beautifully it may- 
be employed can be seen from the exquisite wall ornaments of ancient 
Italy ; from which, in a subject such as flowers, which the Romans so 
especially cultivated, and used on all occasions, I think we may well 
take a lesson. But we are not content with the natural use of the 
wreath. It must run, or rather be nailed, underneath the mouldings 
of arches. A crown to a capital is not enough, we must have one fas- 
tened underneath as well, making altogether a somewhat top-heavy 
termination to a pillar, cum phirimis aliis as bad and worse. 

Now surely it is time to look to all this : for bad taste and untruth 
in this temporary decoration will infallibly afi^ect the general taste in 
permanent wall ornament, and we cannot afford this. Above aU 
thing, anything like building in green stuff should be altogether 
eschewed. Architectural forms are only beautiful in their proper 
places. A pointed arch is ugly enough, if it has nothing to support ; 
e. g, what can be more abominable than a board or tablet with a 
Pointed arched head ? It's a simple absurdity, and so are half the de- 
corations we have seen this Christmas. 

Yours truly, 

J. C. J. 


As some of the earliest enemies of the Pew System, we cannot but be 
pleased to see inaugurated a new and hopeful agitation against this 
abominably plague-spot of our churches. Under the name of a 
General Committee on the Pew System a number of gentlemen have 
associated themselves for the purpose of commencing a practical cam- 
paign against the exclusive partition of the areas of parish churches. 
The head-quarters are at Manchester ; and any one desirous of aiding 
the movement should communicate with Mr. J. T. Simpson, the Se- 
cretary, at the offices, 14, Ridgefield, in that city. A minimum sub- 

^ I do not here include what may be called flower jewellery. It is quite clear 
tiiat very beautiful devices may be honestly and truly formed by the akilfol out of 
flowers and sprigs. 

T%e Movement against Pews. 8 

Bcription of half-a-crown annually conetitutes membership ; vice presi- 
dents and honorary members are expected to contribute a guinea. 

The time is certainly not unfavourable for the success of this well- 
meant agitation. The cause has lately had very distinguished support 
from quarters whence it could be least expected; Lord Shaftesbury 
has denounced the pew system in his place in the House of Lords in 
language quite as strong as any we have ever used ; and the Record has 
at last admitted that it is unscriptural to thrust the poor into the worst 
seats in church, even though it is only S. James who says so expressly. 
It will be curious if the Exeter Hall services prove to have accom- 
plished at least one good end, viz., to convince Low Churchmen that 
the pew system is indefensible. And who would have thought that we 
should have to thank Mr. Spurgeon for that goodly sight — the nave of 
Westminster Abbey filled with unappropriated chairs ! Still more con- 
Tincing proof of the truth of our repeated assertion — ^that it is the 
sense of exclusion which keeps the more independent poorer classes 
from public worship— is to be seen in the crowded congregations that 
have assembled of late in more than one London church when it was 
expressly announced that all the seats would be free. The time has 
come for the experiment of gutting one of the London churches and 
throwing open its whole area to all comers. 

But with this must come the revival not merely of the formal Offer- 
tory but of the practice of frequent collections — ^perhaps even at every 
service — ^for the purpose of paying the expenses of the church. The 
poor love to give their pence and half-pence ; and there is no other way 
of raising sufficient funds for Church purposes than this — ^which has 
been fully appreciated among dissenters — ^the constant accumulation of 
small sums. It is the more important to urge this because there are 
alarming rumours about that the threatened government substitution 
for church-rates is to be a legalized system of pew rents. Such a 
measure is just what we might expect from the present Administration, 
but its consequences would be fatd. We mentioned, in a late number, 
that the experiment of frequent collections was about to be made, as 
we understood, in a new free church at Manchester. We look with 
great interest for the results of this attempt to solve practically the 
difficulties of the time. It will not have escaped some of our readers, 
in connection with this, that it has been stated that the new Bishop of 
Ghraham's Town has been engaged in putting down the Offertory, intro- 
duced by his lamented predecessor, in several churches of that diocese, 
and substituting for it a fixed tariff of pew-rents. Every one who 
feels the importance of this subject, in the present crisis of the Church 
revival, should do something for the spread of wiser counsels. And as 
one way of helping the movement we recommend subscription to the 
new Manchester association. We reprint with pleasure the prospectus 
of the general committee on the Pew System ; though we may have 
our doubts as to the policy of all the objects which the association pro- 
poses to itself. For instance, we question whether the time has come 
for demanding a Parliamentary inquiry into the evils of Pews. But we 
wish the promoters of the new movement all success, and hope that 
their discretion will equal their zeal. 

40 The Movement agaimt Pews. 

** To the ' Pew Syitem/ the irreligioui state of our great town popnlationty 
as deseribed in Mr. Mann's Ceosos Report, may be in part ascribed. 

''The division into private pews, and the appropriatioa by the wealthier 
classes, of our old parish churches, chapels of ease, and modem district 
churches, have to a deplorable extent denied the ordinances of religion to the 
people at large, for whom a nationdl church is especially designed ; whilst the 
distinctions made in churches between rich and poor, forbidden by the Word 
of QoD (S. James i. 9,) too often lead the poor to regard the ' accommoda- 
tion' provided for them rather as an insult than a lisvour. 

^Gnuvehes in the Aposdes' time were free and common to all. Under 
every form of Christianity, in every European country except Enf^d, they 
are so still. No dtMrder or confusion or unpleasant consequences result 
from this fi^Bedom of worship and Christian equality in the House of God, 
whilst the pew system notoriously fosters pride, uncharitablenessy and di»- 

^ The substitution of pewwrents for the Scriptural plan of free wecJdy offer- 
ings by the faithfril, (] Con ix. 11, 14; xvi. 1, 2 ; Gal. vi. 6,) has produeed 
aerious evils. It is eommon to defend the pew system* as needed where 
there eure no endowments, for the support of the clergy. But pews noto- 
riously had their origin, and are strenuously maintained, in churches where en- 
dowments exist ; and so far from increasing the fund for supporting the clergy, 
the system plainly diminishes that fund, — (1.) by repudiatmg the contribu- 
tions of the vast maiority of the people who receive their eaminffs weekly, 
-—(2.) by confining the contributions of the rich to a fixed rent, often small 
in comparison with their means. Universal experience, not only in Uie Chris- 
tian Church, but in secular matters, proves that the total reeeipte from a large 
number of persons* giving small sums at frequent intervals, enormously exceed 
the produce of large and infrequent payments by a few. If the dependence 
of the clergy upon their congregations for support be an evil, that dependence 
is surely not less so where the giving up or a single pew is a substantial de- 
duction from the clergyman's income, than when that income, consisting of 
an infinite number ofsmall payments from unknown givers, and of unknown 
amounts, is almost certain (whatever feelings may influence MMdualO to be 
maintained at its accustomed amount by the natural and unvarying htw of 

*'Tbe renting of seats does not always accompany their appropriation. 
This is the essential evil. If the Church is ever to do her work, and be indeed 
the Church of the people, all appropriation of seats, whether formal or tacit* 
must be abandoned, and every comer feel himself free to take any place in a 
church which he may find vacant. The alternative sometimes suggested, of 
appropriating all the seats as for as the^ will go, some at high, others at nom- 
inal rates of payment, is in most cases unpractiosble, for the obvious madie- 
matical reason that whereas few churches contain more than one or two hott- 
dred pews, the parishioners may be counted by thousands. When one tenth 
of the families m a parish are thus unfairly provided for, what is to become of 
the remainder? 

" Parishes were instituted, as Lord Coke has said, * fat the benefit of the 
people.' Parish ehurefaes are, at eommon law, the equal inheritance of all the 
paiishioneia, for the daily public worship of the Chnrdt; hut the parodual 
^stem is rendered nugatory* and a flagrant and irremediable wrong is inflicted 
upon the people, by an arrangement which allows all or most ef tlie seats in a 
church, to be closed to the parishioners, and reserved for the exclusive use of 
a few families, who (m practice are not required to he chmreh people, or even 
residents in the paroehiud district. 

" For these and other reasons,— dthoueh, in the case of existing chuhsliee 
ttiainhr depending upon pew rents, it would be unjust to risk* even teftipor»- 
rily* the oiten snudl and uncertain incomes of the dergy^— 4t is greatly to be 

The New Windows in FTesiminster Abbey. 41 

desked tbat in churches to be henceforth erected, the Scriptand plan should 
be adopted ; and that steps should be taken to put an end to the allegedpro- 
prietary rights, and to remove the unsightly partitions, which prevent the free 
access of the people to their parish churches. 

"A committee has therefore been organised for the following purposes: — 

"I. — To promote the general adoption of Scriptubal Principles in the 
arranffement of churches. 

** It. — ^To urge upon the Metropolitan and Diocesan Church Building So- 
cieties, the duty of applying their funds to the erection and endowment of 
churches in which the Privatb Appropriation of seats shall not be per- 

" III. — To induce individual churchmen to subscribe to the erection of 
churches, conditionally on their being 'Frbb and Open.' 

*' lY. — To assist (when desired) the Incumbents and congregations of exist- 
ing churches in the adoption of the Scriptural plan, by restoring them to the 
people, and substituting (where necessary) for pew rents a competent share of 
the Weekly Offertory. 

" y. — ^To promote the formation of a fund in every diocese, to be called 
* The Church's Restoration Fund,' in aid of this otgect 

^'YL — ^To obtain, by petitions to Parliament or otherwise, — (1.) the ap- 
pointment of Committees in both Houses, for inquiring into the fatal results 
of. the pew system upon the religion of the people ; (S.) an enactment pro- 
hibiting the assignment of any parochial district to a new church, until it has 
been secured in perpetuity as ti parish (i,e., a wholly free and unappropriated) 
ehurek to the inhabitants of the parish ; and (3.) suth further legislative reme- 
dies for tfie existing evil as Convocation may suggest. 

** Surely such a work must unite all classes and all parties of men. Surely, 
so widely spread a blessing as the throwing open our churches freely and en- 
tirely to all classes, ' without money and without price,' — a work which would 
move men*s secret consciences more than a thousand sermons, which would 
take the sting out of sectarianism and socialism, and draw together the dif- 
ferent ranks of society, so mistrustful of each other now, — surely, this is a 
work to unite and combine together for, ' Fw unita fortior.' May God 
rarosper it for the sake of His poor, who are always to be with us, and to whom 
lie would have His Gospel preached." 


Mkssbs. Clayton and Balls' five painted windows in the south clere- 
story of the nave of Westminster Abbey are an epoch in glass 
painting, from their size.their merit, and their locality. Advantage 
baa been judiciously taken of the opportunity to introduce that better 
style of figure-drawing which we have ever preached ; and the ten 
Prophets, whose stately forms have been handled by these artists, while 
sufficiently conventional, are neither distorted nor sentimental, nor 
feeble, stiff, and somewhat priggish, like the two effigies of Moses 
and Samuel in the first executed clerestory window (the nearest to the 
east), which we are glad to learn will soon be replaced by one in 
keeping with those last executed. Without entering into the broad 
question of muscular Christianity, we think that in some sense 
moBcular drawing is needful, if we are not to have the opposite quality 

VOL. XIX. o 

42 The Arehit^cMral ExMhitiofi. 

of eneirated sickliness; Such a eaUe is these windows*— so high abo^e 
head, and these artists have well carried out the argument. The bold<- 
ness with whidfi in some instances the hands of the figures project 
into the borders deserves praise. The coloration is generally distinct 
and harmonious, but we prefer the "Windows in which red dominates 
fib those in which blue leads. There seemed to us however to be a 
little too much strain after variety in the pattern inserted in the tracery. 
This is a case where monotony wovtld- have had tide good result of 
keeping the whole in balance. 

As a whole however we are greatly pleased with this glass bbtii- in 
itsetf and as (together with M. Gerec^e's glass at All Saint^ a protest 
against that over refinement of pose and colour and thinness of fea- 
l!ure-(}rawing into which the Hardman scl^ol is apt to run. 


The Architectural Exhibition is, we supp6s6, open for the last time in 
the Suffolk Street Gallery, as next year its removal to the future G«d- 
lery of the Architectmral Union Company kt Conduit Street is an- 

The leading features' of the Ecclesiologieal branch of this Exhibition 
66mpri^ a full selection of the Constantinople church designs, (for the 
rule of no drawings antecedently exhibited in London being ad- 
missible, is relaxed in fiavour of this and of the Public Office compe- 
titions), and the series of Messrs. Clutton and Burges's prize designs 
for Lille. We shall not re-enter the qnestion of any of these draw- 
ings, but only observe how sorry we are that the two first prize seta 
for Lille could not have appeared last year side by side. 

The Public Ofiice drawings shown are all but exclusively those of 
unsuccessful candidates, and reveal some secrets of the prison- hotue as 
to authorship. The less fortunate of the Gothic competitors, we may 
observe, han^ back from this re -exhibition. In other respects Eccle- 
siology is not so strongly represented as heretofore. Mr. Scott this 
year is wholly absent. 

Taking the numbers in the catalogue as they come. No. 6 divorced 
from its compeers 404 to 41 1, introduces us to the " Cathedral " which 
Messrs. Pugin and Murray are erecting for and dedicating to the " Arch- 
bishop " of Bruges, at Dadizeele. in Belgium. (Why two misnomers 
from Mr. Pugin, who ought to know that the cathedral at Bruges is 
the seat of its Bishop ?) The building is very ambitious, but not suc- 
cessful in proportion. The plan, if the apses were to be squared, 
would DC that of a Greek cross of three bays each way, with doubled 
aisles in the one nearest the lantern each way, the whole on a very 
small area of measurement, and yet carried out with triforium and 
clerestory. The high altar absolutely stands in the lantern, and the 
eastern bay is solidly screened off with a large elaborate architectural 

The Arcbiiectural ExUbiiian- .48 

cbaaae in the ap«e for the .relic or inmge in whoae honour ithis 
church U beiog huilt. Of xiboKtd arraagement cheve seems no .veatigr. 
ExteniaUy the iBntem is crowned by a inaas c^ Jittle flying buttresset 
and thinner pinnacles, foBming an open spire wholly devoid of dignity, 
aolidity, or repose. There is moreover another open steeple to Ihe sou^ 
, qf the laat, and standing a few feet detached from the ohuroh. The gene- 
nl style of the ohurdi is, we would obsenre, Barly Middle-Pointed, 
.and the plan is evidently modelled on the Z^ady Chapel at Treves. Bat 
the imitation fails» and we are sorry to see our £nglish mo^veipent .so 
represented, and specially by the bearer of the honoured nfime of 
Pugin in the land of Toumay, S. Gudule, and Mechlin. In .the 
Ulster Bank competition Messrs. Pugin and Murray appear with An 
Italian design : so much for the "architectural contrasts'* of xealiife. 
The chancel screen (41 3>) of the new Roman Catholic church At 
Shrewsbury, is shown under Mr. Pugin's sole name. 

We do. not know what meaning is attached to " xestoring" at S. 
Nicholas, Durham, but Messrs. Prichett and Son'j selected design 
.(g aud iOj) seems to ns very modem Middle-iPointed. Mr. iWigleyls 
.qhurch for New Orleans (22) is mere Italian Romanesque. Mr. Jones's 
chapel submitted for the Proprietary College, Cheltenham, is veigr 
poor. Mr. J. G. Stapleton's proposed Congregational church at Wands- 
worth '(3d) will, if it is ever raised, be a thing to look .at — how far to 
imitate is .another matter, composed, as it .proposes to be. of a .circular 
body* set round with huge gables or little radiating : transepts, .and 
•decked with a pair of steeples in »a sort of Pointed. Mr. Nort(^ 
Ahows a tower.and spire he proposes to add to-Christchurch,rCliftan 
X^Q)* in .vrhich :the poorness of Ihe original First-Pointed building has 
.evidently 4;ramped his invention. 

In 41 f by Mr. Burges, we. have, a design evidently intended 

iculated to challenge attention, in a fountain designed tfor .Qloucester» 

and planted in the midst of an ideal mediaeval town, (founded on the 

Ustocy of Sabrina, as told by Geoffrey of Monmouth. The first sight 

.of this. drawing is.not the most £avouiable, from a sort of pre-Raphaal- 

]ite crudity in the colour, but on minuter inspection the boldness with 

phiah the oeptral column, and the two tiers of .multifoiled basins whi^h 

.compose 'the rtypal fountain are translated into Pointed,, merits great 

.praise. The profusion of sculptured groups invites one's fears con- 

.oeming the whole legend of Locinus' unhappy daughter. Ho wean 

they escape aaimpenetrable coat of dank moss ? The, quaint frogs spout* 

.ing. out; the .water might be termed grotesque, >but the, naiads carved in 

relief on the lower basin are very graceful. As an antiquarian exerci* 

tation.this drawing not only in ,it6 main feature, but in the group .of 

.building which fills up the sheet of vellum, betokens long and pains- 

•taking study. Let Mr. Burges, with his great ability and knowledge. 

avoid as he has hitherto done, mistaking eccentricity for pawer, and 

he- is on the high road to lasting eminence. 

Mr. NichoU's iron, church (4^) is an excellent model what to aToid 
tin auch a building. 

Mr. Street's lebuikling of HBgley Church (46) and )iia cluster ,of 
t(Mshools.(l49) arehardlytadequate embodiments pMiis tident. 

44 The Architectural Exhibition. 

Mr. Slater exhibits Ids restorations of the stately church of S. Bar- 
tholomew (48), Higham Ferrers (14^). and Westoning^ (391). 

Mr. Truefitt offers a public drinking place for the parks (50) which 
has the advantage of being simple, appropriate, and artistic ; it is com- 
posed of a wall of moderate height containing the pipes, with a low 
stone bench table with the tanks on either side, and a light iron canopy 
over each, the style being an unpretending Pointed. He also shows 
schools in Wales, additions to a country-house, and the Irvingite church 
at Wajre (101, to 103). What the building of the memorial church at 
Malaga may be, with the interior of which Mr. James re-appears (54) 
we cannot say, but we conclude it is Roman Catholic, while we are 
certain that it is in geometrical Middle- Pointed, and composed of a 
nave without aisles, with open timber roof, and a groined chancel, the 
side -windows being of two lights. There is also a chancel- screen with 
the rood, S. Mary and S. John. 

On the cartoon of one, and the first of all the clerestory windows at 
Westminster Abbey, by Messrs. Clayton and Bell, (63 and 1^7) we 
are silent, noticing as we have 'done the actual windows, but we are 
very glad to see them here. The drawing of a Jesse window, by the 
same artists, at Cattistock church, Dorsetshire, merits great praise* 

Messrs. Jones and Barber submit (64) an ambiguous " design for the 

proposed Roman Catholic church of SS. , Ireland," not stating that 

it is to be built. It inevitably recalls Messrs. Lee and Jones's com- 
petition for Lille, and through that All Saints, Margaret Street. It is 
at once poor and extravagant, and comprising transepts sprouting out 
of the middle of the main building, and an apsidal chancel projecting 
out of the end. There is a lofty steeple moreover, another of an open 
character, and around tower, and appended buildings exaggerated from 
the original, with a poor open cloister to the street, the whole like that 
being in red brick. 

Mr. Digby Wyatt exhibits the original design for a church now 
erecting in another style near Brent wood« Essex (90), with gabled aisles, 
and an arcade of pointed arches, subarcuated in two divisions, with a 
quatrefoil pierced in the spandrils. This is ingenious, but it is not 
successful compared with the graceful simplicity of the normal arcade. 
In 406 and 409, we find the interior and exterior by the same archi- 
tect, of an iron church, designed for the East India Company, and sent 
out to Rangoon, to hold nine hundred persons, constructed by Messrs. 
Tupper. The plan is dominated by the adoption of the cellular prin- 
ciple, and exhibits a series of depressed curves, while we fear the mul- 
tiplication of tracery in iron must prove a rather expensive item. 

Mr. Ashpitel's new church near Cardigan, among the ruins of S. 
Dogmael's Abbey, (99) ought surely to have borrowed more dignity 
from its site. 

Mr. Papworth shows a very pretty sketch, intended to prove that a 
series of changes of style may be carried out in a building without de- 
stroying its artistic unity. He supposes a structure which began with 
Romanesque, passed through Italian, Gothic, and ended with Louis- 
XV. Unluckily for the proof we never can forget, that one person 

The Architectural Exhibition, 45 

elaborated all these varietieB at the same period* and that all were fore- 
cast to support each other. 

In Mr. £. B. Lamb's chapel for the City of London Hospital for 
Diseases of the Chest, Victoria Park, (94) is a three-light west win- 
dow, so deeply recessed as to admit of buttresses against the lower 
portion of the muUions not projecting beyond ; apsidal transepts, and 
a square east end. 

A marine chateau, by Messrs. Priehard and Seddon (98,) ought 
rather to be termed a viUa in Italianizing Gothic. Mr. Swanborough's 
fire-proof church (90,) might afford some suggestions for a swimming 

Mr. Hopkins' chapel of ease of S. Barnabas, at Drakes Broughton, 
near Pershore, (105, 301) is simple but rather bam-like in the draw- 
ing at least, an effect augmented by the cross, which is stilted into the 
roof upon a beam standing so high as to resemble (perhaps to act as) 
a special tie. 

Mr. Warcy's design for a cathedral choir (1^4) is a gaudy but un- 
satisfactory study in an Italianizing development of Romanesque. Mr. 
Clarke shows his restoration of Ardington church, Berks ( 1 30.) 96 and 
143 are Mr. White's very chei^ church at Smannell. Mr. W. Smith's 
reredos of S. Andrew's, Norwich (1 55), is the old-fashioned mistake 
of niches without figures. An anonymous exhibitor lumps a Pointed 
design for the Ulster bank, and one not sent in for the Memorial 
church, in 340. The latter building is in stiff Middle-Pointed with 
some flamboyant elements. We may here simply note the presence in 
the exhibition of numerous designs for the above bank. The Blackburn 
Infirmary and the Islington Vestry Hall show various phases of Italian. 
Mr. Laws' '' Wesleyan church, at Highbury,'' (363) tries to look as like 
a church as possible with aisles, clerestory, and a sort of chancel with 
a pulpit standing in the middle. Mr. C. H. Edward's " Architectural 
phenomenon" (364) is a couple of small cemetery chapels to hold fifty 
persons each, massed under two gables and built of " shag," i.e., iron 
atone refuse for £447 at Ripley, Derbyshire. This gentleman need not 
have exhibited his work so grandiloquently. With the material on the 
spot there is nothing so phenomenal about it, and even the blunder of 
making one building of the two chapels is unluckily too common to 
meet such a designation. The Browdon church restoration competition 
(Cheshire) is a case in which competition was not the right thing. 
The original building, of which a drawing is given, had Elizabethan 
windows in the nortib aisle of so picturesque and characteristic a date 
and form, that enlightened eclecticism would have called for the selec- 
tion of an experienced architect to carry out a conservative restoration : 
instead, the whole thing has been thrown upon a mixture of ri/aeci' 
mento, in coldly orthodox Perpendicular, and of audacious rebuilding in 
questionable Middle-Pointed. We wish the managers well through 
tiieir dilemma. Mr. Lewis Andre's town church (290) is another 
variation of All Saints.' 

The Crimean monument at ShefGield, and the Brotherton monument 
at Salford, are two competitions affording our architects the means of 
showing how far they have profited in the designing of external monu- 

46 Tie ArchiiecUiral Esihibitum. 

jKienta. .Of .all the fiftooi ftpo^nens hepe ^own Mr. Ooldie's priae 
design at Sheffield stands undoubtedly on the ^xsC line, but os.we notice 
jt elsewhere we pass to>the other designs. 

The remaining design«, generally speaking, present modifications of 
-the market, and <« Eleanor/' cross types; and without any.dbtiaguish- 
iing merits, serve as indices to the growing 4Aste for medimml art, 
which can select Gothic as the style in which to .commemorate ao 
'^' modern " a man, and the pastor to boot of an obscure sect, as the 
Jate worthy and good-natured Mr. Brotherton. I^ron our praises we 
:must except the outrageous oariosture submitted for the two monu- 
ments by a Mr. J. B. Watson, (553 and 554.) 

Mc. Robinaon'is Brotherton design attempts a rather flat canopy of 
Italian tHointed. We do not think he is vc^ry successful in this, oria 
•an iron canopy shown 4n another part c^.the Exhibition. 

Among tl^ (twenty «t wo sketches ishowfi las usual together by the 
" Class of Design *' of the Architectural Association, (347^) we.sqleot 
4br peculiar praise Mr. P. Webb's covesed market for a country tawa. 
.indicating -a oather dose, but successful .study of Mr. Street's st|4e ; « 
ipublic fountain,, by the isame geptleman ; a picturesque iron Yemndah 
(And balcony, by Mr. B. .N. Shaw ; and a vevy simple, but sensible 
tand istriking public market, by Mr. B. Druce, in which the nonnal 
idea df a roof suppovted on .wooden posts .has been .excellently de- 

We pass ever the Moresoo competition forrmaking a sort of Crystal 
Palace of the stables fit the Pavilion, /Brighton. What Eaton Hall 
imust onae>have .been, when its modification by Mr. Bum .(3S6) is .so 
.bad, we ceally cannot trust oucseli^es to guess. We ihope Messia. 
Baillie and Co.'s deiign, of paintedglass,l6r thetUprth transept windonr 
lOfvCsf lisle. Cathedsal, will not be osrried out. /It is very poor^mosaic 
iglass, withra vulgar dove. on. a^ yellow gik>ry,i glaring out «f ithe^eye of 
the rose tin rthe tracery. We are glad ;to jee.-M^ €K>l^'flaBeni.4^ 
isigns ; but, ASithey ilie «a the stable, theyjmay ibe «ve«loo)Eied. 

To theipi&etioal' branch of the Exhibition, Messis. HardiaanAodHait 
•^DCilarge oontributoiStOf metal*wofk, indicating a* condition of statioor 
taryart.on both sides. A-smaU, trunk-shaped jewel-oaae, of iron, d^ 
^signed by -Mr. fiur;ges,iWorked by Mr. Potter, and painted jrith Peniginc^ 
.like miniatures .of subjects having ref^ence to the <gQldsmith.*s mdA 
jeweller's arts, by Mr. £. Pointer, '(449,) deserves to be partioulaxl|r 
•remarked. It stands among the specimens of Constantinc^otitaa 
marbles collected by Mr. Burgee. We -are sorry that the 'facsimile 
-of the mosaic painted glass of the mosleaw, which Mr.iBuiges and *}At. 
Winston had executed by Mr. Laxrers, is placed >so ill as^to. be almost 
-imperceptible. While it proves :the jeweUlike richness of the original, 
it also proves that it does .not lend itself toChristian. reproduction. Ite 
differentia cooststs in its not being leaded, but pnttogedier ..with oemeiit 
iprojeoting some, inches inwardly, so. as to produce a play of colours. oa 
the recesses of the sides of each cell. This, of course,! cannot be com- 
:bined ! with tracery. 

In condasion, we >miist .point .wiUi isatisfaetion .to the .number ^of 
-ooanpetitiofis pf iwhiah !the axhibition coptains specimens. ^Whale^sr 

Nwrwegietm Etdenohfff. 47 

the ittdWidiMi; ments of sereral of thesb may be^ ttio whole mns ik hi ^ 
Btmctive in itself, and points to a healthful e6nditi«tf of adtttity in the 
lurdiitectaral world. 

The ArehiteotnrBl and Pbotograpfaioal Society eizhihits itv eoHcotiwi 
in Che same gi^ery. We wteh att Mieebae to the n)6w ftiatitolAbii, only 
9iig|^Ag, that its utility wo^ild b« kicveaaed if il giupo new aal wvlii a# 
•ofeient buildio^a^ 


To m Sdttct &/ the Sc^tendtogUt. 

Dbab Mb. Bditob, — You announced many months ago the receipt, 
from my' valued fnend Professof Nlunch ot Christiania, of a collection 
of the Tran^actioner 6f dn Antiquari&n ''' Assoeiation,'^ established ^ere, 
lunrin^ for its laudalile and ihost useful object ttie '^preservation of the 
Memorials of Norwegian Antiqtiiti6s," aiid that I had undertaken to 
took ovef the ikme, atd forward to you some liccount of their con- 

The parcel eontaidiiig these publications did not reach me imme-^ 
diately, and first, octeupafion, and then the temptations of a Swiss 
summer, hate interfered until now with hiy intentions of endeavour- 
ing to Comply with your Request in this particular. But having now 
no longef eitiier excuse to urge, I proceed to fulfil my promise, in the 
hope that yon and your readers have not quite forgotten the subject of 
H, and that I may succeed in sbo^hig, from these Veiy interesting 
collections, how much of first-rate interest, with reference to our 
favourite ttudy, still remain^ in the fiords and ravine-like valleys of 
Gamle Norge, notwithstandlilig the destructive deformation practised 
there, ik^ well as dseWhere, by the promoters of the Protestant Refor- 
btttion, ai well as the dare ^hich is How being taken to preserve from 
further decay and desecr&ti6n such venerable, beautiful, and instruc- 
tive remains^ which seem for us to have peculiar attractions, from the 
fiict of so much of Norwegian Eoclesiology having been dmved with 
the Christianity of her ancestry from England — a beautiful illustration 
ef Evangelical revenge-^in return for the fearful ravages on the rich 
Bnglisfa coast line, and interior evtaj perpettAfed by the heathen Noi'Ae 
^ver* and B^r^erkr. 

The collection of publications I have before me consists of the 
Annual Reports of the above *' Association/* from lS47 to 1864 in- 
dosive. Several long folio numbers of engravings of timber and stone 
akkWcA^i sites of ruined reUgious houses, and architectural details of 
Ihe sane ; ecdMiastiM fumitare and ormmedts, and tecnla^ imtiqua^ 
Uttti 6b}e<stk i and Itotljr, « 0mall hatid-book, or datalogii^, of the antl- 
qildflan retniLins of a^t and handicrsift in Norway f^om the Middle Ages. 

I have no means of enabling me to offer any account of the origin 
of the *' Association ** in question, nor of stating positively how kmg it 

48 Norwegian EecUriohgy. 

has been m operation, although there seems reason to assume that it 
was founded in 1845. The earliest of the yearly Reports, or publi- 
cations, forwarded to me by you, date, as I have said, from 1847, and 
recounts the proceedings under its auspices of the preceding year. It 
gives also (as do all the other Reports for the years they refer to) a 
fii^^^pHfil statement for the years 1845 and 1846 ; a list of its members, 
amountiog in 1846 to 816 ; and the laws of the Society. From the 
latter I may offer a translation of § 1, stating the objects of the Society, 
which are : 

** To discover, examine, and preserve memorials of Norwegian Antiquity, 
especially such as illustrate the popular artistic powers and feeling for art 
in olden time, as well as to make such objects known generally to the 
publis by drawings and deicriptions. The Umon, so far as its means extend, 
will assist journeys in the fatherland, and encourage the publication of works 
calculated to further the above-named objects." 

No one, who has paid any attention to this subject, can close his 
eyes to the great advantage such a Society would be in every country, 
and how much of the beautiful and appropriate productions of their 
forefathers, appertaining to all branches of art, and especially to such 
as have reference to Ecclesiology, might even at this late age, and in 
every country, thus be saved from the ignorant destruction of the 
people. With us, Antiquarian and Ecclesiological Societies supply 
this want in a greater or less degree ; but they do so only indirectly. 
The above are not their first and distinctive objects, and very much of 
interest is therefore destroyed and lost, whilst the absence of all 
central or regal authority for the preservation of antiquarian dis- 
coveries, occasions the greater part of such treasure trove to be frit- 
tered away in private collections, and finally to be again totally lost to 
the country or the world. 

It may be interesting and useful further to note the list which 
appears in this and the succeeding Reports of the " Antiquarian arti- 
cles, respecting which the Union, &c., especially desires to receive in- 
formation,*' and to observe how large a proportion of these comes dis- 
tinctly under the head of Ecclesiology* It runs as follows : 

'* Remarkable ecclesiastical buildings of stone or wood. Of the last-named 
sort, especially the so-called timber churches, {stavekirker,) with the orna- 
ments of painting and sculpture belonging thereto, as well as ancient inscrip- 
tions in Runes or Latin letters ; inventories of church furniture, altars, pio- 
tnres or pieces, images of saints, church bells, thuribles, reliquaries, chalii>es» 
fonts and baptismal vessels, (dobefade,) sculptured chairs, and articles of that 
sort ; old dwelling-houses of remarkable forms, (stabbure,) with their orna- 
ments and descriptions ; remains of ancient buildings, which may give infor- 
mation respecting the amount of architectural art in the Middle Ages, such as 
church rains and ornaments belonging thereto ; old house furniture of wood, 
stone, or metal, as high chairs of state, and other chairs; tables, presses, chests, 
drinking-horns, and other drinking-vessels, cellars, and the like ; moanmental 
stones, (fiautastene,) and stones with Runic inscriptions, stone crosses, and 
old gravestones ; remarkable banners and cairns ; objects found in barrows* 
such as funeral urns, weapons, implements, ornaments, idols or amulets, and 
similar things; the same sort of articles preserved from antiquity; cerns» 
bridal ornaments, parchment documents with seals.'* 

Norwegian Ecclesiolofftf. 49 

The report for 1846 (dated 1847,) givetf a short account of the 
▼ariouB works which had been undertaken by the society, and especially 
with regard to the excavation of the ruins of the Oistercian Convent of 
Hovedon in the Christiania Fiord : a religious house of eminence* be- 
longing to that order, and founded a.d. 1147, by an English brother 
from Linooln. The results of these works are referred to more par- 
ticularly in the repcurt for 1849 aA»r their completion, but a short de- 
scription of the ruins of the convent appears in this report, as a guide 
to visitora, who seem to have been very numerous, and often much in 
the way whilst the works of ezcavatiop were proceeding. The pre- 
sent report contains further a riiort account of an accompanying plate 
(partly coloured,) of a very elegant enamelled and gilt latten altar 
candlestick, belongiog to Uru8ss church in Ludre parish, resembling 
Tcry much one figured in Archaoloffia Briiamueoy Vol. xziiL p. S^% 
referred there to the oommenoemsnt of the 12th century, to which 
date the workBianship and ornamentation of the Norwegian candk-i 
stick very evidently also belong. 

The report for 1847 shows an increase of fifty-one members, and 
presents two projects of rules, for the formation of affiliated " unions," 
for the same objects as the parent society, in various districts of liie 
kingdom, which is recommended with the view of their noting and 
preserving* either by record, drawkig, or actual collection^ any smaller 
antiquarian objects, whilst the parent association devoted its efforts to 
more costly undertakings, such as the excavation, preservation from 
further decay, or restoration of ruined churches, &c. In addition 
therefore to the excavation of the ruins of Hovedon Convent, referred 
to previously, the society had now determined on excavating the ruins 
of the cathednd church of Hammar and ita precincts. 

As to the former of these works, it was completed during 1847, but 
it must be noted with disapproval, as contrary as well to true anti- 
quarian as to religious principles, that the prosecution of the works 
was assisted by the sale of much of the building stone found in the 

With regard to Hammar Cathedral, a partial commencement had 
been made in the excavation of the choir, in which a silver and a gold 
ring, each set with a stone, and a chalice and paten of a ferrugineous 
metallic compound were discovered. 

One or two other works of less interest are reported to have been 
undertaken, or in contemplation, and the demands are recounted 
which were coming in from all sides for asnstance, in examining and 
preserving antiquities, or for undertaking at the society's sole expense 
such w(»ks. The society seems to have evinced no disinclination to 
enter into these proposals, but to have been deterred by a want of dis- 
posable scientific and artistic force to do so : and the copying and de- 
scription of all the Norwegian Runic inscriptions, is put forward as one 
of the most important and interesting works. 

The report concludes with the description of the contents of two 
Bishq>'s graves, which had been laid open in repairing the pavement 
of Throndhjem Cathedral. The graves were closed again with the 
human remains they held, but a gold ring, the remains of two epis- 


50 Norwegian Ecclmohgy. 

copal pastoral staves, and a leaden cbalice and paten, with some less 
important objects which were found with them, were removed. 

The report for 1848 commences with a short notice of the result of 
the excavations at the ruins of a small church or chapel at Husely, in 
fiorsen parish, diocese of Throndhjem, undertaken by the Throndhjem 
Branch Association, and to which a subscription was made by the 
Parent Association. The result appears to have been of little import- 
ance. It may be interesting however, to note that the chapel walls of 
about four feet in thickness had been double, the intervening space 
having been filled with a mass, composed of fragments of stone, clay, 
and gravel. The date of this chapel is supposed to have been as old 
as the middle of the 12th century. 

Several other works of more or less importance are mentioned as 
being under consideration for the support of the association, and 
amongst them the restoration of a stone cross at Hougesund, for which 
a subscription had been voted. On the other hand, the proposals to 
promote the purchase of an ancient now desecrated timber church or 
chapel at Floan in Stordalen, and of the ruins of Munkeley church, in 
Skogn parish, both in the diocese of Throndhjem, were rejected firom 
the seemingly very insufficient reason that they had been only chapels 
of ease or district churches. 

The report concludes with an account of a journey undertaken by 
M. A. Nicolaysen and Architect Hotterman, who had offered their 
services in promoting in any way the objects of the association^ which 
in accepting the offer, allotted a small sum to be at the disposal of 
these gentlemen, in accordance with the laws of the association. The 
money was not spent, but Mr. Nicolaysen communicated to the as- 
sociation his notes during the journey, and Mr. Hotterman presented 
them with certain drawings he had made. 

Mr. Nicolaysen's notes, although valuable as information for the 
association regarding antiquities but little known, do not contain mnch 
of general interest. I may mention the somewhat surprising fact, that 
he and his companion appear to have made during their journey, the 
discovery for the first time of the fact, that the roofs of churches must 
have generally in old time, been open instead of ceiled over, as appears 
now to be the case in most Norwegian churches. Certain stone 
churches at Odde, Ullinsvang, Kinnservik, and Eidfjord, are stated to 
bear marks of English workmanship, and to deserve examination and 
drawing : and the ruins of Lysekloster, the first Cistercian monastery 
in Norway, and founded by an English brother of the order from 
Fountains Abbey,) is declared to show proofs of great care and ex- 
penditure in the construction of the buildings. The ruins of S. Olafa 
and S. Mary's church (still used) at Bergen, are noted as very re- 
markable, the former forming part of the cathedral as it would appear, 
and the latter seemingly being of the Basilica type, and of course of 
Romanesque design and date— of which Mr. Nicolaysen says it is the 
only complete example among Norwegian churches. 

The association received thirty-six new members in the year 1848. 

The report for 1849 is chiefly occupied by the report of the archi- 
tect appointed by the association, on the proposed restoration of the 

Nondeffian Ecclemlogy. 61 

Timber Church of Hitterdal, evidently one of the most conaideraUe of 
these curious structures in Norway, and which to judge from the single 
engraving of the interior which accompanies the report, was destined to 
be, generally speaking, of a judicious character. But I would remark, 
that the architect proposed to replace the existing flat ceiling which 
had been constructed at little more than half the original height of the 
church, by another flat ceiling at the full height, and it also appears 
that the architect recommends, and the association approve of, the 
opening-of windows in what ought to have been the clerestory of the 
church, but which had been cut off from it by the existing ceiling 
being placed at so low a level. Without more detailed plans, and 
especially of the state of the church before restoration, it may be difli- 
cult to criticize with justice or certainty M. Nebelong*8 proposals. 
But it would seem as if it would have certainly been preferable to ar« 
range for the roof being thrown entirely open, as it doubtless was 
originally, and as the observations of MM. Nicolaysen and Hitterman 
alluded to in the notice of the preceding year's report, prove to have 
been the general custom in these timber churches of antiquity, as well 
as in all other unvaulted churches. As to the opening the clerestory 
it appears to be an admissible alteration, even if original provision had 
not been made for such an arrangement previous to the barbarous in- 
sertion of the existing low ceiling. 

The present report concludes by a short view of the history of the 
Convent of Hovedon in the Bay of Christiania, and a description of its 
ruins, the excavation of which formed, it will be recollected, the first 
great work of the association. 

Hovedon was the second founded Cistercian convent in Norway, and 
owed its origin to an English brother of the order from Kirkstead 
in Lincolnshire. It was dedicated to the Holy Virgin and S. Edmund, 
and was founded in 1 147. It was destroyed by King Frederick I. of 
Denmark, by fire in 1 532, in consequence of the Abbot, Hans, having 
taken part with his rival. King Christian II. and was of course never 

The plates of the ruins, &c. accompanying liie present report, con* 
sist of a ground plan, a chart of the isle, and a plate of architectural 
details found there. 

The ground-plan shows the usual arrangement of a conventual build* 
ing of ^e above order, although it appears to present some diflicultiea 
in assigning the uses for all the remains discovered. The nave and the 
western portion of the choir appear to have been the most ancient parts 
of the church, and probably of the conventual buildings ; and the for- 
mer to have constituted the first chapel of the monastery. The nave 
presents a very unusual arrangement, namely, that it was divided into 
two aisles by three massive square piers, forming three bays, of which 
the two westernmost were equal, whilst the easternmost pier was situated 
at the break of the sanctuary, which must, therefore, have opened 
into the nave by a double arch — the third bay being thus larger than 
the two others. The foundations of these piers remain, as well as 
proofs of the sites of three altars, — one west of the centre pier ; one in 
^ lipe with this against the north wall, and one in the north-east comer 

52 Norwegian Ecdenology. 

of tlie iiave« but all facing east, — ^not as in the present Roawn-Gatliolic 
use. I have seen the same arrangemeut of a central row of pieri in the 
island of Gothland, where the mined S. George's chuEch, at Wisby, 
shows exactly the same remains, with the exception of the altars west 
of the centre pier and against the north wall ; but there most have 
been an altar in the sooth«-east, as well as in the north-east corner of the 

Fold churchj in Gothland, which is still in use, also presents a simi- 
lar construction ; the nave being divided in the centre by two delicate 
Romanesque piers, supporting pointed arches, and the chancel- opening 
being likewise double, but with round arches. 

As regards the style and masonry of the church of Hovedon, the 
older portions are declared to show plain evidence of having been care- 
fully constructed in the Anglo-Norman style proper to its date, and the 
nationality of its founders ; and the plate of architectural details fully 
confirms this : whereas the more recent portions of the choir maaifeat 
much less care, and show that brick was then used both for windows 
and for vaulting, — fragments of the trefoiled ribs of the latter being 
found in quantities in the ruins, which was not the case in the old 

The description of the plates contains much of interest with regard 
to the former uses of the (Afferent remains of the convent. 

Twenty-two new members joined the Association in 1849. 

The Report for 1850 is almost wholly occupied by the statement of 
the proceedings of the Association with regard to the Restoration of 
the timber church of Hitterdal resulting in the decision which was come 
to. that they would not only undertake the responsibility of the same, 
but contribute largely to the requisite funds in receiving certain eontribn- 
tions from the parish and from the peculiarly Norwegian functionary, the 
church's owner, (Kirkeeiere) who by the by in this case seems to have 
been a liberal and right-thinking man, {Hahor Olsen Engran by name) 
and to have contributed about a third of the sum required, or 1200 
specie dollars = £240. The necessary sum having been subscribed, 
the works were commenced, and had advanced very nearly to com- 
pletion before the end of the year,-^the plans of Architect Nebeloog 
having been followed out. 

The Association subscribed towards this work about 1500 ^ecie 
dollars, (about £300) payable in two years, and for their small means 
it was evidently a very serious undertaking, which was conducted in a 
judicious and liberal spirit for a highly important purpose. They were 
fsvoured in being thoroughly supported by the authorities both of the 
parish and of the government, as well as by the public feeling ; not- 
withstanding that, in so Protestant a country as Norway, the work 
of restoration included external crosses, an altar-table of correct size, 
(altarbord) properly vested at the east end, raised on a foot-pace, and 
surmounted by a huge cross some ten or twelve feet high, and the filling 
of four niches with equally colossal figures of saints. What a con- 
trast with the incidents of our own now long past and mostly forgotten 
work of church restoration ! 

Five more plates of remains from Hovedon accompany the report. 

Norwegian Ecelesioloffy. 53 

three of which show capitals, hases, bosses, and brackets, and the 
section and details of a plain square piscina on an octagonal shaft 
of early First- Pointed date ; and the two others fine coloured repre- 
sentations of full and quarter-size of some of the encaustic tiles found 
in the ruins, — all being of two colours, — the geometrical and foliage 
patterns being as usual of good design, whilst those containing figures 
are almost always grotesque, and in one instance absolutely unseemly 
and objectionable. 

Twenty-seven new members joined the Association in 1850. 

The report for 1851 commences by announcing tbe completion of 
the restoration of Hitterdal church, and detailing the progress of the 
work, which occupied fifteen months in all, the alterations it was 
fonnd necessary to make in architect Nebelong's first designs, and 
snch discoveries as to the' original construction of the church as the 
restbiation laid bare. One of these last consisted in the proof that was 
plainly afibrded of there having originally been no ceiling but an open 
roof, and the report takes occasion from this and other facts to express 
their regret that it was necessary to keep in view not only the correct 
reatoration of the church, but also the necessity of its adaptation to the 
requirements of a modem congregation, who in this instance had 
become used to a flat ceiling. Evidence appears also to have been 
found of the sqnaie west tower having been an addition or alteration, 
and to have' been constructed to serve as a bell- tower, instead of what 
originally was a round tower, like those over the chancel and apse, 
which appeared not to have sufFered any alteration. Tbe two en- 
gravings of the exterior and interior of the church as restored, re- 
ferred to in tiie notes on the report for 1849, accompany this 

The report continues to mention other instances of its activity 
during 1851, from which may be selected for notice the causing a 
drawing and description to be made of a small timber dwelling- 
house still in use, which is situated at Stensund, in the Dahl district, 
was built in 1S94» and has been for seven generations in the possession 
of the family of the present owner. Captain Golbjomsen ; as also the 
announcement of a penny (shitting) subscription towards the restoration 
of Throndhjem cathedral. 

A list of the members of the Association in March, 1859, amounting 
to 787, eondodes the report. 

The Report for 1852 commences with a long relation of the prb- 
oeedittgfl commenced by the Association, to prevent the destruction 
and promote the restoration of the ancient stone church of Aker, near 
Christiania, which had been resolved upon by the parish. l*he negotia- 
tions seem to have been difficult and prolonged, and the parish to have 
been excessively illiberal, and to have demanded no less a sum than 
8,000 sp. d. (£900,) for the old church, which they were prepared 
otherwise to pull down. The negotiations were still proceeding at 
the end of the year; but this Association had directed, as a precau- 
tiimary measure, that drawings of the church should be made. 

Moved by an alteration of the law, by which all new churches in 
Norway were pla6ed under the direction of the churchwardens, (in- 

54 Norwegian Eccksiology. 

8tead» as I conclude, of belonging as hitherto to private persons, or 
kirkeeierct) the Association foreseeing much increased activity in repair- 
ing and altering, or pulling down old churches, addressed a circular to the 
diocesan boards, requesting them to inform the Association of any such 
work being contemplated ; and several churches are mentioned, alte- 
rations in which had been in consequence reported to the Association. 
One of these communications regarded the very ancient church of 
Moster, in South Bergenhus Ampt, which required enlargement. This 
it was decided to effect by converting the existing charch into the 
chancel, and adding a new nave. This ancient church is stated, in a 
note, to be in all probability the oldest Norwegian church, and to have 
been built by Olaf Tryggvason, on visiting Moster, in 996, and on the 
very spot where he had ordered mass to be celebrated on his arrival 
from England. The building is described to be composed of a porch 
10 ells by 6, a nave 13 ells by IS, and a chancel 6 ells square, to have 
neither vaults nor tower, and that the bells were hang under the roof. 
Unfortunately no further description is given of this very interesting 

The other restorations and preservations of objects of antiquity from 
destruction, referred to in the Report, as having been effected in 
1852 by the Society, or as communicated to it, are of secular interest, 
if exception may be made as to certain encaustic tiles found' in the 
oldest church in Mecklenburgh, and which from their similarity to 
those found at Hovedon, had been supposed to ori^nate from Norway, 
from whence tradition held that Mecklenburg had been evangelized : 
but according to the opinion of Mr. J. Kemble, had been certunly de- 
rived from England, whence also, as we have seen, those from Hovedon 

A list of the drawings possessed by the Society is appended, one 
hundred and eighteen in number, and shows many articles of interest 
besides those which have been published, and which the Association 
have so liberally presented to our Society. 

The Report concludes with the account of the opening and contents 
of a certain barrow which had been examined, at Borre parsonage, 
near Christiania, and which appear to have presented certain facts of 
historical interest, but none of a nature to find place properly in the 

The Report for 1853 contains less of ecclesiological interest than 
those for the preceding years. It appears from it, however, that steps 
had been taken by the Association, in furtherance of the judicious 
restoration by the local authorities, as funds and opportunity might 
serve, of Bergen Cathedral, and of S. Mary*s church there, and that 
the owners of the ruins of Haromar Cathedral had been urged by the 
Association to relieve them from the desecration of a pigstye, which 
had been established there, as well as to inclose them, and preserve 
them from further decay. 

The Association likewise had interfered to preserve, as far as possi- 
ble, the antiquarian interest of the remarkable timber church of Borgund, 
in Loerdal, which it was proposed by the parish to repair, and an effort 
was made to obtain for the museum of Bergen certain antiquities, not 

Sequeniia Inedit4B. 55 

more particnlarly mentioned, which it appears were preserved in the 

No answer appears to have heen received hy the Association to any 
of the ahove applications. 

The Report concludes, hy mentioning the unfortunate appearance 
of a species of fungus, or dry rot, in the newly erected Hitterdal 
church, together with other faults of construction, in consequence of 
which the rain entered the building, and the pretension of the parish 
and church owners that the Association was bound to make good these 
defects. The result was that the Association utterly repudiated all 
such obligation, but offered to contribute a sum towards the necessary 
supplementary repairs ; and, unfortunately enough, to add thereto, the 
sum which it had been reckoned the images of the four Evangelists 
would cost, which it had been determined to place in the four niches 
over the choir arch facing the nave. 

Only eight new members joined the association in 1853. 

Two interesting plates of architectural details, chiefly consisting of 
First-Pointed capitfds from the ruins of Hovedon, accompany this re- 
port. Amongst them are representations of moulded bricks, used 
either for mullions or for vaulting- tiles. 

I hope to finish my notes of these Norwegian publications in your 
next number. 

Yours very faithfully, 

G. J. R. Gordon. 


Wx have received, through the great kindness of our valued friend, 
Q. J. R. Gordon, Esq., Her Majesty's Minister at Bern, a transcript of 
the SequentiaU of Joachim Brander, monk of the Abbey of S. Gall. It 
had been consulted, and in part used, by Dr. Daniel, in the fifth volume 
of his Hymnologia ; but many of its treasures are now opened to us for 
the first time, — and we cannot do better than employ the present paper 
in making a part of them known to our readers. 

The abbey of S. Gkll, the home of S. Notker Balbulus, the inventor 
of Sequences, was of course the head-quarters of their science and their 
practice. Francis de Gaisperg, abbat from 1504 to 15^9, entrusted 
one of his monks, Joachim Brander, in 1507, with the task of collect* 
ing and editing a complete collection of hymns, sequences, and anti- 
phons. Brander performed his task with diligence ; and the esteem in 
which the completed work was held — it was finished in 1510 — is amply 
testified by the sumptuous manner in which a copy, now lost, is said to 
have been illuminated and adorned, by order of the abbat. 

The authors mentioned are : S. Notker, Tutilo, Hartmannus, Wal- 
tramnus, Ekkehardus. In later times : Abbat Francis himself ; Jacobus 
Schurf, a monk of S. Gall ; Joannes Longus, Gustos Sci. Galli, Lau- 
rentius Concionator in S. Galli Monasterio ; Adamus Canonicus Sancti 

66 Sequeniia Inedita. 

VictorU; Ludovicus Moser, CarthusianuB ; Seliastianus Brand; H^« 
ricus Keller ; Joannes River. 

We will proceed to give tlie chief matters as they oona in order. 

The seqaence Congaudent Angelarum chori gloriota VirguU (Daniel, 
II. 31. Glichtovaeas, 200.) 

A FARCBD Sanctus. In Festo Pur^cationis B, V. M, 

Sancitu qui prophetizatuf, 
Sanctus Deus Incarnatas, 
Sanctus de Marii Natu«,^ 
£t in mundo conversatusy* 
Not redemit pretio. 
DonUnus Deus Sabaoth. Pleni sunt codi H terra gknid tui. 
Qui de Virgine MariA» 
Qui coelorum vere viam 
Nobis nunc aperuit. 
Hosanna in ewcelsis, 

Benedictuf Maris Natns, 
Qui ad templum reportatus, 
Es in nomine Domini. 
Hosanna in exeelsis. A^us Det, qui toUis peceaia numdi, miserere 
nobis. Agnus Deif qw tolUs peeeata nmndh dona nobis pacem. 

A FARCXD Agnus Dbi. In Festo Corporis Ckristi. 

Agnus Deif qui toUispeccata i 

Qui suis cum discipulis^ 

YirtutiB suae conscius 

SedenSf de pane confidt 

Seipsum et his porrigit. 

Nam oomedens comeditur, 

Foris manens ingreditur, 

Nihil quod mirabilins. 
miserere nobis. Agnus Dei, qui toOis peccata nuindi^ 

Hoc posse dat homixiibi|B» 

In ordine sublimius : 
miserere nobis. Agnus Dei, qui toJUs peccata mundi, 

Quod nemo valet alius 

Sanctus homo vel Angelns, 

^ An observation, which we have not seen made elsewhere, may not be out of 
place. Eveiy one knows that the alteration of the Trisagion by Peter the FuUer, 
Jacobite Patriarch of Antioch, by the addition of ' ' Thoa That wast cmcified for na,*' — 
gave the bitterest offence to the Eastern Church ; and that one of the anathemas on 
Orthodoxy Sunday is directed, in consequence, against ** Peter the Puller and msd« 
man." Yet in the Preees of our Sarum Primer the interpretation is the same s 

y. Sanctos Deus, Sanctus Fortis, Sanctus Immortalis, 
R. Affnus JM, qui tolUspeecaia nnmdif misenere nobis. . 

In like manner, here, the Sanctus, universally applied by ritualists to tiie Blessed 
Trinity, is here directed to our Loan. 

Durandus: **Totus chorus, qui reprvsentat ecc1esiam> simul . cantat dictum 
evangelicum hymnnm, ut una et equalis gloria et lans et honor decantetur Patri et 
Filio et Spiritni Sancto." 

Sieardut : *' Ter repetitur, quia Trinitas laodatur/' 

* Borrowed from the Pengs lingua of S. Thomas. 

SequentuB Inedita. 57 

Sic panem benedicere 
Cfumem Christi conficere, 
Sed aolos potest Presbyter, 
Fonnam servans integriter, 
Unde laadetur magister : 
dona nobis pacem, 

Anotubr farced Sanctub. 

Sanctus Rector coeli immortalis, 
Nos conserva, lux Solaris, 

qui es Creator rerum et initium : 
Sanctus Deus pacis atnator, 
Vere legis indagator, 

ejus medelam confer et solatium : 
Sanctus Qui es Pater summum bonum. 
Nobis confer TitsB donum^ 
precantibus Spiritum Paraciltum : 
Dommus Deus Sabaoth^ Pkni sunt, ^c. Hosanna, Bfc. 

Anothxr farcbd Sanctus. De B, F. M> 

Sanctus Yere dignepnedicatur, 

Per quern Vir^o dum affatur. 

Sine labe gravidatur : 
Sanctus Qui Mariie elegit florem 

Castitatis in decorem : 
Sanctus Sub quo omnes gloriamur> 

VitA, came bumanamur, 

Deitati adunamur, 
Dommus, ^c. 

Another. *'InprMtiis Sacerdotum** 

Sanctus : cemere cupientes 

Ubi Christus tractat Cbristum, 

Sacerdos Dei Filium. 
Sanctus : in manu peocatoris 

Verus Deusy verus Homo, 

Hodie demonstratur. 
Sanctus : O regale Sacerdotum, 

Psallite, canite, dtbarizite, nn4 voce dicentes^ 
Dominus Deus Sahaoth. 

Quern coelestis armonise 

Dulcis laudat sympbonia.^ 

The next in onr copy is headed — 
Jf* PULCHRUii EST DB B. Maria V. (? Tropus pulcherrimus de B. V. M.) 

Sanchis Pater OmnipotenSyMariam Gloria in excelsis Deo, 

ooronans, in quo est salus, vita, et resurrectio 

Sanctus Filins Unigenitos, Mariam nostra, 

gubernans, et in terrdpax^ 

Sanctus Spiritus Paraclitus, Mariam que decenter est diyisa 

sanctificans. homiailms boMB vohmtatis* 

1 But read, Dolces laudant syag^oniai. 

VOL. XIX. 1 


Sequentia Inedita. 

Nam quicnnque digni merentur < 
Omnia semper eis salubria. 

Laudamus te quoniam bonui : 

Benedicirmu te omni tempore : 

Adoramus te Trinum Beam atque 
Unum confitendo : 

Ghrificamua tej te ore, te oorde, 
teqiie mente : 

Qratias aghnus tibi : quia^ ipse es 
corona Sanctorum omnium. 
Propter magnam ghriam tuam, 

Salubriter nos adjuva. 

Per tot mnndi pericula. 
Domine Deus, mundi Creator, 
Bex cfBlestis, clemens Rector eteme, 
Deus Pater Omn^otens : 

Ad te reversis exhibe" 

Remissionis gratiam. 
Botmne FiU Unigenite, 

Nostra spes et gloria,' 
Je9u Christe, 

Adjuya nos Deus Salutaris notter. 
Domine Deus, 

Qui de coelis condescendentin Vir- 
ffinis uterum, 
Agnus Dei, 

Qui mundasti seeuk ab antique 

FiH Patris, 

Protege, Domine, plebem tuam, 
Qiit tollis peccata mundi. 

Scrutator alme cordium,^ 
Miserere nobis, 

Quos tuo salvasti sanguine. 
Qui tolUs peccata mundi, 

Tu qui tot auxiltaris pietatis gratis, 
Suscipe deprecationem nostram. 

Pro nostrft omniumque salute, 
Qtit sedes ad dexteram Patris, 

Regnans et moderans ssecula cuneta. 
Miserere nobis, 

Ne tua damnetur, Jesu, factum, be- 
Quoniam tu solus sanctust 

Qui in Sanctis tuis mirabilis, 
Tu solus Dominus, 

Principium et finis, 
Tu solus altissinnus, 

Sol occasum nesciens, 

Jesu Ckriste, 
Te quidem petimus mente deTOtis- 

Cum Saneto Spiritu, 
Reple tuorum corda fide 

In glorid Dei Patris, Amen. 

Next, the following carol, though far short of the elegance attained 
by German compositiona of the same kind, is not witliout its value : 

TxMPOBB Nativitatis : OB B. y. Maria. 

Anni sunt primitise : 
£ia sonet toz Isetitise ; 
Prodit Auctor filise 
De fili&miserans miserise 

Ut fenestram* radiis vitream, 
Sic, imo subtilius, portam. 
Sic innoxius per aureum 
Exit alvum Filius Tirgineum. 

Quod ros cceli compluit 
Vellera, quod rubus incaluit, 
Quodque virga floruit, 
£t cetera pariens aperuit 

Ad paeis eoncurritur osculum, 
Dum lassus redimitur ; 
Dum Redemptor cernitur ad oculum. 
Nee pudoris solvitur signaculum. 

1 The Invitatory on All Saints. 

' From the Lent hymn, Audi benigns c&nditor. 

> From the Sequence, Mane primi Sabbati, 

* From the Audi benigne, 

' A line from the Sequence, Celsapueri, for Holy Innocents. 

* From the celebrated stanza : 

Ut Titmm non Isditur 

Sole penetnnte, 
Sic illnsa creditur 

Post partum et ante> Ice. 

Constantinople, 59 

Procedente puero^ Vir^nit ex atero 

In ji\]e miserise, Venit noi redimere : 

Chnstus Dobii natut est : Cnicifigi passut est : 

Cujut cireumcisio. Nostra sit saWatio, 

Redemptoris s«eculi» Laudent omnes populi 

(GoUaudemus Dominum,} Salvatorem hominum. 

Ejal novas annus est I Gloria laudis Deus homo 

factus est et immortalis. 

We shall hope to continue our extracts from this most interesting 
MS. in our next number. 


On Tuesday* the 26th of January, Mr. William Burges delivered a 
lecture at the Architectural Museum, detailing his experiences at Con- 
Btantinople. We present the following abstract to our readers, inas- 
much as the lecturer touched upon several points relative to the Ecde- 
aiologj and Arts of the East, which have hitherto received but very 
little attention. 

Mr. Burges began by observing that the modem Constantinople is 
an aggregate of three cities, — ^viz., Scutari, on the Asiatic side of the 
Bosphorus ; Stamboul, on the tongue of land between the Bosphorus 
and Gk>lden Horn ; and Galata, situated on the mainland to the north 
of Stamboul. Of these, Scutari, occupying the site of the ancient 
Chrysopolis, contains nothing remarkable beyond the large Turkish 
cemetery. As might be expected, the most interesting objects are con- 
gregated in Stamboul, the site of which corresponds with the Constan- 
tinople of Constantino and Justinian. The site of the Greek Byzan- 
tium must be sought for in the modem Seraglio, curiously enough that 
part of the city most free from buildings. Adjoining is the church of 
S. Sophia, the pattern church of the so-called dark ages, the ex- 
treme flatness of the dome, although much to be commended as a con- 

' Thos these stsasss are written ; bat thejr sorely should be anrnnged and cor- 
rected as follows : 

Prooedente puero 
In TaUem miseriK, 
Virginis ex ntero 
Yenit nos redimere : 
Christns nobis natas est, 
Cmcifigi paasns est : 
Eja noYus annns est a 
Dens homo factus est : 
Cujas circnmcisio 
Nostra sit saWatio : 
Redemptorem seculi 
Laudent omnes populi : 
GoUaudemus Dominum, 
Salvatorem homiaamu 

60 Constantinople. 

fttructioDal triamph, is by no means to be 8o admired in an artistic point 
of view, if we may believe Mr. Burges, who asserts that it looks too 
much like a ceiling, and not sufficiently like a dome. He likewise 
objected to the internal ribs, which are apt to induce the spectator to 
compare it with the inside of an umbrella. Another carious feature is 
the absence of historical subjects, the mosaics representing single 
figures, and occasionally a group. The figures, indeed, would appear 
to have been employed very sparingly ; and in no cases are the mosaics 
carried down on to the walls proper, as at Monreale and Palermo.^ 
During the late repairs', the whole of the mosaics were cleaned, and 
only those parts covered up which offended the religious prejudices of 
the Turks. Upon the whole, as ecclesiologists, we are inclined to praise 
this arrangement, for at least the figures, &c., will be preserved from 
becoming the prey of the boys who, according to all accounts, drive a 
very active trade by the sale of the detached tesserae to strangers. 

Another point alluded to was the advantage obtained by using com- 
paratively small plaques of marble to decorate the walls. By this 
means a sort of scale is given to the building, and we are thereby ena- 
bled to appreciate the size ; which, as everybody knows, is just the 
reverse with regard to S. Peter*s at Rome. 

The lecturer regretted he was unable to obtain all the information he 
desired concerning S. Sophia, in consequence of the avarice and bigotry 
of the Turks, who. 9ince the departure of the Allied armies, demand a 
very considerable fee from all strangers desirous of viewing the church ; 
and worse than this, hurry them over whenever the inspection does 
take place. 

The mosques, the most conspicuous of which owe their construction 
respectively to Mohammed II., Suliman the Magnificent, Bajazid 
Achmed, and the Valida Sultana, appear to be Arabic copies of S. 
Sophia. It is very curious how the cinl and religious life is centred 
in these buildings ; for the large area enclosing the mosque is gene- 
rally tenanted by all sorts of trades : while the mosque proper is an 
oblong mass of building, containing — 1 st, an arcaded court, called the 
hareem, with a fountain in the middle ; 2nd, the main building, covered 
with a large dome, surrounded by numberless half domes and domelets ; 
and 3rd, an enclosure termed the garden, in which are found one or 
more pavilions, containing the tombs of the founder and his family. 

The stained glass and the elaborate doors of the Mohammedan ar- 
chitects deserve, we think, special attention ; and might possibly, with 
sundry modifications, be successfully introduced into our own Pointed 
art. We say our own, for all the mosques down to the middle of the 
17th century present us with Pointed arches ; and it would appear 
from the lecture that the details of the later erections yield very little, 
if at all. to the earlier ones. The stained glass differs from our own in 
the fact, that it is composed of innumerable small pieces of glass, set 
in a plaster framework, projecting an inch, or even two inches and one 
half, from the face of the glass; and the mull ions which form the 
pattern, appear to be worked in a similar manner to our edge- tracery 

1 Many of the mosaic figures are referable to the times of the later Emperors ; it 
is by no means proved that anj are of the epoch of Jnstinian. 

Constantinople. 61 

of the 14th century. The effect of this glass, when seen in its proper 
position, is said to resemble that of the fabled jewelled windows we 
read of in the Arabian Nights ; but the reproduction, by Mr. Lavers, of 
Southampton Street, Strand, being badly placed, hardly does justice to 
the original. We would recommend the manufacture to Mr. Owen 
Jones, for the Alhambra Court at the Crystal Palace. 

The doors are remarkable for having their panels filled with a vast 
number of little moulded rails and styles mortised into one another : 
they inclose small projecting panels of a lighter wood, decorated with 
slightly sunk surface carving : a variety is obtained by alternating 
them with others of ivory and ebony. These latter are not carved. 
Attention was also directed to the solid and bold architecture of these 
mosques, to the concentration of ornament on certain parts, such as 
the cornice and cap, to the various contrivances of showing as much of 
the spandril space of the arch as possible, by means of the small pro« 
jection of the abacus, and the substitution of a sustaining moulding 
for the label. The successful employment of thick walls, and the 
rods in buildings erected in hot countries subject to earthquakes, was 
also touched upon, as well as the production of elaborate diapers by 
the superposition of one pattern on another. 

It would appear that Stamboul has suffered like all the capitals of 
the middle ages, by the gradual loss of its external coloured decora- 
tions, and the more picturesque terminations of its buildings : thus the 
plates in the work of Grelot, published in the 17th century, represent 
Stamboul as bristling with innumerable minarets, and other appen- 
dages of that kind. They according to all accounts, have suffered a 
notable diminution since his time. 

Mr. Burges finally proceeded to give a description of Galata. As 
ecclesiologists we may pass over the history of the Genoese, and their 
quarrels and reconciliations with the Greek emperors. There remain 
but two ancient churches at Galata, and of both of these the whole 
corps de batiment has been rebuilt. S. Peter's possesses its ancient 
square tower, and an entrance doorway, which from the mouldings, 
may probably be the work of some French crusader. The other church 
i« now a mosque, but singularly enough has retained the tower, ter- 
minated by a stunted lead-covered spire. The policy of the Turks has 
hitherto been to make the Christians hide away their churches in all 
sorts of by-places, so that the stranger might pass them fifty times 
and never know them to be a church at all. The large modem Arme- 
nian church is surrounded by an immensely thick and high wall, se- 
cured by iron doors, a gaol seemingly being the Turkish type for 
a Christian church. We most sincerely hope that the energy and 
jnst infiuence of our Ambassador, will prove to the world in general, 
and the Turks in particular, that in the instance of the memorial 
church nous avons changi tout cela. 



A MBBTiNG of the committee of this society was held at Arklow Hoase, 
on Taesday, Jan. 26th. Present, Sir Stephen R. Oljmne, Bart., Vice- 
Presidenty in the chair, Mr. Beresfbrd Hope, M.P., Rev. S. S. Crreat- 
heed, Rey. T. Helmore, Rev. J. M. Neale, Rev. W. Scott, Mr. R. E. 
£. Warburton, and the Rev. B. Webb. 

The Lord Bishop of Kihnore was admitted as a Patron, and Gordon 
M. HiUs, Esq., of John Street, Adelphi, was elected an honorary 

Mr. Seddon met the committee, and consulted it, on behalf of Messrs. 
Prichard and Seddon, as to the snbstitution of Westmoreland slates for 
lead in completing the roof of the nave of Llandaff Cathedral. After 
some discussion, the following resolution was adopted : 

" That the committee, without desiring to commit itself to the argu- 
ments in the report of Messrs. Prichard and Seddon, which seem to go 
to the extent of the abstract preference of slate roofs to those con- 
structed with lead, is nevertheless not prepared, under the financial cir- 
cumstances of the Restoration Fund of Llandaff Cathedral, to do 
otherwise than acquiesce, in this particular case, in the substitution of 
slates for lead ; while at the same time, it ventures to advise a metal 
cresting instead of that of terra cotta, recommended by the architects." 

The committee also inspected Messrs. Prichard and Seddon*s design 
for a rectory at S. Pagan's, Glamorganshire. 

Mr. Hills met the committee, and exhibited his designs for the re- 
arrangement of Pulborough church, Sussex, and for new schools at 
Pulborough, and at North Heath, in the same parish. 

Mr. S. S. Teulon met the committee, and consulted it as to the 
proposed re-arrangement and ornamentation of Blenheim P^dace Chapel. 
He also exhibited his designs for a new church, schools, &c., at Agar 
Town ; for some cottages at Sunk Island, Yorkshire ; for a new chancel 
to Bagpath church, Gloucester ; for a new school at S. Neot's ; for a 
new church at Wimbledon ; and for various additions, &c. to the man- 
sion of Sir Robert Buxton. He also showed the committee a specimen 
of a cheap kind of glass, drawn with outlines of figures and groups, by 
Mr. Wilmshurst, at a cost of 6s. a foot : and specimens of an in- 
genious and effective method of stencilling patterns in fresco, by Mr. 
Fisher, of Southampton Street, at a cost of no more than Ss. 6d. a 
square yard. 

Mr. Burges met the committee, and explained a dengn kindly made 
by him at its request, for a table of Benefactions for the Bishop of 

Mr. Slater met the committee, and exhibited his designs for the re- 
storation of Wadhurst church. Sussex, and S. Faith, Newton, near 
Geddington. He also consulted the committee on the position of the 
altar in the apsidal chancel of S. Serf, Burntisland. 

Mr. Clayton met the committee, and exhibited some adminable car- 

Ecclesiological Society. 68 

toons for the proposed stained glass of Sherborne Minster. The com- 
mittee aho examined a design by Mr. White, for an organ-case at 
Preston, Kent ; a design for an embroidered frontal, by Mr. Bodley ; a 
design for a font, for Arley Hall chapel, by Mr. Street; and a 
design of a brass submitted by Mr. Warburton. It also examined a 
photograph of Mr. Goldie*s prize design for the Crimean Monument at 

The committee received the thanks of the Surrey Archaeological 
Society, and a prospectus of Mr. Papworth's Ordinary of Arms. 

The two remaining concerts of the Ecclesiological Motett Choir were 
fixed for April 20th, and July 20th. 

The Committee baring determined that the three Public Meetings of 
the Motett Choir of the Ecclesiological Society should in future be 
held at longer intervals, the first performance for the season 1857-8, 
was given at S. Martin's HaU, on Tuesday the 15th December. 

The music, as will be seen from the programme, which we give 
below, was of the usual character, the Advent antiphon, " O Sapientia," 
being appropriately introduced; together with a good sprinkling of 
carols, in anticipation of the approaching festival. As to the execution 
of the pieces, we cannot resist the temptation to quote the opinion of 
an influential daily paper, which is gratifying on account of its dis- 
criminating appreciation both of the merits of the old music, and of its 
interpretation by our choir : — 

** There was a choir of about forty voices (sa3rs the Daily News,) consist- 
ing of ladies and gentlemen amateurs, together with some of the young gen- 
tlemen of the Chapel Royal. The different vocal parts, in respect to nnmberi 
and strength, were well balanced, and their singing showed the fruits of ad- 
mirable training. They sung entirely without accompaniment; and yet, un- 
supported by instrumental aid, they not only kept in excellent tune, but 
sustained their pitch, throughout long pieces, in a manner nothing less than sur- 
prising. The music they performed was of the highest order, being chiefly 
selected from the Italian and English ecclesiastics music of the sixteenth 
century. There were two fine motetts of Palestrina and two of Yittoria ; an 
anthem of Byrd, and another of Bedford — an English musician of that age, 
comparaii?ely little known, but eridently a worthy disciple of that old school. 
There were likewise several ancient hymns, chants, and Christmas carols, 
which last were not only very curious, but of remarkable beauty. The 
solemn, antique harmonies of this fine old music were given with great purity 
and beauty : to produce their fnll {prandeur, a greater numerical strength of 
voices would be requisite ; but this, we hope, will be obtained as the Society 
continues to make progress. As it was, the performance was not a little im- 
pressive, and highly interesting." 

Tuesday, December \5th. 

Motett — " Behold I bring you glad tidings " . Vittoria. 

Chant — " Venite, exultemus Domino " 

From the Accompanying Harmonies to the 
Brief Directory of Plain Song. 

MoTBTT — " O Jerusalem " Palestrina- 

Antiphon — " O Sapientia " . . . . Hymnal Noted. 

MoTBTT — "These things have r written" . Palestrina. 

64 Cambridge Architectural Society, 

Canticlx—" Magnificat anima mea" 

Canticles Noted, VIL Tone, 4th endmg. 
MoTXTT— '' These are they that follow the Lamb " . Paleslrina. 

Carol—** Here u joy for eveiy age" . CaroUfor ChristfMS-tide, 1. 

Anthem—'* Save me, O God " Byrd. 

Carol — *' Christ was born on Christmas-Day '* 

CaroUfor Christmas-tide, 4, 

MoTBTT— ** I will give thanks " Vittoria. 

Carol—** Gabriel's Message " . Carols for Christmas-tide, 3. 

Hymn—*' Te lucis ante terminum "... Hymnal Noted. 
Carol — "Earthly friends will change and falter" 

Carols for Christmas-tide, 2. 
Anthbm— '* Rejoice in the Lord " Reefford. 


Thb Second Meeting of the Society for the Michaelmas Term, 1857, 
was held on Tliursday, November 12. The President in the chair. 

Mr. W. D. Sweeting. Trinity College, Mr. G. W. W. Minns, S. 
Catherine's College, were elected ordinary members of the society. 
A paper was then read by Mr. Norris Deck, on the " Emblems of the 
Crucifixion and the arms of the Passion." 

The Third Meeting for the October Term, was held on Thursday 
evening, November 26. The President in the chair. 

Mr. Cornish, King's CoUege. Mr. J. R. WiUington. Trinity Col- 
lege, were elected ordinary members of the society. The Rev. H. R. 
Luard of Trinity College, then read an interesting paper on the 
Cathedral of Orvieto, which is situated in the southern part of Etruria, 
and on account of its isolated situation, but little visited by travellers. 

The cathedral owes its existence to the legend of the miracle of 
Bolsena, and was designed by Lorenzo Maitani of Siena, and the first 
stone was laid by Pope Nicholas VI. a.d. 1290. (Professor Willis 
however gives a.d. 1200 as the date.) P. della Valle in his history of 
the cathedral, gives a long list of the artists employed upon it, till the 
end of the 16th century. The west front which has three doorways, 
is built of marble, most elaborately adorned with sculpture by Giovanni 
di Pisa, and other scholars of Niccolo di Pisa. The upper part of the 
fa9ade is resplendent with mosaics. The interior is built of black and 
white marble, and is in the form of a Latin Cross. The cathedral is a 
perfect museum of sculpture and painting. Among the sculptors we 
may mention the names of Mocchi, Simone Memmi, Ippolito Scalga, 
and among the painters Girolamo Maziano. Gentile da Fabriano. The 
Capella of the Madonna di San Brizio is the most interesting part of 
the whole building; it contains a Greek Madonna, said to be of 
fabulous antiquity. The walls are painted in fresco by Luca Signorelli, 
and the compartments of the roof by Fra Angelico, and Benozso 
Gozzoli. Here also is preserved Ippolito Scalga's masterpiece, a pietk 

Cambridge Architectural Society. 65 

consisting of a group of four figures sculptured out of a single block of 

The paper was illustrated by some fine photographs of the west front, 
and of some of the details of the sculpture. 

The meeting then adjourned till December 10th. 

At the last meeting of the above Society for 1857, the Rev. G. 
Williams, King's College, in the chair, 

Mr. O. Browning, King's College, was elected a member of the 

The following report of the committee for the years 1856-7, was 
then read and adopted : — 

*'In presenting our report for the years 1856-7, we, your com- 
mittee, rejoice in being able to congratulate the society on the success 
of its first important work, the restoration of the church of S. Andrew's 
the Less, Barnwell, which was again opened for divine service in May, 
1856. The chief points in the restoration were noticed in our last 
report, and need not be repeated : but we would now invite attention 
to the woodwork, and above all to the organ, designed by one of our 
▼ice -presidents, the Rev. J. Gibson. The latter deserves especial 
notice, as being the fruit of several years' study devoted to one of the 
most important, and at the same time neglected departments of ec- 
ciesiology ; and as an attempt to replace by Gothic forms the tasteless 
boxes which too often disfigure our churches. The crosses have been 
placed on the east and west gables of the roof : and when appropriate 
gas burners have been fixed in the church, and a wooden porch erected 
on the south side, the work will be at an end. A debt of £10 yet re- 
mains, which we trust may soon be discharged. 

"We now proceed to notice such architectural restorations, or 
original buildings, as have been completed, or are in process of com- 
pletion, in the town and neighbourhood. 

" The exterior of the chancel of Great S. Mary's is being faced with 
stone, at the expense of Trinity College. As far as we can judge at 
])resent, the architect seems to have been guided by the characteristics 
of the rest of the building in his design ; and we presume had his 
reasons for not following the very effective style of masonry there em- 
ployed. With regard to the interior, the scheme for restoring it has 
not been abandoned : the subscription list is still open, and we hope 
that all who are interested in the cause of propriety in church arrange- 
ment will do their best to assist the committee. 

" We are happy to announce that there is a prospect of the work at 
S. Mary's the licss being shortly taken in hand, under the able direc- 
tion of Mr. G. G. Scott. At present the restoration will include no 
more than the roof, parapet, and windows. May this be only the 
commencement of a complete renovation of this most beautiful and in- 
teresting church. 

•* At Clare College, a good deal of polychrome has been bestowed 
on the roof, apse, and reredos of the chapel. We cordially welcome 
so praiseworthy an attempt : but may we be allowed to suggest that 


66 Cambridge Architectural Society. 

the addition of some scarlet and gold upon the patterns in relief on the 
roof would add to the richness of the general effect, and hreak the 
somewhat cold uniformity of hlue, which is now the predominant 

" At Trinity College, the Jacobean woodwork on the summit of the 
Gothic clock tower has been reproduced ; and the east front of the 
college, between the great gate and the chapel, rebuilt. We by no 
means agree with the somewhat harsh criticisms with which this work 
of Mr. Salvin's has been assailed. The style harmonises well with 
that of the plainer portions of the great court ; though it may be 
doubted whether the increased internal accommodation by the addition 
of the projecting window compensates for the loss of regularity in the 
architectural effect of the whole. 

" In our last report we observed that a new conduit was in progress 
in the centre of the market place. It has now been completed ; but 
while we again applaud the liberality of the town in thus honouring 
Hobson, it is to be regretted that a lees ambitious design was not 
adopted instead of an indiscriminating attempt to imitate the elaborate 
details of a continental fountain of the best age of Gothic architecture. 

" It is gratifying to observe the gradual prevalence of an improved 
taste in the matter of domestic architecture. We allude especially to 
the new brick house in Trumpington-street, and to those near S. 
Michael's church, which were the first built after a more picturesque 
design. We believe that much of this improvement is due to the 
taste of Mr. R. R. Rowe, the town surveyor. 

*• We now proceed to notice some important works in the county. 
At Ely, the princely munificence of the dean and chapter has borne 
fruit in results which bid fair to render their cathedral pre-eminent in 
interest and beauty. The east window has been filled with stained glass 
by Mr. Wailes, which for brilliancy and clever contrasts of colour 
approaches the best French glass of the thirteenth century. We are 
glad to say that of the late Bishop's bequest enough money yet re* 
mains to enable the chapter to place several new windows in the choir : 
a work which will shortly be commenced. The reredos has been 
finished, with the exception of the figure of Christ on the central pin- 
nacle, and is now being gilt and coloured : stone screens have been 
placed behind the stalls, which are themselves, together with the rood- 
screen, shortly to have their panels and their niches filled with the 
sculptures which have so long been wanting to complete them ; the 
north transept will soon glow with colour, and be further enriched with 
stained glass windows and frescoes : nor is this all — it is proposed to 
board in the roof of the nave, and to execute thereon, under the direc- 
tion of Mr. L'Estrange, a fresco similar in design to that of the church 
of S. Mary Magdalene, at Hildesheim, in the kingdom of Hanover, 
which is now undergoing restoration. At the same time, the floor will 
be reduced to its original level at the west end, rising in a gradual in- 
cline without steps to the level of the floor beneath the lantern. We 
have not space even to notice the many gifts which have been made to 
the cathedral : but there are two windows which we must not pass by 
in silence. The first is the long-promised 'bachelors and under- 

Northampton Architectural Society. 67 

graduates* window,' which was completed a month ago. Mr. Wailes, 
in addition to his liberality in finishing it for one hundred pounds short 
of the original contract, has taken out and much improved the portions 
which were inserted some years ago ; so that at present the window is 
one of the best in every way in the cathedral. The next is a small 
window in the north aisle o%the nave, designed by Mr. Dyce, and 
executed by Mr. Oliphant. We notice this design as a successful de- 
parture from conventionality : there is a freedom and grace about the 
figures which is usually inseparable from oil painting : yet still the due 
limits within which glass may be rightly treated have been preserved. 
The result is a most beautiful window, but one which from its minute 
delicacy would show to greater advantage in a smaller church. 

*' We are glad to observe that church restorations are being actively 
carried on in several villages. At Trumpington the east wall behind 
the altar has been encased with coloured marbles and encaustic tiles, 
arranged in patterns after a design by Mr. Butterfield ; the other re- 
storations in this most interesting church have been commented on 
before. At Girton, we must notice a new pulpit and reading-desk, 
the gift of a gentleman in the parish. At Histon, the vicar is doiiig 
his best with the small means at his disposal to efiect some necessary 
repairs in his church. The architect is Mr. Bodley, and from his de- 
signs some excellent open seats of an early Pointed character have 
been placed in the south transept, and a new staircase against the 
north-west pier of the tower, leading to the belfry. If sufficient funds 
could be obtained, a new roof would be placed upon the nave, we trust 
as nearly resembling the present one as possible : but at present it is 
impossible either to do this or to restore any of the ornamental work 
of the interior. We hear also of restorations at Guilden Morden, 
Fordham, Quy, Ickleton, Madingley, Castle Camp, Stapleford, and 
Melbourne, but of these we cannot speak from actual observation. 

" In conclusion, we trust that in its new rooms our society will be 
enaUed to extend its sphere of usefulness, and to become the means of 
teaching many in this place to understand and venerate the churches 
which their forefathers have bequeathed to them." 

The Rev. G. Williams then read a paper on the Ecclesiastical Re- 
mains of Hildesheim. The cathedral and the church of S. Michael the 
Archangel are especially worthy of notice ; they both contain a rich 
collection of objects of Early Christian art. In the latter is a magni- 
ficent painted roof, which it is proposed to reproduce in Ely cathedral. 

The meeting then separated. 


Thb ordinary Committee Meeting was held on Saturday, December 
19th, 1867, the Rev.Lord A.Compton in the chair. There were presented 
Reports and Transactions of the Chester Historic Society, and of the 

68 Northampton Architectural Society. 

Ecclesiological Society ; History of S. Canice Cathedral, Kilkenny, by 
Lord A. Compton ; a plan of the remains of Shoaely Nunnery, by 
Mr. Jones ; tracings of tiles discovered at Higham Ferrers, by the Rev. 
T. Allen. The plans for the rebuilding of Hazelbeech church, by 
W. Slater, Esq., were examined. It is proposed to take down the 
present walls and piers, which were considerably out of the perpen- 
dicular, and entirely reconstruct the church on the old plan, preserving 
every available stone in its own place. Several suggestions were 
made for the architect's consideration, and the general design and 
arrangement approved. Plans for a new south aisle at Creaton, in 
place of a most disfiguring shed-like addition of former times, were 
sent for exhibition by the architect, Mr. W« Smith, of London. The 
new aisle was much approved, but some improvements were suggested 
as to the form of the prayer-desk, and great regret was expressed that 
it was proposed to add doors to the low open seats, against the express 
•opinion of the architect, and in opposition to all the best examples of 
well-restored churches. It is to be hoped that better sense and feel- 
ing may yet prevail to prevent a return to this offensive and exclusive 
system. In both the above restorations it was understood that the 
architect employed was a native of the parish, whose church he was 
called upon to restore. Plans for a new cathedral at Kilmore in Ire- 
land, by Mr. Slater, were, by the Bishop's wish, submitted to the criti- 
cism of the committee, who expressed their concurrence in the views 
of the architect, and especially with regard to a moot point as to the 
best position of the pulpit. The building is to be used as a parish 
church as well as a cathedral, which has considerably modified the 
design. Drawings of the woodwork for Oakham church, by Mr. 
G. 6. Scott, and for the new east window at Theddingworth, were also 
exhibited. Very handsome designs for a new school at Labberham, 
by Mr. Cranstoun, of Birmingham, were sent for examination, and 
were much admired. The group embraces schools for boys and girls, 
a class-room and master's house, and exhibits both in style and arrange- 
ment all the most approved of modern scholastic requirements. A 
design for a new altar-cloth for Theddingworth, after a drawing by 
Miss Blencowe, in the style of old ecclesiastical embroidery, was dis- 
cussed, and some improvements suggested. Plans for labourers* cot- 
tages erected at Fellingham were sent for examination by the Rev. J. 
Jenkins, of the Lincoln Architectural Society, llie arrangements were 
considered remarkably good, but it was advised to dispense with some 
blank windows, to give more elevation to the chimneys, and otherwise 
to improve the exterior elevation. The committee expressed a wish 
that immediate steps should be taken to carry out the often-recorded 
wish of the Society to ofiFer a prize for the best cottage design for the 
Midland Counties. For this purpose a sub-committee will be appointed 
at the next meeting. The invitation to the great architectural meeting 
at Oxford, in June, 1858, was accepted on behalf of the Society ; and 
it was suggested that the autumn meeting should be held earlier in 
the year than October. The forthcoming volume of Reports and Papers, 
under the editorship of the Rev. £. TroUope, will not be ready for 
delivery till February or March. 



A MEBTiNG was held on Monday, December 28, the Rev. G. E. Gillet 
in the chair. Mr. G. C. Bellairs exhibited several good photographs 
of different views of Fountains abbey, Yorkshire, and Mr. T. North of 
the west front of Salisbury cathedral. Mr. T. Nevinson exhibited 
rubbings of the brasses of Sir Robert Septvans, from Chartham church, 
Kent, 1306, and of Archbishop Harsnett, in Chigwell church, Essex, 
1631. Some conversation occurred condemnatory of the intended 
church clock at Oadby, Leicestershire, which is to have three faces. 
One half of each face is to be in the tower and the other half in 
the spire, and for this purpose the stone- work will have to be cutaway 
to the extent of four feet in circumference, greatly endangering the 
safety of the fabric, and altogether spoiling the appearance of the ele- 
gant broach tower of one of our best specimens of village churches. 
Mr. C. A. Macaulay was elected a member of the Society. 


S, John, Lew, Tunhridge Wells. — A correspondent sends us a small 
perspective engraving of this design taken from the south-west. The 
architect is Mr. A. D. Gough. It shows a broad nave, with transepts, 
a lean tower in the angle between nave and transept on the south side, 
and a vestry (we presume) with a transverse gable — eastward of the 
south transept. The style is Geometrical Middle-Pointed. So far as 
we can judge of general effect from the small sketch before us, the 
design is tame and yet pretentious. The west window is an arched 
fenestration filled in with a circle of rich tracery. The tower, of which 
the lower story forms a porch, is miserably thin and meagre, with 
diminutive buttresses en suite with the buttresses of the nave. There 
would be merit in the belfry stage and octagonal spire if they were 
larger and higher. 

S. , Calverley, Tunbridge Wells, — A similar sketch, but including^ 

an interior view, of another church designed for Tunbridge Wells, by 
Mr. Ferrey, is far better than the last noticed. Here we find nave and 
gabled aisles, chancel and gabled aisles, and a tower and spire, the 
lower story forming a porch, on « the south west. The tower and its 
octagonal broached spire seem massive and dignified. The rest of the 
design, in a rather early Middle-Pointed style, are not remarkable. It 
would be unfair to criticize the interior from so rough a sketch. But 
the chancel arch and east window seem quite too small for their places. 



Cock-Fosters, Middlesex. — Some additions of bedrooms, &c., to this 
school have been effected by Mr. S. S. Teulon. Nothing coald 
well be more frightful than the original structure; a sort of de- 
based First-Pointed wide-roofed conventicle-like centre with two am- 
bitious wings, the one containing a class-room and the school-offices, in 
foul proximity to the schoolroom, and the other making a most con- 
fined master's- residence, having a living-room, pantry, and two bed- 
rooms, all on the ground-floor. On the latter Mr. Teulon adds an 
upper story, containing some more decent accommodation for the 
teacher — three bedrooms above and a kitchen below. He has, with 
good judgment, chosen a half-timbered construction for the new story. 
It overhangs the lower floor, and with good roofs, a wooden oriel, &c., 
does something to redeem the atrocious ugliness of the unaltered part. 
We heartily wish he had remodelled the school-offices at the same 

Sunk Island Estate, — On this government property Mr. Teulon has 
built a successful school and school-house. The schoolroom — a single 
apartment with separate entrances and cloak-rooms for boys and girls 
^-is at right-angles to the master's house. It is wholly of brick, with 
a bell-gable at one end of the schoolroom, high gable, and pattern- 
work in different- coloured brick. The bell-gable is the best detail ; 
and the whole perspective is picturesque. But the treatment of the 
house, in its gables, windows, and ornamental patterns, rather lacks 
simplicity. The windows of the school are a success — small arched 
lights in a continuous series, with monials made of chamfered bricks. 

8. Thomas, Agar Town, London. — ^This building, intended to group 
with a new church and a parsonage by the same, architect, is by Mr. 
S. S. Teulon. It is so contrived as to serve temporarily for a church. 
In plan it is an oblong apartment, 60 ft. by 25 ft., with a porch (form- 
ing an entrance and cloak-room) at each of two opposite angles, and 
a projecting class-room vestry at another angle, between which and 
the porch at that end is formed a sanctuary, 16 ft. wide by 10 ft. deep, 
additional to the dimensions before given. The material is brick, 
boldly and agreeably treated, and the windows, of the simplest plate 
tracery, are effective. The roofs too are good and picturesque. In- 
side, a bold brick arch defines the sanctuary, and a simple hi^ screen 
across it— which will allow the concealment of the altar, &c., while 
the building is used as a school — ^is thoroughly satisfiBtetory. The 
sanctuary walls are in a pattern of two coloured bricks. We es- 
pecially like the side-windows — a continuous series of Imck-tumed 

Pulborough, Sussex. — ^This school, built of stone, the facings of blue 
whinstone and the dressings of sandstone, is designed by M^. G. M. 
Hills. The arrangement is good, with class-room, separate porches, 
and offices; and the teacher's house adjoining is convenient. The 
style is Pointed, and we observe a great absence of pretension. 

Church Restaraiians. 71 

North Heath, Susw^.-^Thja school, itlao in the parish of Pulborough» 
is also by Mr. 6. M. Hills. A single room, 35 ft. by 16 ft., in a plain 
Pointed style, with a master's house attached. 

S. Foffan, Glamorganshire. — Messrs. Prichard and Seddon have 
designed a large aud not unpicturesque rectory for this parish, 
-which is not to cost much, though we confess we should have 
thought it impossible to execute the design for the sum. An iron 
verandah, covered with glass, steep roofs, terra cotta ridge-crests, and 
traceried panels and tympana to the windows, give much life and 
character to the exterior : but we should have preferred greater bim- 


Blenheim Palace Chapel, — ^Many of our readers are familiar with the 
plan of this stately chapel : — a spacious sanctuary eastward of a sort of 
broader chancel, the whole of the south wall of which is occupied by 
the monument of the great Duke of Marlborough, beyond which is a 
somewhat narrower nave, at the west end of which is the usual gal- 
lery for the family ; the servants and retainers occupying the ground 
floor. Mr. S. S. Teulon has io hand a very sumptuous re-arrangement 
and decoration of this interesting chapel. To speak of these in order. 
He proposes to get rid of the gallery and to place very rich open seats 
for the family on the opposite side of the chancel, facing the monument ; 
he fills the nave with open seats, looking east, for the servants ; places 
a pulpit on the north and a font on the south, of the gpreat monument, 
and re-casts the whole west end into two flights of stairs leading to the 
colonnade of the first floor of the palace. We have always consis- 
tently opposed the use of galleries in places of parochial worship ; 
but we are by no means certain that it is wrong to have in a 
private chapel a^allery for the use of the family. This arrangement, 
as our readers know, is of great antiquity, besides being of practical 
convenience. In the White Chapel in the Tower, the triforium was 
plainly used for the worship of the Royal Family, communicating 
as it did with their living apartments on tlmt story.. Without pursuing 
this subject further on this occasion, we may say that we are inclined 
to regret the loss of the gallery at Blenheim. It is true that, from the 
position of the chapel and the fact that the gallery is only approach- 
able by an open colonnade, some alteration wa^ necessary. But we 
think that the gallery might well have been retained with an approach, 
if necessary, from the lower floor. As it is, the substitution of a 
splendid double staircase at the west end, leading M a passage which 
is practically useless, savours somewhat of unreality. But we hasten 
to the aesthetic questicms connected with Mr. Teulon 's proposed 
scheme of ornamentation. It is no easy thing to fit a chapel 
of this style and date in an ecclesiastical manner. Without 
committing ourselves to the approval of all Mr. Teulon's experi- 

72 Church Restoraiions, 

ments, we may honestly say that he has shown, in our opinion, 
exceeding skill and ingenuity and power in this remarkable work. 
Lavish ornamentation, of no particular style — ^but tending to an exube- 
rant development of Pointed form — with mosaic-work, marbles, poly- 
chrome, &c. — form a whole of impressive dignity and magnificence. 
Take for example the proposed double staircase at the west end. The 
idea is borrowed from the Basilican ambon, and the twisted shafts, 
mosaic panels, &c., are excellent. The three large angels, represent- 
ing Faith, Hope, and Charity, will give scope for the sculptor's art : 
but we confess we do not much like the introduction of merely allegorical 
figures. We will next take the reredos. This is a most elaborate 
arcade of seven arches, cinq-foiled round-headed, rising from marble 
shafts. Each arch is to contain a scene of the Passion in high relief. 
Above are foliated aisles, each containing the bust of an apostle, 
and a rich crest, flanked by angels blowing trumpets, surmounts the 
whole. In this we have no remark to make, except that the legends 
between the circles might well be omitted. The statuary is enough, 
and makes iis anxious to get rid of what is after all but a poor substi- 
tute for high art. Besides, the English texts do not well suit with the 
Latin legends round the heads of the apostles. Elaborate metal altar - 
rails, without gates, define the sanctuary. The stalls for the ducal 
family, ^ve in number, are of great richness, in a sort of Jacobean 
style, somewhat refinec^ by better detail. The screen work at the back, 
blazing with colour, gilding, and legends, has great merit. Angels 
and flowers (taken from nature) are freely used in the ornamentation, 
and each poppy-head is a sculptured figure. The selection of the latter 
might be improved. David fasting, and Jacob praying, are good; 
but they should scarcely, for iconographical reasons, be matched by 
** The Divine Sower." But these details, which have evidently cost great 
thought and pains, will probably be once more considered before the 
works are completed. The font, elaborately carved, and furnished 
with a rich cover, and a crane of very elegant metal-work ; the pulpit, 
of alabaster, with marble shafts, with mosaic patterns, sculptured 
heads and angels ; the double lettern, with a pelican on the crest, and 
angels seated at the base, and the Five Wounds carved on the book 
boards.^-deserve especial commendation. The west door is of notice- 
able richness, with monograms and angels, and surmounted by a cross. 
The stained glass — to be executed (we believe) by Mr. Clayton — wiD 
be of a rich mosaic kind, with groups of figures from both Testaments, 
arranged in type and antitype. Finally, the stone covering the vault- 
entrance of the Marlboroughs, will be covered by a rich brass effigy 
of the first Duke in his Peer's dress. We have seldom had to chronicle 
a more remarkable, or more sumptuous undertaking ; and we hope to 
be able to speak of the general effect of the whole when these various 
decorations are completed. 

8, Mary, Sandringham, Norfolk, — This little church, containing 
chancel, nave, west tower, and south-west porch, has been restored by 
Mr. Teulon. A very few open seats, fourteen in number, in the nave, 
suffice for the small population of the parish. The chancel unfor- 
tunately has no fittings, and — ridiculous to say — a prayer-desk, facing 

Church Resioraiiant. 73 

west, is placed under the chancel arch. At any rate, in a congrega- 
. tion of this size there can be no need of preaching the prayers to the 
people instead of offering them with them. There is a chancel-screen 
— at least in its design —in this restoration, but it is placed about mid* 
way down the nave, westward of the few seats, so as to make an 
antechapel. We cannot commend this arrangement. Hie screen is 
however well- designed, except that we do not much like the horizontal 
moulding, under the monogram, in the central arch. A new font has 
been supplied, octagonal in plan, with shafts round the base, and some 
bold carved flowers ; but in a style somewhat too early for the church. 
It is set on a platform of tiles ] and an ancient cover, of great merit, 
is suspended on a new crane, of rich wrought-ironwork. In the de- 
sign of the crane we rather miss the sense of strength which would 
have been given by a greater developement of the horizontal arm. The 
nave roof, a fine old one of the locid type, has been carefully restored. 
A new east window, and a reredos of tiles, form ports of the res- 

S. George^ Idttleport, Cambridgethirt, is a Third-Pointed church, 
which now eichibits a most remarkable plan, comprising chancel with 
south chapel, nave with south aisle, a west tower, forming also a sort 
of porch, and— attached to the north side of the nave and chancel — an 
additional derestoried nave and chancel with north aisle to each. Mr. 
S. S. Teulon is responsible for this strange area, having added this 
abnormal excrescence in the place of a simple aisle. He places in 
the chancel longitudinal benches with subsellse, and a prayer-desk at 
the south side, — in both naves and both aisles common open baches 
fiacing east, — and in the north chancel and both chancel aisles loi^i- 
tudinal seats for children. The vestry occupies the east end of the 
north aisle to the north chancel. The pulpit is queerly placed against 
the first pier of the arcade between the north nave and its aisle. We 
should have preferred to see it nearer the actually used chancel ; for 
instance, against the intermediate pier between the two chancels. 
A gallery is, surely most needlessly, retained in the tower. We are 
not prepared to express an approval of this method for enlarging the 
church. It is far from convenient internally : and externally, the new 
quasi-chancel with its high roof quite eclipses the real chancel ad- 
jacent. Some of the new fittings however are good, such as the 
pulpit and the chancel benches ; and the seats throughout the church 
are all open. 

8, , Pulboraugh, Sussex, — ^This church, remitfkabk for the 

marked declination of its chancel to the north, and for the extraor- 
dinary arrangement of its pulpit, — which, supported on leg^, straddles 
across the approach to the chancel, and groans under a huge parabolic 
sounding-board — ^is about to be rearranged with open seats by Mr. 
Gordon M. Hills. All is weU done, except that a reading-pew, fac- 
ing wtst and south, is placed under the chancel arch on the north 
side. Galleries, pews, pulpit, &c. are of course all removed. 

vol.. XIX. 



Thb following letter may perhaps elicit some further information on 
the •abject referred to : — 

To the Editor of the Eccleeiologist. 

Dbab Sir, — I read with much interest Mr. Blenkinsopp*s letter on 
the Architecture of the Scotch Highlands, in the Ecdeeiologiet of the 
current month, but cannot but think that there is one important omis- 

From the extremely narrow plain and apparently single-light win- 
dows, I suppose that it is to be inferred that the churches in that dis- 
trict for the most part answer to the First- Pointed of England. But 
are these all nearly coeval, or can any information be obtained as to 
their date? Or was there no developement of ecclesiastical archi- 
tecture in the north of Scotland ? 

Again. Mr. Blenkinsopp supposes that the extreme narrowness of 
the windows is accounted for from the want of glass. Pro tanto, then, 
I suppose the existing structures will be no guide to us. And further, 
might not the general plainness of existing structures be owing to the 
difficulty of obtaining good workmen, and the general want of facility 
of communication with the south ? So that whUe retaining the feature 
of great massiveness and solidity, would not the imitation of the pro- 
portions of the ground plan and smallness of the windows be mere 
copyism ? 

These remarks are only intended to elicit information from those 
who have some knowledge in these matters, which I have not. 

Apologizing therefore for troubling you, 

I am. 
Your humble Servant, 

Ph. E. Pusbt. 

Chriet Church, Oxford. 

To the Editor of the Beelesiologist. 

London, Dec, % 1857. 
SiB, — As accuracy is your object, I make no apology for this com- 

S. John's Roman Catholic church at Gravesend was erected in 
1834, by a company of Gravesend men, to supply a growing want of 
church room, but with no ritual object of any kind whatever in view. 

I am, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant. 

G. W. 

We have to thank the Rev. H. T. EUacombe, for a copy of the re- 
print (Hamilton, 1857,) edited by himself, of Beaufoy*s Ringer' e True 

Noticu and Answert to Carretpandenis^ 75 

Guide; eonimnimg a 9afe direetwy for every true Churchman, or an 
affectionate address to Ringers in every church and parish. The tract, 
origiDally published in 1804, is the more carious as being the work 
of a minister in lAdj Huntingdon's connexion ; but a better appeal could 
have been compiled now. 

We have received the first number of a new art newspaper, which is 
designed to be for Ireland what the Builder and the Building News are 
to England. The Architect, Engineer, and Builder, which is the name 
of the Dublin print, makes a very hopeful beginning, and we wish it 
all success. We observe that it announces the formation of a Dublin 
Architectural and Archssological Institute. The illustration in this 
first number is Mr. Farrell's Coleraine Academical Institution — a most 
frightful building : enough to discourage any well-wisher from sub- 
scribing to the publication. The editor announces his intention of re- 
porting the proceedings of the S. Patrick's Ecclesiological Society 
among others. 

Mr. Wigley has published a translation of S. Charles Borromeo's 
most curious treatise on Church Buildings, illustrated by Mr. Nicholl 
by translations into Italian and Gothic of the author^s prescripts. We 
are compelled to reserve a further notice till next number. 

Mr. John W. Papworth, F.R.I.B.A., has put out a prospectus of 
what — if accomplished — will be a most useful work. This is an Alpha- 
betical Dictionary of Coats of Arms, which will form, as he says, " An 
Ordinary of British Armorials upon an entirely new plan, in which the 
Arms are systematically subdivided throughout, and so arranged in alpha- 
betical order, that the names of families, whose shields have been placed 
upon buildings, painted glass, seals, plate, brasses, and other sepulchral 
memorials, sculptured, or painted portraits, &c., whether mediseval or 
modern, can be readily ascertained." The novelty of the plan is that 
it is not the names of families that will be put in alphabetical order but 
the arms that they bear. Every antiquary knows how troublesome it 
often is to find out whose arms a particular shield may be. Mr. Pap- 
worth promises to include in his ordinary about 60,000 coats. The 
work can scarcely be published unless a sufficient number of subscribers 
is found ; and we hope that Mr. Papworth will receive the support 
which he deserves. The price is calculated at Two Guineas for the 
whole series. 

In last year's excursion of the Yorkshire and Lincolnshire Architec- 
tural Societies after their joint meeting at Doncaster, the two churches 
at Laughton were visited : and the shameful state of neglect in which 
S. John's especially was found excited most natural comment, and led to 
a spirited correspondence in the local journals. We hope that this will 
be the means of urging the authorities to greater energy in carrying 
out the needful repairs. 

We have not patience to describe the meanness, architectural as well 
as ecclesiological, of the fittings of the Chapel Royal for the late 
wedding. Never was such an opportunity so lost. 

76 Notices and Answers to Correspondents, 

A correspondent who has lately made a tour in France, found the 
Uses of Amiens, Beauvais, and Blois already gone, and the Roman Use 
substituted. That of Rouen is doomed to follow in two years, and at 
Tours the arrangements have all been made for the change. Coa- 
tances will follow Rouen. With one exception, our correspondent 
found every person with whom he conversed " furious " at the loss of 
their venerable Uses. Most of the dioceses have insisted, we learn, 
on a large proprium sanctorum. 

There is great merit and originality in Mr. Goldie's prize design 
for the Crimean Monument at Sheffield. A seated figure of Britannia 
is placed under an open Pointed canopy, with figures at each angle 
under canopies, the whole upon a large basement, which allows of 
memorial inscriptions to the Sheffield men who fell in the Crimean 
campaign. We are heartily glad that the judges decided in favour of 
this spirited attempt at a Pointed design. We are not quite satisfied 
with all the details. The basement is heavy, and has little Pointed 
character ; and the seated Britannia, though of much beauty and 
dignity, does not tell the story of the monument very plainly. But 
there is exceeding taste and delicacy in the management of the cano- 
pies and shafts, and other Pointed details, which lead us to think very 
highly of the capacities of the designer. 

We hear with especial satisfaction, that the deeply interesting 
church of S. Cross has been intrusted to Mr. Butterfield for thorough 
restoration. ^ * 

R. F. T. begs us to insert the following editorial reply to a corres- 
pondent, extracted from the Record of December 30, 1857. We agree 
with him that it makes more than one important admission, which 
should not be forgotten : — 

"'A Clerical Correspoudent.'— There can be no doubt that the right of 
directing the Service of the Church is in the miuister; but, to interfere with 
such a custom as that referred to, viz., — singing after the Gospel for the day 
has been read by the minister ' Thanks be to the Lord for His Holy Gospel,' 
would certainly be considered an srbitrary exercise of his authority, and such 
as the Ecclesiastioal Law would not sanction. The Rubric speciidly directs 
certain parts of the Service to be said or sungt and ' to sing with plain congre- 
gational music ' has been described by one of the highest authorities in such 
matters (the late Lord Stowell when Sir Wm. Scott), ' a practice fully autho- 
rised, particularly with respect to the concluding part of different portions of 
the Service.' The Curate in charge had better let this simple and pious prac- 
tice alone. He has no authority to restrict his parishioners to the number 
of times when they shall bow their heads at the mention of their Saviour's 
name. He may counsel, and advise, and instruct his people in what he may 
consider a more excellent way, but he has no other power over them in that 
respect.* '* 

Erratum, In the Report of the Cambridge Architectural Society in 
our last number, Mr. Luard*s name was misprinted Lisard. 

We are sorry to inform our readers that up to the moment of going 
to press, the plans to accompany the article on S. Canice Cathedral, 
Kilkenny, had by some accident not arrived from Ireland. 



"Sur^e (gUvr ct fac: et erit Somlnwi tcoim.* 

No. CXXV.— APRIL, 1858. 

(new SBEIE8, NO. LXXXIZ.) 

(Contimed/ramp. 55.) 

Thb kst Report forwarded to yoa» Mr. Editor, bjr the Norwegian Amo- 
ciation, is for 18M> and presents an alteration of form, as well as the 
addition of several very interesting engravings, mostly of ecdesiological 
yalae. The report itself presents little worthy of note here. The 
aasociatioo appears to have become firmly established, and to have 
gained for iti^ a sort of prescriptive right to be consulted, before the 
repair or sole (that purely Norwegian nee) of any ehureh throagbout 
the eoantry was undertaken. Such ai^lications on acooont of several 
timber churches are noted in this report. 

The report eonclodes by stating the meamre which had been adopted 
for the publication of what is asserted to be the very considerable col- 
lection of drawings now possessed by the society, beyond and in a 
larger form than, those which it had been determined thenceforward to 
append to each yearly report. To this resolution are due five numbers, 
continued in three parts, of plans and details of ancient Norwegian 
churches still in existence, with one exception, all of timber, which 
form together the most interestipg portion of the collections so liberally 
forwarded to you by the Norwegian Auociation f^r the preeervaiion qf 
memori^U ^ the oUen time. 

The fi^st number of these plates is devoted to the church of Hedal, 
in VaUers, situated to the north-west about six Norwegian miles from 
the head c^ the Spirilen lake in that district of Christiania Amt. and 
contains two plates, with a leaf of letterpress. The latter is occupied 
by the legend of the discovery of the church by two hunters in a wil- 
derness of birch trees which had grown up and filled a well-inhabited 
valley, the habitations and church of which had been emptied of their 
occupants and deserted after the prevalence of that fearful epidemic, 
the black death, {Digefddden, Swed.,) which, about the year 1350, 
destroyed two-thirds of the population of the Northern Peninsula. 


78 Norwegian Eeelesiohgy. 

The hunten' arrows shot at a bird, and, missing it, ran against the old 
church bell, when, after a superstitions ceremony, they entered the 
church, killed a bear which had taken up its quarters by the altar, hong 
up its skin (parts of it remaining to this day) in the church ; and co- 
lonists having again inhabited the valley, the church was restored to 
its proper use. This legend appears to be no older, however, than the 
end of the 17th century, and the letterpress gives no more particular 
date of the period of the re-discovery of the church of Hedal. In 1699, 
however, considerable additions were made to the old church. 

Still, although the carving of the ancient part of the church, which 
is singularly beautiful and perfect, indicates an earlier date than the 
middle of the fourteenth century, the account appended to the plates 
does not consider it to have been much older, chiefly because of the ap- 
parent date of the inscription on the oldest bell, — " Nicholas Angelus 
me fecit/' — ^a facsimile of which is given among the plates of the Re- 
port for 1854. To judge from the representation of the carved work 
in plate % I should be inclined to assign a much older date, by three 
hundred years, perhaps, to the church ; whilst there is no reason why 
the bell should not have been a later addition. 

The plan of the church is now cruciform ; but the three east, north, 
and south limbs are additions from the seventeenth century. The nave, 
which almost forms a square, 20 ft. by 15 ft., is the only ancient por- 
tion remaining, and is highly interesting. Representations are given 
of its plan, and its cross and longitudinal sections. It must have been 
nearly dark, being only lighted by small round openings, two on each 
side. It is surrounded by an outer covered aisle, the form of which 
slopes outward, to carry off wet from the foundations of the church. 
It is furnished with one narrow entrance, and the usual wall-bench 
appears occupying the three sides. The mode of construction, of thick, 
probably axe -hewn planks, morticed into each other, and supported by 
four ^ massive, circular comer pillars, and little, if any, iron used, is 
highly interesting. The ancient shaft was in all probability semi-cir- 
cular, crowned by its own round tower, (as in Hitterdal church,) inas- 
much as the eastern gable of the nave is planked of the same date as 
the rest of that portion of the building, although now covered by the 
modem central tower. A slight remains of the crown of the old 
chancel-arch moulding is still apparent in the centre of the cross timber 
east of the nave. Plate 2 is occupied by the wonderfully carved portal 
of the west door ; and the letterpress contains a short dissertation on 
this style of carving, which it attributes originally to Irish art, depre- 
cates its usual designation as Byzantine, and proposes the substitudon 
of the term Romanesque. The doorway is circular-headed, and very 
narrow, — only about two feet broad. The two side- jambs and heading 
are covered — the former for two feet each side, and the latter for three 
feet — by the most elegant and intricate carvings, in apparently high 
basso-relievo, of curves, serpents, arabesques, and omamentation, such 

* " The four Comer Posts mark the four cardinal Tirtuei, which are wisdom anc 
righteousness, fortitude and temperance.'*— See Homily for the Festival of the De. 
dication of a church, translated from the ancient Icelandic, BecUiiologiii, Vol. VII. 
p. 216. FaK. 1848. 

Norwegian Ecclesiohgy. 79 

as is to be found in MS. initials of the 10th and 11th centuries. The 
internal edge of each door-jamb forms a circular column and capital of 
about four inches diameter for the first and six inches for the second. The 
circular bases of these, as well as of the rest of the jambs, are quite plain. 
The door itself, which opens inwards, is adorned with lock, knocker, 
ring, and staples, of iron work, of the same style as the jamb carvings, 
in which, however, appear human figures, indicating probably a later 
date. The whole is in the most perfect state, with the exception of a 
portion, some seven inches square, which some barbarous traveller is 
stated to have cut out. The church bells are hung in a separate belfry, 
which is stated to be also very ancient. 

No. 2 of the plates, including Parts II. and III., is of more varied 
contents, giving as it does plans and views of the ancient stone church 
of Ringsaker, in Hedemarken Amt; and of the timber church of 
Reinhild, in the Valders district of Christiania Amt. Ringsaker church, 
dedicated to S. Cross, (the first time, almost, that the dedication of a 
church is mentioned in these collections,) according to the letterpress 
appended to the two plates given of it, is situated on the left bank of 
the long Miosen lake, and is one of the six Basilica-planned churches 
now existing from old times in Norway, including the cathedrals of 
Throndhjem and Stavanger. The church is. however, now a cross 
church, with a central tower, the three arms of the cross and the tower 
having been added subsequently to the first plan, which consists of 
nave, north and south aisles, and an apse of probably semicircular plan. 
These portions there is strong reason to believe were built by S. Olaf, 
about A.D. 1021, by foreign — probably English— workmen. The ad- 
ditions, consisting as above, of a lengthening to the choir, north choir- 
aisle, used as sacristy, tower and transepts, are of First-Pointed style, 
and were probably made about two hundred years later. They are of 
pure Anglo- Romanesque style, although, as is natural from their lo- 
cality, very plain and massive. 

The two plates present^ground-plan, sections in several points, a view 
of &e interior and one of the exterior, and various architectural details. 
The church is vaulted throughout, but the vault over the nave is proved 
evidently not to have been its original covering. There is a small crypt 
under the west portion of the choir, and also under the altar or high 
tomb in the south transept. The church possesses a valuable altar- 
piece of carved woodwork, and has retained its ancient crucifix, which 
the letterpress highly approves of. as far more appropriate and symbol- 
ically reasonable than the " plain, naked, grave-cross.*' The crucifix 
is referred to the 14th century, — the altar-piece to the middle of 
the 16th. 

The second series of plates in this part are devoted to the church of 
Reinhild, another timber church, situated near that of Hedal; and 
although much plainer in its ornamentation, apparently far more in- 
teresting than that ancient relic, from its more unaltered condition, and 
the completeness of its original ameublement. The church is perfect in 
all its dimensions as it was to all appearance first constructed, and con- 
sists of nave, chancel, and apse ; the two former of equal width, 20 ft. 
by 40 ft., and the latter semicircular, and raised on two steps. The 

80 Norwegian Ecclemhgy. 

chancel ib separated from tbe nave by a roodscreen, of wbich, unfor- 
tunately, no view is given. It is famished -with two traiMverBe benches, 
apparently original, as well as others along the sides ; and a small 
opening appears near the priests' door on the south side, jnst higher 
than the transverse benches, and between the two, which has in all 
probability been used as a confessional, — ^the penitents kneeling in the 
outside aisle which surrounds the whole church. In the apse, which 
is also surrounded by the external aisle, there is a small opening dosed 
by a shutter of window height. With these exceptions, tibe only other 
openings besides the priests* door and the south and west nave doors, 
are the same round, unglazed holes which were noted in Hedal church, 
and the external aisle is only provided with narrow slits, in the shape 
of windows. 

The nave is seated with cross benches on each side of the centre 
passage, a bench table likewise running along each side, and as it seems 
also on the north side of the central passage, outside the transverse 
bench-ends. The screen between the west end of the nave and the 
external aisle has a low, round-headed, arcaded opening into the latter, 
about the centre of its height, and is pierced also by smaller openings 
on each side of the entrance, the ones to the south being trefoil- 
headed. The consecration crosses, of the usual quatrefoil form, painted 
in black, remain on the inner walls, and are said to be the only instance 
of this in Norway, with one exception. Four nails, in an 'irregular 
cross form, mark an ancient grave in the south aisle. There are some 
peculiarities in the construction of this church, which is stated to be 
the only one that now shows the original open roof. 

Reinhild church is stated to have been originally a votive church, 
and although tradition refers its origin to the twelfth century, various 
parts of its construction, the trefoil heads to the doorways and other 
openings, and tbe few marks of ornamentation it possesses, as at the 
door jambs, would seem to indicate for it a Pirst-Pointed date, at any 
rate not older than 1250. and it is certainly not more recent than the 
fifteenth century. It is altogether a highly interesting remain, and 
with other churches of timber in Norway, must present very instruc- 
tive hints of construction for churches of that material now. The 
plates give various plans, sections, and perspective views of this church, 
which seems to be in good preservation, and must altogether present a 
very picturesque appearance. Its dimensions are somewhat larger than 
those of Hedal church, which was originally probably of the same plan, 
the remaining ancient portion consisting only of the nave. 

The third number of plates, containing Parts IV. and V., is de- 
voted again to the details of two timber churches, those of Humm and 
Lomen, also situated in the Valders district. These two churches re- 
semble each other very closely, and differ as much from the other timber 
churches whose construction we have been considering. They approach 
much more nearly to the plan of Hitterdal church, but are rather of a 
character peculiar to themselves. They appear to be referable to a 
very early date, possibly to the twelfth century, and are certainly not 
more recent than the middle of the thirteenth ; older therefore by ICK) 
years at least than the oldest we have yet met with. The letter^preas 

Norwegian Maderiohgy^ 81 

aooompanyiog the plates contains a well«draini comparison between 
these timber chnrches and stone basilicas, to which it considers them 
to correspond in timber architecture, and which comparison the plates 
of their ground-plan, sections, construction, and ornamentation would 
seem very fully to bear out. Hurum church is now reduced to a square 
haU» the chancel and probably semicircular apse being both removed. 
Lomen, on the other hand, still possesses the chancel, as in Hitterdal 
church, the apse only being missing. They are both furnished with 
triforium, represented by an open gallery and by a clerestory. Huram 
still retains its original bell-turret for two bells, which Lomen wants : 
both are destitute of the external aisle which, as in other instances, 
doubtless surrounded them. Neither the plates nor the letter-press 
give any sufficiently distinct idea of the present internal condition of 
tiie churches, whilst they furnish ample details of the intricately carved 
woodwork of the portals and other portions, which resemble closely 
that already described at Hedal. The carved door-posts and arch of 
the roodscreen of Hurum are still preserved in this church, though the 
screen itself has vanished. Unfortunately, much of this carved-work 
is irreparably injured by the doors having been altered so as to open 
outwards instead of as originally constructed, inwards, which was car- 
ried out throughout most of the Norwegian churches in obedience to a 
royal mandate in 1823, published in consequence of the difficulty and 
loss of life occasioned by the occurrence of a fire in a timber church, 
whose inward opening door prevented the congregation from getting 

Numbers of small nails appear irregularly fixed in the upper cross- 
beams of the side walls and sides of the chancel arch of Lomen church, 
which it is supposed were the means by which the hangings usual on 
feast days in old times were fastened to the walls. 

The arcading in Lomen church appears to show a slight approach to 
the trefoiled form, whereas that of Hurum is throughout round-headed, 
and this forms the only difference in the construction of the two ; but 
can scarcely be deemed of sufficient importance to prove a more recent 
date for the former. 

Four other plates appear among the collections you have forwarded 
to me, which 1 cannot refer to any particular place ; they are published 
however by the Association, and three of them are devoted to Hoveddn 
ruins. One giving a view of part of them, another a ground-plan 
and two grave- stones found there, with Lombardic inscriptions, both 
over women ; the inscriptions being in old Norwegian, with the excep- 
tion of the pious Requiescat in pace, and two legends on scrolls on the 
largest of the two. Neither stone shows the date, which must how- 
ever for both have been of the twelfth century. The one of these 
grave-stones over Cecilia, widow of Hawpov, is interesting from 
the costume of the kneeling female figure it represents holding a 
scroll with the legend, Or a : mente : pia : pro : nobie : wrgo : Maria^ 
whilst over her head and before her appears a hand holding another 
scroll bearing the single word Testamentum, and above is suspended a 
lamp with a right hand descending from the centre point in an attitude 
of benediction (the third and fourth fingers closed). The whole de- 

82 Norwegian Eeelesiology. 

sign is terminated above hj a trefoiled arch with Romanesque foliage 
in the spandrils and supported on First- Pointed capitals. 

The other grave-stone is plain, and its inscription only shows the 
burial place of Ragnhilder, wife of Holta Biamar. 

The third plate shows six more encaustic tUes from Hovedon, of half 
size, and the fourth gives the back and side view of an ancient so- 
called bride-stool or chair, which appears to have belonged to the fur- 
niture of the ancient Norwegian churches. 

To return now to the report for 1854, and the interesting engravings 
appended to it. They consist of three representations of Runic me- 
morial stones, with carvings on them very similar to those found in the 
incised stones of Scotland, and which bear no marks of belonging to 
the Christian era of the North ; two plates of bride and bridegroom's 
chairs from LiUehereda and Hitterdal churches, both adorned with the 
usual Romanesque carving, together with the base, bason and section 
of a curious Romanesque font from Roen church in Valders district, which 
is moreover remarkable in being hexagonal instead of octagonal in the 
divisions of its circular shape ; two plates of the timber churches of 
Grandshered and Sondland in Thelermarken district, which only pre- 
sent perspective views, and appear to have been more altered and mo- 
dernized than those we have described previously ; two plates of small 
ancient domestic buildings of timber, evidently of great antiquity ; 
one plate representing a very beautiful double altar candlestick from 
Gaupne church. This is not coloured, but appears to be of the same date 
and age as that described at the commencement of this paper, though 
it is of different workmanship, the base being four-sided and of open- 
work, representing on each side one of the evangelistic symbols, each 
standing on a grotesque head, and surrounded by Byzantine and Ro- 
manesque arabesques, the four comers being formed by dragonlike 
animals, whose heads form the feet, and seem crushed ; a short hex- 
agonal shaft rises over the base from a square plinth and terminates 
in a long spiral pointed process, on which revolve the double candle 
branches proceeding from a polygonal socket, and formed of inter- 
lacing branches and trefoil foliage, each bearing at its extremity the dish 
for supporting the candles, or perhaps rather the lamps, as no prickets 
appear. Unfortunately no description of this tasteful and appropriate 
work is given, nor is any scale furnished. This is followed by draw- 
ings of a two-light First-Pointed window in Bergen cathedral, with 
section ; two plates of Bergen's ancient and modern seals ; and lastly, 
by the inscription already alluded to on the old bell of Hedal church, 
the characters of which are very peculiar. 

No list of new members received into the Association in 1854 
is given. 

There only remains for me to notice a small hand-book published by 
the Association, which forms a sort of guide to Norwegian antiquities, 
chiefly of an ecclesiological character, and which is compiled by M. 
Nicolaysen, and accompanied the Association's Report for 1854. It 
may be a very useful companion to any of our friends who may visit 
Norway. It is published by Carl C. Werner and Co., of Christiania. 

My task is now concluded, and 1 leave with some regret these 

Some Remarks on Olass Painting. 88 

records of congenial work, undertaken and carried out so manifestly as 
a labour of love, and generally in the Catholic spirit which the study 
of Christian antiquity is so well calculated to foster in the old Norwe- 
gian realm — Gamie Norge — so considerable a component part of that 
Scandinavia, where I have spent so large a portion of my life, and 
which is so closely connected by so many ancient relations of friend* 
ship and enmity, of mutual colonization, and'lastly, of Christian descent, 
with the old isle of saints. 

I will return to you, dear Mr. Editor, the interesting collections 
I have retained for so long by an early opportunity, with renewed 
apologies for having been so dilatory in reporting on them. 

Yours ever, 

G. J. R. Gordon. 

{Continued from p, 8.) 

II. But further, if naturalistic representation fails when applied to 
such subjects, mainly, because there is always in them this hidden 
moral element which such a principle can never reach, in what it 
does give us there is often that which is not wanted — is even in* 
jurious to the reverent effect of the whole. There are many things in 
nature which we do not desire to have pointed out to us. They are 
there ; and because they are so we endure them, forgetting them in 
the contemplation of what is more beautiful; but we by no means 
wish to have them unnecessarily thrust into view, e, g, what is de- 
formed, or ungraceful. There are also lusus natttnB — freaks of nature, 
seemingly thrown off in the wantonness of creative power — ^remark- 
able for their eccentricity and violation of the general rule of her 
proceedings. There are features of the human face, again, so ludi- 
crously exaggerated, as almost irresistibly to attract attention as de- 
viations from the usual type. Gestures, again, essentially awkward 
and vulgar ; moral faults too, to be found in the world ; little mean- 
nesses of thought and action which exist in those about us, but 
of which we do not wish to be continually reminded, which we would 
much rather forget if we can. All these exist, and may be found any 
day, if men will take the trouble to look for them ; but, generally speak- 
ing, the search for them is not very interesting, nor when successful 
very profitable. 

Just in the same way it is quite conceivable, that at any one of these 
Scripture events there might be visible, to any one who had chosen 
to look for it, much which would not bear to be re-produced. Much 
which is not evil in itself, nor indicative of evil, but whose introduc- 
tion into a picture would be injurious to the general effect, might 
lower its character by throwing over it a shade of grotesqueness. 

For example, at any one of our Loan's miracles it is quite possible, 
that among those present there might be some expressions of the varied 
feelings which actuated the different spectators, that would be of a gro- 

84 Same Remarks on GIa$$ Painiing. 

tesqae nature. Let any one watch, for a short time only, the ezpreseiona 
in the faces of any considerable crowd, and he will be convinced of 
this. And yet it may be urged, and quite consistently on naturalistic 
principles, that these must be taken into account ; and that any picture 
which omitted to do this, would be a very tame and spiritless yeraion 
of the event. In (act, the chief merit of all such pictures lies in the 
truthfulness and accuracy (^ the expressions thrown into the fiaoes 
of individuals. Let any one of Hogarth's pictures be examined, and 
it will be seen that here their chief mmt lies. But if the object be to 
paint a picture of the miracle, and not of its effects on the minds of 
the immediate spectators, is it not possible to do this without descend- 
ing to all the shades of character which may have been visible in the 
countenances of those who witnessed it ? 

And yet here is the mistake which naturalistic painters are in danger 
of making, in their zeal to reproduce the scenes exactly as they may 
be supposed to have occurred. 

In the parish church of Halifax there is a window which exhibits 
this unfortunate tendency. It forms one of a pair which have quite 
lately been put up : and it is perhaps somewhat difficult rightly to 
assign their due position in the classification which has, in these papers* 
been suggested for glass paintings ; they seem to occupy a sort of 
middle position between the two classes. On the one hand, in the 
drawing and arrangement of the figures in the absence of any attempt 
at natural back grounds — ^in the costume of the figures — in the cano* 
pies which overshadow them — in the rule being well observed, that the 
figures themselves should be confined within the spaces marked out by 
the mullions — in the glory round the heads of the principal figures — 
the keys in the hand, &c. ; in these and such-like details there is ex- 
hibited a strong mediaeval tendency ; and certainly so far a tendency 
which has a good effect Perhaps it would have been as well if this 
tendency had been shown less in the drawing of the figures, and more 
in the adoption of the symbols by which the mediaeval artist sought to 
suggest, rather than to display the great truths of his faith. On the 
other hand, in the object of the artist being apparently more to repre- 
sent what was the effect of the two great events, which are the respec- 
tive subjects of the windows, on the minds of the bystanders, rather 
than to depict the events themselves, and so to deal, as it were, with 
the human side of the question in preference to what may be called 
the Divine, there is shown a decided leaning to modem views. 

In point of fact, here lies the grand distinction between the ancient 
and the modem view. With the old painters the object most important 
was to bring out, strongly and clearly, before the eye of the spectator 
the real character of the miracle, or whatever was the subject of their 
picture — that it was the work of God ; not caring much, apparently, 
whether the accessories of the picture were, or were not, in a strict 
sense historically trae or false. This being their object, an ideal view 
came naturally to be adopted ; a view which the mind might take ab- 
stractedly from all consideration of outward circumstances ; and many 
little details were thus allowably introduced which, though historically 
false, were yet eminently calculated to assist in suggesting to the minds 

Some Remarks on CHass Painting. 85 

of the beholden the view which the painter wiahed them to take of his 
subject. It ia on this ground that such things as the symbolical keys 
in the hands of S. Peter» in Raphael's cartoon of the Charge to Peter, 
and the various symbols which mediaeval painters did not hesitate to 
adopt, even when dealing with matters which are the subjects of sacred 
history, are to be defended. With the modems on the other hand, the 
preference seems almost always to be given to the strictly human side 
of the question: the object appears to be the correct delineation of 
human passion and feeling. And this difference of view is observable 
in their respective works. While with the ancient, were an old and a 
modem painter to engage to paint the same miracle, the great object 
in view would be to impress on the mind of the spectator that what he 
was engaged in painting was no work of man, or the things of man, 
but the immediate act of God, and so his thoughts would mainly be 
taken up with considering what were the best means in his power for 
expressing this truth : the attention of the other would be given chiefly 
to the expression in his figures of what he conceived would be their 
feeling. He would place himself in the position of an unconcerned 
spectator, and calmly watching what were the effects of the miracle on 
the minds of men, would carefully note all these in his memory as the 
legitimate subjects of his pencil. 

In this respect, then, as well as in the subject being extended over 
the whole surfeu^ of the opening, these windows approximate to the 
natural school : in other points their treatment is decidedly mediseval. 
Hie subject of the one which exhibits the tendency to thrust promi- 
nently forward what is in itself unworthy, is the healing of the cripple 
by Peter and John, recorded in Acts iii. The moment chosen is just 
when the miracle is complete, and the afflicted, but now restored, crip- 
ple has fallen in awe and thankfulness before the feet of the wonderful 
men, at whose hands he has just received so signal a benefit. So far 
all is well ; there is exhibited here, it is tme, too great a tendency to 
imitate the defective drawing of the old glass ; but not offensively so. 
But here steps in the inevitable tendency of naturalistic principles by 
the imitation of low and common forms to lower the subjects with 
which they deal. One of the bystanders is represented as so carried 
away by astonishment at what he has just seen, as to be scratching hie 
head with an expression in his face of most intense perplexity. 

Here then is an instance of the tendency alluded to — that naturaUstie 
principles, when wholly followed out in all their consequences, often 
give us what perhaps may be tme to nature, or tme in fact, but which 
if represented has an invincible tendency to lower in our estimation 
sacred subjects. 

But who is here in fault ? The painter or his school ? The painter — 
in so far as out of many natural, i.e., customary expressions of the feel« 
ing he has chosen that which is essentially vulgar and awkward ; the 
school — inasmuch as by perpetually holding up nature as she now is, as 
the only tme model from which a painter should copy, it has rendered it 
possible for him to make such a mistake. From constantly proclaiming 
that the external world is the only storehouse from which a painter 
should derive his facts, the transition is easy to holding that what is, is 


86 On Anker-fFindaws or Lyehnoscopes. 

the most perfect that can be ; and what is natural in the sense of being 
usual and common soon comes to be considered natural in the sense of 
being appropriate and fitting. For instance, one can easily imagine the 
artist, in the present instance, setting himself to the task of studying 
what are the usual modes for giving expression to this feeling, and 
finding the awkward action of scratching the head to be among the most 
common ; and then firom this it is a short step to the conclusion, that 
what in this sense is natural is also proper. The great fault lies in the 
forgetfulness that nature is not now what she once was, and what she 
will be once again nn the future ; and that so fallen is man from his 
original purity, that neither he nor his works are fit to be brought 
into contact with things divine, except they first undergo a transfer- 
mation. Even the natural expressions of his feeling of gratefulness for 
divine goodness are not always worthy of the occasion which calls 
them forth. 

G. R. F. 


7b the Editor of the Ecclesiologist. 

Dear Sib, — Your instructive review of Messrs. Graves and Prim's 
<* History, Architecture, and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church of 
S. Canice, Kilkenny," did not notice one matter of not inconsiderable 
interest. Permit me to repair the omission. 

It seems to me that a passage quoted at page 68, by those able 
authors, from the curious MS. tract De Ossoriensi Dicescesi, written 
in Latin, in the early part of the 17th century, by David Roth, Roman 
Catholic Bishop of Ossory, sets at rest the long disputed question 
about '* lychnoscopic " windows. It must be premised that in the 
existing Kilkenny cathedral, there still remain traces on the north 
side of the choir or chancel of an " anker-house," with a *' low side 
window," commanding from the exterior a view of the high altar, such 
as any ecclesiologist would at once set down as a " lychnoscope." The 
remains of foundations, &c. showing that at one time there was an 
appended structure attached to the exterior wall of the choir are not 
unexampled in other instances. What has always been wanting in 
the innumerable discussions, in your own pages and elsewhere, as to 
the use and meaning of these strange windows, has been something 
like a contemporary account of them. The nearest approach to this 
is certainly the little tract from which our authors quote the description 
of the cathedral. Now listen to what Bishop David Roth says of this 
fenestration and its use. " lu aquilonari latere chori contigua muro ex- 
teriori ecclesie hserebat cella anachoretica, ex qua per fenestellam 
lapideam, quse inibi posita erat in pariete ad dexterum comu summi 
altaris, nempe a parte Evangelii, divina mysteria dum peragentur pro« 
spicere poterat inclusus anachoreta." May we not accept this as a solu- 
tion of the vexed question of these puzzling windows } It appears to me 
— but I invite the attention of yourself and your readers to the point — 

On Anker-Windows or Lycknoscopes, 87 

that all the special characteristics of so-called lychnoscopes, as generally 
observed in English churches, are expluned and accounted for by this 
hint. For instance, the general situation of the window, its evident 
direction towards the altar, and its manifest adaptation for being used 
from without, are all satisfied by this hypothesis. And the existence 
of more than one in the same church would be explained by the cir- 
cumstance — surely not improbable — that two anchorites might fix 
their choice on the same altar. Thus too, we may account for the 
capricious way in which certain districts abound in these windows, 
whOe in others they are either rare, or altogether absent. There was a 
tohion in turning anchorite, as in other things : and the example was 
probably catching. Unless I am much mistaken, this theory is far less 
improbable than those which have supposed lepers, or Cagots, or way- 
farers desiring confession, to be the parties for whose use these hitherto 
inexplicable windows were constructed. And in the total abandon- 
ment of the practice since thfi Reformation, we may easily understand 
why the windows became blocked, the cells or hermitages ruined — 
(they were probably often merely wooden huts,) — and the whole mat- 
ter forgotten. In Ireland, it is possible that the custom did not be- 
come so soon obsolete ; and, independently of the tradition that seems 
to have survived at Kilkenny, Bishop Roth may have spoken from 
actual knowledge of cases in his own communion. Indeed, he speaks 
of rules for anchorites "quae hoc tempore observantur, in ista quae 
nunc superest anachoresi." 

The only argument on the other side seems to be the improbability 
that anchorets were ever so numerous as the commonness of lychnos- 
copic windows would seem to imply. But, not to mention that this 
reason tells just as strongly against the Cagot or leper theory, it may 
be remarked that a low side window would probably be inserted in a 
chancel-wall on occasion of an anchorite devoting himself, or herself, 
to a particular church ; and, when the cell became vacant by death, 
the window would remain, shuttered or blocked, even though the her- 
mitage might become dilapidated or be removed. There is no reason 
to suppose that each cell was always tenanted. However, that an- 
chorites were really very numerous seems to be highly probable. 
Bishop Roth himself adds the following remark to his account of the 
Kilkenny cell. " Bratque in pluribus hujus regni ecclesiis principalibus 
pia ilia observatio tenendse colendseque Anachoreseos, sicuti de cella S. 
Imarii diximus in ecclesia Armachana,*' &c. And he goes on to men- 
tion cells at Lismore, Aghure, and Fore. Messrs. Graves and Prim 
thus describe the ruined cell at Kilkenny. •• The floor of the cell," 
they say, " was nearly four feet below the level of the choir, and the 
remains of the earlier church had evidently been adapted for that pur- 
pose ; at the south-west angle there is a niche in the choir wall three 
feet eight inches wide, and of shallow depth ; this is approached by 
three steps, and if entirely freed from masonry would doubtless be 
found to contain the fenestella lapidea, or ' low side window ' com- 
manding a view of the high altar." In a note upon this the accom- 
plished writers pursue the subject in a very interesting way. They 
add some examples to those mentioned by Bishop Roth, and notice the 

88 M* Rrichengperger on the Associationg 

curious fact that Marianus SootuB. the annaliat, was "an induse." 
They refer also (quoting the Archeological Journal, VoL XI. for tbdr 
authority,) to a rule drawn up in the 9^ or )Oth century by (jrimlaic» 
an anchorite himself, requiring that such recluses should have oells 
near churches, and to a Bavarian Rule directing the cell to be of stone 
with one of the three windows opening into the choir for the purpose 
of sacramental reception. English examples are instanced' at Norwich 
cathedral, and at Wilbraham, Cambridgeshire ; and it is expressly said 
that '' many anker-houses were wooden structures close to the church, 
so that their occupants dwelt, as the author of ' The Ancren Riwle,' 
of the 13th century, published by the Camden Society, says, under 
the eaves of the church." Finally they quote several bequests which 
show that ankers and incluses of both sexes were fur from uncommon 
in the middle ages in various English dioceses. A great deal of 
curious information on the subject of iinohorites, will be found among 
the appendices to Fosbroke*s Briiish Monachiam^ They seem to have 
been called "ankers" in the vernacular; and thence I venture to 
borrow the term " anker- windows " for what have hitherto been called 
" lychnoscopes." 

I shall be much obliged if you will admit this letter as a means of 
calling the attention of ecclesiologists to the subject. 1 doubt not 
that some of your former correspondents will be able to throw much 
light on the matter, if they will fairly consider the claims of this new 
theory of the origin and use of low side windows ; and in the hope of 
provoking some such communication, 

I remain. 

Yours faithfully, 



To the Editor of the Ecclesiologist. 

Sib, — It is difficult, especially in the land of " self-government," to 
form an idea of the pressure which the German bureaucracy formerly 
exercised, by the aid of centralization, even in the intellectual world. 
The events of 1848, so disastrous in themselves, have produced the 
salutary effect of relaxing the said system. Above all other bodies, the 
Church, powerful through its organization and its past, has made a start. 
While a congress of bishops at Wurzburg drew up the indefeasible 
demands of the Church, and Catholic deputies contended for her liberty 
in the parliaments of Frankfort and Berlin, the inferior clergy and the 
people seconded these efforts by associations in behalf of all the 
different branches of Christian activity. It was at the Catholic con- 
gress of Linz on the Danube, (in Austria,) held in 1850, that a formal 
resolution was passed to found a general association for the regenera- 
tion of Christian Art, and I was honoured with a commission to draw 
up its statutes. 

for the advancement of Christian Art in Germany. 89 

My scheme was debated upon in the general congress held at 
Mayence in 1861, and adopted with some modifications. In each 
diocese there is a committee, nominated at first by the bishop, and 
renewed periodically on presentation, and besides these there is a di- 
recting committee, which now assembles at Cologne, where also the 
organ of the association, the " Organ fUr christliche Kun$tt' appears. 
I could not, without entering into very minute details, lay open to view 
all the works of the rather complicated machinery. Its fundamental 
and ruling principle is, on the one hand, to give the association a 
solid and permanent construction, by making it rest on the hierarchic 
order of the Church ; on the other, to leave as much liberty as possible 
to the local committees, so that the influence exerted from above, and 
especially by the directing committee, is moral rather than material. 
We are. aiming at a gradual and spontaneous developement. Thus 
there are several dioceses in which the first stone has yet to be laid : 
in others there is only a feeble beginning. Those of Cologne, Treves, 
Paderbom, Munster, Rottenburg, Bamberg, Breslau, Munich, and 
Ratisbon have taken the lead : they already possess museums of con- 
siderable extent, and an activity which has produced great results. 
Thanks to the influence of the bishops, the priests, in whose power 
most of our monuments and objects of art lie, submit to the control of 
the committees in all that relates to those objects and the new instruc- 
tions. Besides the official organ and the directing committee, there 
are annnal congresses, which serve as rallying points. The first of 
these congresses took place at Cologne in 1856, the second at Ratis- 
bon last year, the next will be held at Paderbom in September, 1858. 
llras by degrees all the members come into contact one with another 
and witii the populations, mutual explanations are given with respect 
to the principles to be followed, questions are put, criticisms passed on 
that which has been done, and lastly, subjects to be treated of are 
proposed. It was thus that a very remarkable monography, lately 
published by the committee of Rottenburg in the kingdom of Wiir. 
temburg, originated. It is hardly necessary to state that the rules 
laid down by the Church are studied and observed above all things, 
and, next to these, national tradition previous to the irruption of neo- 
paganism. As the Church does not enjoin any particular style, the 
Gothic system, as it is called, that glorious conquest of the Germanic 
race, serves us for a basis and point of departure ; and I can confidently 
say that it has taken fresh root everywhere. Everywhere one may see 
encouraging symptoms with respect to the future of Christian art, in 
spite of the stubborn resistance of the architectural bureaucracy, which 
thinks itself exclusively privileged to disfigure our churches* and to 
substitute its own fancies for the great principles of our national art. 
As the progressive movement of which I am treating, and the means 
by which it is advanced, essentially resemble what is taking place 
in the same direction in France and England, I will not extend my 
theme to a greater length, but I shall be happy to give further expla- 
nations on any point that may be of special interest to the readers of 
the Ecclesiologist, 

Before concluding my sketch, I think I ought to say a few words in 

90 M. Reichensperger on the AssociaiionSf Sfc. 

addition on two recent publicationB relating to our German Art» namely 
an Eesay by Mr. G. E. Street •• On German Pointed Architecture/' 
published in the EcclesiologUt, and the " Lettres addresses d'AUe- 
magne k M. A. Lance/' by M. Viollet Leduc. I hail these produc- 
tions in general, as indicating that international relations will increase 
more and more. Mediaeval art constitutes, so to speak, a single 
language, of which no one will ever attain a complete knowledge 
without studying its different dialects. The names of the authors are 
in themselves a warrant for the importance of their observations. Mr. 
Street, who bestows bis attention exclusively on our mediaeval monu- 
ments, gives a rapid sketch of them, taken in a bird-like flight. 
Though several important facts have escaped him, I was surprised at 
the justness of his views in general, and at the facility with which he 
sees his way. As one of the facts referred to, I may mention his over- 
looking the church of S. Mary at Treves, which is an essential link in 
the chain of our Gothic monuments. In the next place I think that 
he has not sufficiently fixed his attention on the monuments of the 
Saxon countries, in which our architecture made the first efforts at 
transforming the Basilican style. Lastly, he seems to me rather too 
severe towards our architects of the fifteenth century. The ultra* 
geometric development of the Gothic style is a fault common to all 
the architects of that period ; no country is entitled to reproach ano- 
ther on that score. 

As to M. Viollet Leduc, it is needless to say that his pamphlet 
abounds with acute observations and marks of intelligence. But I 
boldly assert, and I am prepared to prove it at length, that he is 
unacquainted with the Germany of the present day ; that he speaks 
at the same time too well and too ill of it. One may see, almost in 
every page, that he has not attentively observed the tendencies which 
are struggling together on the soil of my country, and that he is not 
conversant with our most remarkable scientific labours. It would not 
be difficult to borrow from our author himself the materials of a pretty 
effective refutation. If he reproaches the genius of Germany with 
a superabundance of ideas, I think I can retort this charge upon him : 
for his ideas are not sufficiently supported by facts. In short, M. 
Viollet Leduc's letter gives me the impression of its having been 
written with an object analogous to that of the Germania of Tacitus ; 
as if he had wished to hold up to his fellow-countrymen a mirror re- 
flecting their own faults. It is very difficult, while merely travelling 
over a few lines of railway belonging to a great nation, with whose 
very language one is unacquainted, to form a just idea of its physi- 
ognomy and its peculiar genius. 

The only object of these few lines is to put the reader on his guard 
against the assertions of M . Viollet Leduc, whose merits and eminent 
position give importance to all that he says. 




Thb capita] of New Zealand is. we are glad to say, about to be en* 
riched witb a parish church, of dignified architecture and ecclesiastical 
arrangement, from the designs of Mr. Butterfield. Standing as S. 
Matthew's will do in its churchyard, with light admitted on every 
side, none of the expedients which have perforce been adopted in All 
Saints', Margaret Street, have here been necessary. At the same time, 
a difficulty in the existence of fierce and variable winds had to be forecast, 
and, as we shall see, has been ably overcome. The plan of the church 
consists, beginning from the east, of a chancel ', with a north aisle of a 
single bay to its western portion, continued as a vestry along the sanc- 
tuary, from which at right angles projects a gabled sexton's room ; of 
a clerestoried nave and aisles of four bays ; a tower to the west end of 
the north aisle ; and of a lean-to narthex to the west. This last arrange- 
ment has been adopted as a guard against the violence of the wind. 
The tower has a north and a west door, one of these being open, and 
the other shut, according to the direction of the enemy. In either 
case this tower opens by an arch into the narthex, and that by a single 
arch, centrically placed, into the body of the church, whose inmates are 
thus protected against the unseasonable storm. The style of the 
church, we need hardly say, is Early Middle-Pointed. The nave arches, 
of the broad and vigorous type characteristic of the architect, are borne 
centrally on a circular, and east and west on quatrefoiled pillars. 
the semi-circular responds supplementing the alternation. The clere- 
story, of large dimensions, is very felicitous, and consists of a large 
rose traceried of a central sexfoil, and six unfoliated circles, set under 
a large obtusely-pointed arch, visible both inside and out. The aisle 
windows, of coupled unfoliated lights, are hardly large enough in pro- 
portion, and would, we think, be improved if a third light were added, 
so as to produce more the effect of arcading. The west windows of 
the aisles are of two lights under a head, and the windows of the nar- 
thex resemble those of the aisle. The west window, of four lights and 
two sub-fenestrations, is bold and dignified, superior to the east window 
of three lights, which is somewhat heavy, and devoid of character. On 
the south of the chancel is a lofty two-light window, with a smaller 
one of a single light in immediate juxta-position to the east. We 
should advise this arrangement being re -considered. The chancel rises 
a single step above the nave, the pulpit being placed against the north 
respond, and is furnished with two rows of stall-like seats, the most 
western on each side of the upper row being marked off for the two 
clergy. The sanctuary rises upon another step, and is further defined 
by a pilaster shaft springing from the ground. The altar is moreover 
placed upon an ample footpace. To the south are the sedilia, wooden 
seats in a recessed arch. The reredos is composed of a sculptured 
band under the window, against which are apposed the four capitals 
of pilasters, of which the centre two define the length of the altar, and 

92 One-Stop Organs for Small Churches. 

the outer the width of the window above. The design would be im- 
proyed if this band projected, and was supported by the capitals. As 
it is, the pilasters are rather long, and their function is not very ap- 
parent. Indeed, we should advise the re-consideration of the whole 
east end. The organ will be placed in the north chancel-aisle. We 
do not much like the tracery of the rose in the gable of the sexton's 
room. The font is to be placed centrically in the most western bay, 
which will be kept free of seats. The nave-roof, we fear, will display 
somewhat a prodigality of vertical boarding in its different principals. 
Is not this a stone idea translated literally into wood ? In the tower 
the belfry stage rises open and well above the ridge, and is lighted by 
coupled two-light windows, set in a quadrangular recess. The spire 
will be a broach, of stone, of the All Saints' type. The material is local 
stone, of two colours. The more dark and expensive one is of a rather 
deep blue, the other greenish. These will be internally banded, while 
on the outside a chequered pattern is offered in the upper portion of the 
clerestory wall. The broach is banded of the two hues. The roof 
must be of finglish slate, as the only local material available is a very 
perishable description of shingle. The dimensions are — nave, exclusive 
of the narthez, 64 ft. long internally ; chancel, 30 ft. ; breadth of nave 
and aisles, 47 ft. in. ; walls, ^ ft. 3 in. ; chancel, M ft. broad ; tower, 
74 ft. 6in. ; spire, 63^; the steeple altogether, 1^ ft. As a whole, 
we think this design a very successful one of its distinguished author, 
possessing as it does that stamp of grave dignity which is characteristic 
of his style. Upon its value in its antipodean locaie^ as a model for 
other and indigenous attempts, we need not enlarge. 


Scudamore Organs; or. Practical Hints Respecting Organs for Village 
Churches or Small Chancels, on Improved Principles. By the Rev. 
John Baron, M.A., Rector of Upton Scudamore. With designs by 
Gborgb Edmund Stbxxt, F.S.A. London: Bell and Daldy. 1858. 

Under this somewhat affected title, and perhaps in rather too flippant a 
style, Mr. Baron has written a most valuable and instructive little book. 
Its object is to show, not only theoretically but practically, that there 
is no necessity for an expensive and cumbrous organ in a small church ; 
but that a simple instrument, of one stop, may be not only highly 
ornamental to the building, but quite sufficient for sustaining the mu- 
sical part of Divine Service. Fortnnate in having an organ-builder, 
Mr. Hall, as his own parishioner in Upton Scudamore, Mr. Baron was 
able to have a single-stop organ manufactured for his own church 
under bis own eye as an experiment. He avers that the result was 
most successful, llie frontispiece of his volume shows this small 
organ, very prettily designed by Mr. Street, bracketed out on the north 
wall of the chancel, — occupying no space at all on the ground-floor. 

One-Stop Organs for Small Churches. 98 

and 80 shallow as to present no obstruction . whatever in the general 
▼iew of the interior. In fact the dimensions of this organ are only 
4 ft. from east to west, with a projection of 1 ft. 3 in. 

In explaining and recommendiog this new invention — ^for it is 
scarcely less than that — Mr. Baron discusses the whole subject very 
thoroughly. We think indeed he carries his point rather too far. For 
undoubtedly there are churches where a large organ is altogether de* 
sirable : and fine organ-playing is not to be discouraged at the right 
time and in the right place. Mr. Baron — ^naturally enough, perhaps — 
seems to think that an organ can properly have no function except to 
support the singing of the choir. But there is surely room, in Divine 
worship, for the perfection of instrumental music. However, for the 
most part we go heartily along with our author. 

He points out that the essential parts of an organ are " a set of keys, 
with the requisite action to carry onward the touch of the player ; a 
bellows ; a wind-trunk ; a wind-chest ; and the pipes ; with sufficient 
framework to hold these parts together, or at least connect them in 
working order." He urges thi^t these parts must be so arranged as to 
ensure their best efficiency ; to which end the designer of the case and 
the organ-builder should work in concert. And he pleads for the ele- 
vation of the organ above the heads of the people, and against its 
being buried in chambers or out-of-the-way recesses of the church. 
And especially, as his chief object is to show that a village parish 
church need not have an organ that shall cost more than £10, he 
labours to prove that, for the purpose of merely directing and support- 
ing the singing, a single stop, and a range of notes from C^ to G^ will 
be sufficient. This of course is the minimum. " Such an organ," he 
says, " if properly voiced and played, will have a clear, ringing, truth- 
ful tone, far superior to the coarse, harsh, growling, and yet muffled 
tone of the harmonium, and also to the thin wiry tones of the sera- 

Arguing against the undue multiplication of stops even in organs of 
more pretension, Mr. Baron recommends the selection of an Open 
Diapason from tenor C to c* in alt., and a Stopped Diapason, Principal, 
throughout from CC to c' in alt. Mr. Hall has built organs of this 
compass for S. Thomas's church, Oxford, and West Pennsrd, Somer- 
setshire, at a cost of £70. And for £10 more he has added, — as for 
instance, in the chancel organ in the parish church of Cuddesdon, — an 
extension of the Open Diapason to CC. For the Theological College 
at Cuddesdon, and for the new church of Charlton, in the parish 
of Wantage, the same builder has constructed organs with Stopped 
Diapason and Dulciana Principal — both throughout from CC to c' in 
alt. : and the space occupied in these instruments has been only 6 ft. by 
1 ft. 6 in. All these are hanging organs, to be fixed to the wall by 
brackets : but Mr. Street has furnished other designs for cabinet organs 
which can stand detached from the wall, and yet occupy but very little 

Often as we have suffered ourselves under the noise made by what 
Sir Henry Dryden calls " bumptious country organists," we can sym- 
pathise with Mr. Baron*s wish that ordinary small churches should be 

TOL. XIX. o 

94 One-Stop Organs for Small Churches. 

satisfied with instruments of a single stop. And we quite agree with 
him in all that he says of the advantage of having an organ so simple 
that any schoolboy could easily learn to play it, and that an ordinary 
organist could keep in tune or repair. But we cannot admit that there 
is much force in the argument for small organs that he draws from the 
facts that Raffaelle drew his S. Cecilia with one of only 7 pipee, and 
that Luke Van Leyden represents one of 18 pipes : oir again, from the 
consideration that " we have every reason to believe that in the 13th 
and 14th centuries, the architecture of which we chiefly imitate, they 
were very simple ; and that probably nothing larger than regals, or 
portable organs, barely sufficient to give out and sustain the melody, 
was used in village churches, as we find in them no remains of oi^ns, 
or marks of their having been fixed." The architecture of that period 
was mature, but the science of organ-building was in its infancy. It 
is of far greater weight that he can appeal to his own experience, and 
to that of others, as to the practical success, after more than a year's 
trial, of his own Single-stop Open Diapason Organ at Upton Scuda- 
more. Mr. Baron also quotes the general approval of Herr Edmund 
Schulze, of Paulinzelie, near Erfurt, — a celebrated organ-builder, who 
is commissioned to furnish a large instrument for the rebuilt church of 

The author proceeds to defend the north side of the chancel east- 
ward of the stalls as the best place for the organ, and he pleads — almost 
unnecessarily (we hope) at this period of the revival — ^for the arrange* 
ment of the singers on each side of the chancel, and for the exclusion 
of females from the choir. We heartily wish this little book a wide 
circulation. Mr. Street's designs for organ-cases, with which it is 
illustrated, are most attractive. We have already mentioned his Upton 
Scudamore organ. That for S. Thomas's, Oxford (plate 5) is still bet- 
ter. Here the player sits under the organ, with his back to the chancel- 
wall, and the key-board ranges, as it were, with the desks of the stalls. 
The same general arrangement is preserved in the next design (plate 6), 
for a '< cabinet organ." Here the pipes — which are quite open in the 
last example — are enclosed in a framework, with leaves opening like a 
triptych : the design is beautifully simple. Plate 8 represents what is 
called the " Douglas organ," in which the player faces the instrument, 
in an old-fashioned upright piano-forte : this too is charmingly designed. 
Besides these we have two interesting plates containing suggestive ex- 
amples of ancient organs : — (1) the organ from (}affurius' Theoria 
Musica, borrowed from Dr. Rimbault's treatise ; (2) a girl playing a 
portable organ, from a painting at Siena, by Domenico Sertoli ; (3) 
an angelic organ-player, by Luke Van Leyden ; (4) an angel with an 
organ, from a fresco by Giotto, at Santa Croce ; (5 and 6) organs, also 
from Florence, by Andrea Orcagna. The last three are from Mr. 
Street's sketches, and are new, and of great interest. 



Recueil de Sculptures Gothiquea, dessin^s et gravies a Veau forte d^aprks 
les plus beaux monttmenis construits en France depute le omihnejusqu'au 
guinzihne stkcle. Par Adams, Inispectear de8 Travauz de la Sainte 
Chapelle. Paris : Imprimerie de Pillet Fila Am6. 1856. 

Under this title M. Adams has published a very interesting collection 
of architectural details, very beautifully etched, but accompanied by no 
letterpress except a recommendatory letter from the late M. Lassus. 
We can speak most highly of the series. The examples are excel- 
lently chosen and admirably given, embracing capitals, mouldings, 
gurgoyles, grotesques, crockets, bosses, cornices, brackets, corbels, and 
the like. They are of different dates, and different value, but are all 
worth study. For example, the life-like spirit and grace of the con- 
ventionalised natural foliage from the Port Rouge of Notre Dame 
cannot be too highly praised. The plates are ninety-six in number. 


Majtt of our readers will rejoice to learn that this laborious under- 
taking, commenced seven years ago, is at last brought to a conclusion. 
The Hymnal Noted, as our readers are aware, ^as brought out in two 
parts, the former of which has been for some years before the public 
in its three forms, namely — 1. The words, with the musical notation. 
2. The accompanying harmonies. 3. The words alone. Subse- 
quently the words alone of the Second Part were issued : then the 
words with the musical notation. It now only required the production 
of the accompanying harmonies to Part XL to render the work com- 
plete, and available for the purposes of congregational worship. This, 
necessarily a work of much labour and difficulty, was so retarded by 
hindrances and obstacles of various kinds, that it is only within the last 
few weeks that the very handsome volume comprising the harmonies of 
the melodies in Part II. has emerged from the printer's and binder^s 

One unfortunate result of this delay has been, that an unfavourable 
impression of the work, founded on the very partial experience, which 
an acquaintance with ^e First Part alone must of necessity afford, 
has been created, even in some friendly quarters. We trust that the 
completion of the undertaking will go ftur to remove this impression. 

It would ill become us to enlarge upon the excellencies of a work in 
the production of which we have been so largely concerned. It 
is now before the world, and must stand or fall by its own merits. 
Yet we may be allowed to express a hope that a full and fair trial 
may be accorded to it; not a mere perusal, not a mere *' trying 

96 Ckurch Bells. 

over" of the Hymns on the piano, but an earaeet and painstaking 
endeavour to sing them heartily and devotionally in the choir, and to 
get them thus sung in the great congregation. 

The following is extracted from the Appendix, printed in the new 
▼olume of Harmonies. 

" In the Second Part of the Aeeompanying Harmonies to the Hymnal 
Noted, the Editors have completed the works undertaken about seven years 
ago, the object and nature of which have already been fully explained, both in 
the Preface to these Harmonies, and in the Prospectuses, and other Notices, 
which have from time to time appeared in a separate form. 

" Some portions of these, which it seemed desirable to preserve, are herein 

" It will have been seen that, in the Harmonies of the Second Part, slurs 
have been used instead of the thick lines substituted for them in the First. 
It is hoped that this change will correct the too common error of playing 
these passages faster than the other notes of the same value, against which a 
caution was inserted in the Preface at page iii. 

" The Editors desire here to record their grateful acknowledgments to all 
who have in any way sided them in their arduous undertaking : particularly 
to the Dean and Chapter of Salisbury Cathedral, for the loan of the Sarum 
Gradual, preserved in their Library ; to Messrs. Cruse and Sullivan, for their 
valuable contributions to the Harmonies; and to Mr. Lonsdale, for his kind 
permission to uiie Sir Henry Bishop's beautiful setting of the AUa beata 
Trinita : nor can they pass unrecorded the uniform zeal and cordial co-opera- 
tion of their Publisher and Printer, Mr. J. Alfred Norello. 

" Such Harmonies as are without the Author's name, are by the Rev. 
T. Helmore, the Musical Editor of the First Part. 

" In the Second Part, the Editorial responsibility has been shared among 
^ve members of the Ecclesiological Society's Committee, — viz. : for the letter- 

Sress, the Rev. Messrs. J. M. Neale and B. Webb ; for the music, the Rev. 
lessrs. S. S. Greatheed, T. Helmore, and H. L. Jenner." — [FtVfc Accom- 
panying Harmonies to Hymnal Noted, Part IL Appendix, page t.] 


1. " How many bells are there, and are they all in good order ?** A Few 
Words to Rural Deans, By a Rubal Dxan. Marlborough : Lucy. 

2. Have you ever seen the Bells of your Church P A Few Words to 
Churchwardens, By a Ruilal Dean. 

In the first of these little brochures, the author, whom we venture to 
identify with our friend Mr. Lukis, gives plain and excellent advice to 
his brother officials on the necessity of personal inspection of the belfries 
of the churches in their districts. Our own experience would lead us to 
think that such cases of utter neglect as he seems to find in Wiltshire, 
were now rather the exception than the rule. We make room for an 
extract : — 

'^ The first thing you will do will be to look at the tower walls, and roof. . . . 
You will frequently see tower walls rent from the parapet to the very founda- 

S. Charles Borromeo and Mr. Wigley* 97 

tions, with gaping cracks of alarming proportions. In these cases you will 
obserre that the churchwardens and parishioners have taken fright at some 
period, and bound the walls together with heavy timbers and iron cramps. 
They saw the consequences, without knowing the causes ; and they set to 
work to apply a temporary remedy, without taking the trouble to detect and 
remove the origin of the mischief. It was far from them to suppose that the 
mischief might have been prevented by a simple discharge of duty. They 
were fain to conclude that buildings must decay in the course of time, not 
knowing that their own neglect had occasioned this premature infirmity. 
When you find tower walls in this condition, just examine the bell-frame, and 
jrou will be almost certain to discover that it is not in good order ; that it is 
infirm from age and neglect ; and that it touches the walls in many places. 
Ton will also observe that, in some instances, the mischief has been increased 
by increasing the number of bells, and placing them on a frame fixed upon 
the onginal one, and attached also to the walls. . . . 

" Having noted these things, you will next examine the bells. A slight 
blow near the lip will tell you whether they are sound. Pass your hand under 
the lip to the spot where the clapper strikes, and you will discover whether 
they are much worn. If the indent is somewhat deep, you should make a 
note of it ; and the sooner such bells are turned, the better for the pockets of 
the parishioners. 

"There are other points of lesser importance, such as clappers, stocks, 
wheels, iron and brass work, which soon get out of order, and therefore re- 
i^aire to be looked at frequently; but these are points which reouire a prac- 
tical acquaintance with the details of bell-hanging. Thus much, however, you 
may be able to notice, — whether the wheels are broken, or the bells firmly 
strapped to the wood blocks to which they are attached." 

The second Tract, addressed to Churchwardens, follows in the same 
line. It recommends parish officials to apply, when there is no local 
bell-foundry more convenient, to Messrs. Mears, or Messrs. Warner. 


1. 8, Caroli Borrommi Instructionum Fabrica Ecclesiastics et SupeUecti- 
Us Bcclesiastica Libri Duo, Revue et Annot^e par M. I'Abb^ £. 
VAH DaivAL, Chanoine, Directeur au Grand S^minaire d' Arras. 
Paris : J. LecofiFre. Arras : E. Lefranc. 1856. 

2. S. Charles Borromeo' s Instructions on Ecclesiastical Buildings, irans' 
lated from the Original Latin, and Annotated, By Gborob J. 
WioLBT, M.R.I.B.A. With Illustrations by Sahubl J. Nxcholl^ 
M.R.I.B.A., Architect. London : C. Dolman. 1857. 

Wb suppose that most of our readers will be surprised to be intro- 
duced to S. Charles Borromeo. in the character of a writer upon Eccle- 
aiology, in the most strict sense of the term. Yet so it is ; among the 
▼arious writings of the great Archbishop, are two treatises (intended — 
like everything which he produced — for the practical good of his peo- 
ple) on Ecclesiastical Buildings and on Ecclesiastical Furniture : — of 
which the first-named has been recently introduced to the English 
public in a translation, as both works had already been to learned 

98 S. Charles Borromeo and Mr. Wigley. 

readers in a reprint of the ori^nal text, in a cheap form, (tboogh 
not without retrenchments,) by L'Abb^ Van Drivaly of Arras, in 
1855. We cannot better describe the particularity with which S. 
Charles deals with his subject than by saying, that the writing which 
most nearly resembles his compositions in the method of treatment, 
although falling short of them in the minuteness of its prescriptions, is 
onr own " Hints to Churchbnilders." Indeed, had the latter manual 
been the work of strangers, we should have been tempted to sup- 
pose that the hint had come from Milan. The main difference (the 
needs of the two communions apart,) consists — as might be supposed, 
considering the circumstances under which in the sixteenth and the nine- 
teenth centuries the subject was undertaken — in our volume dealing with 
hints, the Prelate's with requirements : and in ours accordingly abound- 
ing with references to particular precedents, which are wanting in the 
more authoritative codex. As a link in the catena of *' Ecclesiology " 
opposed to Oratorianism, or — as it might with equal propriety be called 
--Jesuitism, these writings possess a peculiar value. Indeed, un- 
der the guise of a corpus of enactments, they form a protest against 
that growing neglect of traditionary worship, which in a later age and 
another country called forth the more copious, though of course less 
magisterial, denunciations of a Thiers, and a Le Brun Desmarettes. Ac- 
cordingly they have, in spite of the fame of their writer, lain dormant, 
till the modern revival has again brought their teaching into fashion. 

S. Charles is not, however, a Medievalist. The Basilica, pure and 
simple, (except in so far as it does not involve the celebrant facing the 
people,) is his dominant ideaU and his entire architectural tractate is 
a scheme, very masterly in its treatment, of accommodating that type 
to the actual requirements of the Roman and Ambrosian rituals re- 
spectively. We think we qaay safely say, that the church of S. Ambro- 
gio was present to his mind during every page which he wrote. As 
an instance, he takes occasion to proscribe side-doors for the admission 
of the laity, and to order doors of an unequal number at the west end. 
This limitation does not arise out of the Gothic churches of Italy, nor 
the Renaissance, while it curiously illustrates S. Charles' own pro- 
ceedings in his cathedral ; where it is well known that he stopped up 
the transept doors, throwing out apsidal ohapels in their place. So too 
he enjoins, what in his day had become an obsolete arrangement, the 
Atrium. Who can doubt what example he was thinking of when he 
penned this injunction ? Moreover he holds up the circular and de- 
tached baptistery, as not only the highest but the most desirable form 
of that portion of the church. Accordingly it is clear throughout the 
treatise, that the last thing which its writer dreamed of was pre- 
scribing the construction of a Pointed church. The style present to 
his eye throughout was such a grave modification of Italian as a Basi- 
lica, built under his superintendence, would naturally exhibit As an 
instance of one of the prescriptions, we quote the short chapter, (cap. 
\%) de Choro : 

" Chori pneterea locus, a populi statione, ut vetus structura et disciplins 
mtio oitendit, seclusus, cancellisque septus, cum ad altare majus esse debeat, 
sive ab anteriori parte (ut antiqui instituti est) illud circumdet; sive a poste- 

8. Charles Borromeo and Mr. WigUy. 99 

liori rit (quia vel Ecdesiae situs, vel altaris positio, vel re^onis consuetude 
sic postttlat) usque adeo late« longeque, ubi pro situs spatio potest, patere, 
etiam in hemicycl^ Tel in alterius fonnse, pro ratione cappellse Ecclesieeve, 
modum« architect! iudicio debet, ut et amplitudine, et omatu item decenti^ 
Eccleaise dignitati, clerique multitudini apte respondeat."— Pp. 37, 38. 

Tbe gseat rood had beea ordered in the preceding chapter to stand 
" aAder the very arch of the high chapel/' (i.e. the sanctuary,) with a 
permission, if the arch be kw, to be affixed to tbe wall above it ; *' su- 
per janua clathrati oancelli cappellse/' (sanctuary acreen.) We should 
be anxioua to learn if the ritual anrangement* enforced in the ^th 
chapter, would be popular if introduced at the present day. It is that 
of a acreen 6 ft. lOf in. high, (5 cubita,) dividing the church longi- 
tudinally, in order (p separate the men and the women, with a per- 
mission to make a joint, so as to let down the upper part during 
sermon time, and leave a barricade of only 4 ft. 1^ in. high. 

This arrangement— K>f a boarding down the mtdcUe of the body of 
the church for dividing the sexes — was probably almost obsolete in the 
good archbishop's own time. He thus introduces it. *' Quoniam ez 
instituta antiqua, a beatoque Chrysostomo testificata consuetudine, et 
in plerisqne hujus provincise locis oltm uaitata, in ecclesia separatim a 
foeminis viri esse debent ; forma et modus distinctionis ecclesise ejus* 
modi esse potest." The FraMsh editor's note upon this is as follows : 
" YoiXk des choses auxquelles nous sommea bien strangers aujourd*hui. 
On voit cependant des restes de ces aneiens et v^n^rables usages dans 
plusieurs de noa ^glises de campagne." M. Van Drival means doubt» 
less to refer to the fact of the division of the sexes, rather than to 
any remains of the material wall of separation. Elsewhere he remarks 
(p. 108) that the custom ia retained in many churches of the Roman 
communion in England. And our readers are well aware that in our 
own country churches this tradition is almost more the rule than the 
exception. Mr. Wigley observea : '* This and the following chapter 
seemed more archaeological than practical to us, until we went (here in 
London itself) to the Chapel of the Schools of Compassion, in Dunn's 
Passage, High Holborn, where we found a division, much of the kind 
here described, established in the length of the chapel, to divide the 
boys from the girls, during the Holy Sacrifice/' 

Neither editor has illustrated this curious subject from archaeological 
research. But we find in Mr. Webb's CotUinental EccUsiology a 
passage so much to the purpose, that we will quote it at length. He 
saya : " A curious arrangement, I may here observe, appears to have 
once existed in several churches of Florence ; namely, a low wall 
to divide the sexes. I shall have to notice, in several churches, that 
such an arrangement is recorded as having been swept away by order 
of the then prince under Vaaari. My own belief is that these were 
roodlofts of some kind, rather than walls ; and this is confirmed by a 
passage in Marchese's Memorie, who, in enumerating the sculptures of 
Fra Jacobo Talenti, speaks of some, now destroyed, that adorned the 
pante or pulpito which divided the church of Maria Novella. His note 
upon this quotes a passage from the Chronica of Bilotti. * Super 
ipsum pontem privatim sacnficabant certis diebus ; festis autem diaconus 

100 S. Charles Borromeo and Mr. Wigley, 

et subdiaconus cantabant, hie epistolam, eTangelium ille, idque Buper 
marmoream illam colamnam egregie sculptam, et quatuor evangeliBta- 
rum figuris Dotatam, quae post pontis dejectionem anno dom. 1565 
factam, in hospitium deportata, atque ibi erecta, ad lectionem hos- 
pitibus habendam prostat.* Marchese adds that this ponte was de- 
stroyed October *i% 1565, to the great dissatisfaction of many; and 
that at the same time others were destroyed in the churches of Santa 
Croce» Ogni Santi, del Carmine, S. Pier Maggiore, and S. Felicit^L. 
* This/ he says. ' dividing the church in half, served to separate the 
men from the women, the first occupying the upper part, the latter the 
lower; " 

By the aid of S. Charles' prescription we can see what these 
Florentine screens really were. It is not impossible that a kind of 
ambon, or roodloft, was sometimes connected with them. But doubt- 
less their more correct definition would be longitudinal walls to divide 
the sexes, — a relic in fact of primitive custom. P. Marchese was pro- 
bably mistaken in supposing that the division was transverse to the 
axis of the church, rather than longitudinal. In Mr. Webb's account 
of Santa Croce the screen destroyed by Vasari is supposed to have run 
from north to south across the transepts. Possibly in that case there 
was a transverse division — traces of which have been observed in the 
Certosa of Pavia and S. Chiara in Assisi — ^as well as a longitudinal one. 
But the point is an obscure one. 

Returning from this digression, we may observe that the minute- 
ness with which in this and various other cases dimensions are given, 
induces us to believe that S. Charles had the assistance of a practical 
architect in the composition of his volume. For example, it is ordered 
that in small churches tbe sanctuary should be raised from one-third 
of a cubit to a cubit ; and in large churches, from one to two cubits 
above the remaining pavement. Nothing indeed so thoroughly shows 
the good sense for which S. Charles Borromeo was always re- 
markable, as the constant references which he makes to the architect 
as an authority co-ordinate at least with the bishop. In his dedi. 
cation to the clergy and people of his province, he says, " Peritorum 
architectorum consilium adhiberi oportere censemus." And the very 
first sentence of the treatise runs, 

" Ecclesia cum aedificanda est, primum Episcopi judicio, et de architect! 
quern is adhibuerit probahtve consdio, locus huic sedificationi accommodatior 
eligi debet." 

We recommend this example to the actual clergy of the writer's com- 
munion, who it is well known are very often the greatest impediments 
which the architect can meet with : as in one of his later pamphlets poor 
Pugin feelingly confessed, and as we have heard from the lips of dis- 
tinguished ecclesiologists of more than one foreign country. 

We have said that S. Charles most clearly built up in his mind's eye 
a series of Italian churches when he wrote his treatises. In this re- 
spect, however, Mr. Wigley differs for the better from his original, for 
he has illustrated his text with plans of a model church and de- 
tached baptistery, and with elevations of the constructional Instru- 
menta, (altar, font, and canopy, ambon, confessional, &c.) designed 

8. Charles Borrameo and Mr. Wtgiey. 101 

hj that promismg young arohitect, Mr. S. J. Nicholl, with great 
taste and feeling, in which the injunctions of the Renaissance Arch- 
bishop are vested in forms of rich Italian Gothic. Mr. Wigley and Mr. 
NichoU in short deal with S. Charles Borromeo as he dealt with Basi- 
lican architecture. The Saint developed the latter according to the wants- 
of his day. They take his prescriptions as their starting point, and 
mm them into that better style which has bow made g^od its claim to 
be par ejfceilenee the architecture in some form or other of churches. 
Accordingly the general plan of a church presents an atrium* and, 
within, a nave and aisles, with the baptistery projecting from the north 
aisle. The choir stands detached from the pillars, copied literally 
from S. Clemente, and by the way more effectively blocking the altar 
from general view than an open high screen would do. The sanctuary 
or '< high chapel** is open on three sides with arches, while north and 
south of it the aisles widen so as form small transepts. Behind the 
altar is a "chevet'* apse, composed of pillars standing very close 
together, and having a preposterously narrow aisle between them and 
the wall. This is flanked on each side by a chapel, apsidal, but 
destitute of ohevet, and rising on steps from the transept, with lateral 
openings into the eastern aisle. We are unable to see either beauty or 
convenience in this Gothicised translation of the triapsidal basilica. 
Somehow Mr. NichoU has forgotten that longitudinal barrier which, as 
we have seen, forms so important an element of the Borromean type 
of church. In some of his designs, as that of the font canopy, Mr. 
NichoU has shown skiU in his adoption of Domical Pointed, while his 
mediseval version of the ambon of S. Clemente is assuredly not destitute 
of talent. 

In publishing this translation, which is dedicated to Cardinal Wise* 
man, Mr. Wigley has in view a distinct polemical end, above the mere 
republication or illustration of a valuable though forgotten work of 
reference, and he has the courage to avow his object. It is in fact to 
construct a new ecclesiological party in his commnnion, which shall 
marry the Gothic of Pugin and his school to the ultramontanism of 
the " Oratory," and recommend medieval forms by the contemptuous 
rejection of that indigenous tradition which has sanctified to England 
their old English developement. This is the meaning of that sentence 
of his preface which says, 

** In the notes and iUustrations, we have endeavoured to sBow the practical 
worth of the Instructions, by pointing out how they have been, and may be 
still carried out; and in the truly Catholic spirit of our author, we have chosen 
in preference exsmples taken from the Basilicas of the Christian Metropolis, 
to which he so frequently refers. We hope thus to assist in removing from 
oor English CathoKe Architecture, the Anglican tendency with which it is 
threatened ; as we should ever endeavour to impress on ourselves the great 
fact that we are but a branch (and almost a new shoot) from the ever prolific 
Roman stem." 

In these times of compromiae, and under the present aspect of ultra- 
montanism, we should not be astonished at the tender proving to be a 
success. If so', we of the English Church can simply stand by and 
watch. In the meanwhUe, let us see what this substitute is which Mr. 

VOL. XIX. p 

102 S. Charles Borromeo and Mr. Wigley. 

Wigley proposes for the adoption of his co-religionists, instead of that 
architecture and that arrangement which, whether encumbered during 
lapse of time by grave corruptions (as we assert), or comparatively free 
from them, as Romanists must believe, was still the legitimate ex- 
pression of the English Catholic mind for nearly a thousand years, and 
which in these days have been revived with a fervour equal to that 
which characterised the revival of classical forms at the commencement 
of the 16th century. It is not Romanism, for Rome never saw such a 
church as Messrs. Wigley and NichoU have planned ; it is not Borro- 
meism (for Borromeo would have rejected Mr. Nicholl's elevations.) 
It is simple eclecticism : viz. the adoption of a code of ecclesiology, 
in itself eclectic, yet framed for the architecture which supplanted 
Pointed, and for a distant portion of Europe, and after adoption con- 
verted, in accordance with Mr. Wigley's own purer architectural taste, 
into a form of Pointed, which has never flourished in England, while in 
its own day it grew up under climatic influences wholly different from 
those that moulded the sister developement of the North, and in spite of 
which it has been a stranger in Italy itself for four centuries. We con- 
sider ourselves very bold in our eclecticism, and we imagine that the 
extent to which we advocate the incorporation of ideas borrowed from 
abroad, and particularly Italy, into the local Gothic of the future, is such 
as to startle the Rickman- Parker school at home, and that of the " 1 3me 
9tkcle *' in France. But (placing ourselves for argument's sake, and for 
an instant only in the position of Mr. Wigley's communion) we never 
coald admit of such wholesale forgetfulness of a glorious past, — such 
abnegation of a living present — as that which is involved in the prodi- 
gious sentence which we have quoted. How far the English Romanists 
claiming to be the real and sole representatives of that mediseval 
Church which built those cathedrals, those abbeys, and those parish 
churches which are in their decay the pride of this kingdom, may relish 
to be rebuked by an architect, — himself of the Qothic school, — for "An- 
glican tendency,'' and to be told that they are " almost a new shoot " 
from Rome, is a matter of taste which we leave to them to settle. In 
our judgment nothing was ever said at the most rabid county meeting 
during the frenzy of the Papal Aggression so truly severe as this dictum 
of its admirer and advocate. 

However, to lay polemics aside, we are as ritual archaeologists grate* 
fill to Mr. Wigley for a very interesting and important contribution to 
popular ecclesiological literature, (rendered more valuable by his anno- 
tations,) which deserves to be studied even by those who differ most 
widely on one side or the other from the conclusions either of the 
writer or of the translator. We are likewise grateful to Mr. Nicholl 
for the spirit and elegance with which he has executed his ingenious 
work. We carry our charity (or our curiosity) so far as to wish that 
when next Cardinal Wiseman may find himself in possession of money 
to build a church, he will confide the work to Messrs. Wigley and 
Nicholl, with the strict monition to adhere literally to the obligations 
which they have incurred in bringing out this volume. We shall then 
be ready to study the results without partiality and without hostility. 



Wb owe to the courtesy of the Editor a copy of the First Number of 
a new Review, entitled " The Atlantis : a Register of Literature and 
Science, conducted by Members of the Catholic University of Ireland." 
There is only one paper in the present part that concerns art or eccle- 
sioipgy, and that is an essay by the Rev. J. H. Pollen, on the Struc* 
tural Characteristics of the BasUicas. Upon this we propose to make 
a few remarks. 

Mr. Pollen has not treated his subject with much originality, nor 
with much accuracy. He has referred to no previous authors, not even 
to Bnnsen : and if his observations are entirely the result of personal 
investigation, (though he does not claim that novelty for them,) they 
have been but partial and inexact. 

Beginning with a notice of the secular uses of the ancient Basilicas, 
Mr. Pollen proposes to confine himself to the structural characteristics 
of this class of buildings. But at the very outset he fails to dis- 
tinguish clearly between the pagan basilicas and the earliest Christian 
adaptations or imitations. We observe a single reference to the Ulpian 
Basilica of Trajan : but the writer does not seem to be aware that the 
late Canina has ' restored* with great ability the plan and sections 
of that edifice. And indeed the first part of that distinguished archi- 
tect's *' Ricerche" is indispensable for any one who would theorize on 
Baailican architecture. 

What will be thought among scholars of Mr. Pollen's derivation of 
" the absis or apse'* — which he defines as " a raised tribune, a sort of 
semicircular alcove" — from the Greek word ivaptUvw ? The essential 
characteristic of an apse is not its elevation but its curvature, and 
it comes from imw^ necto, Mr. Pollen next assumes, most arbi- 
trarily and unreasonably, that besides the oblong Basilica the circular 
d<Hned buildings, such as the Pantheon or the domed Thermn, " must 
be considered under the same general head.'* What structural re- 
semblance, may we ask, is there between the Pantheon and the 
Basilicas of Pompeii or Otricoli ? Nothing can well be more meagre 
than Mr. Pollen's disquisition on round churches. He does not seem 
to know that many antiquaries claim S. Costanza as a temple of 
Bacchus. Nor does he once allude to the Holy Sepulchre as having 
s^g^ted the circular form for churches. In fact he seems to know of 
no other round churches, besides those in Rome, except " the round 
church of Nocera and the circular church near Bonn on the Rhine." 
The commonest books of reference would have helped him to others. 

Mr. Pollen's remarks on the Ravenna churches are equally sketchy 
and worthless. He talks of the atrium or vestibule of S. Vitale as 
though it still existed. And he speaks of the Tomb of Theodoric as 
though it were " another of the domed churches of Ravenna.** It is 
true that it has been consecrated and furnished with an altar : but the 

104 The '' Atlantis " oh the Basilicas. 

building is a sepulchre and nothing else for all purposes of art and 
for all questions of construction. From Rayenna Mr. Pollen returns 
to Rome for the description of the famous Basilica of S. Lorenzo 
fuoii delle Mura. He does not seem to be in the least aware that the 
choir of that church is part of an ancient temple : and he claims — ^we 
know not on what authority — the Empress Galla Placidia as its 
founder. There is express teetimonf, on the contrary, that it is one 
of Constantine's churches. At any rate an assertion to the contrary 
requires some reference to authorities. On what grounds Mr. Pollen, 
in his next paragraph, uses the expression " the architecture of OaUa 
Placidia and of Justinian," as though the art had made no advance in 
the interval of a century, we cannot even guess. S. Sophia at Con- 
stantinople, which is spoken of as " the present church or mosque" — 
as if, in anything but its unhappy degradation it deserved to be called 
the latter — is described at some length, but not very luminously. Its 
inJQiuence upon Mahometan architecture is hinted at ; but not a word 
is said of its type having been followed in S. Mark's at Venice and in 
the curious developement of Perigueux. In fact we have seldom read a 
more lean and unsatisfactory essay, and we rise from perusing it with- 
out any definite idea of the structural characteristics which the writer 
has intended to describe. He concludes with a short dissertation on 
the decorative art exhibited in the old Basilicas, which, judging from 
his own practical acquaintance with the painter's art, we hc^d to find 
more instructive. And it is evident that Mr. Pollen is far more at home 
here than in architecture. But still even in this we have been disap- 
pointed. Here is a strange sentence — as to the material used in the 
early Christian churches. 

" The material of these buildings was in general brick ; and for a kind of 
masonry, then only valued for its superior cheapness and utility, none ever 
was more accidentally sublime." 

But the following is better, and we have much pleasure in quoting it. 

*' The state of artistic design was undoubtedly at its lowest when these 
basilicas began to be erected as churches. Their historical designs are rude 
and conventional. The old Greek sense of beauty had died out in B4)me. 
Luxury and vulgarity had gradually destroyed the manliness of the raee, and 
such sense and love of beauty as it had possessed in days of vigour and pros- 
perity. Constantine could find few competent artists either to sculpture 
his triumphal arch or to decorate his new capital. Still the Christian 
commuDity had carried, down with it into its subterranean oratories and 
chapels certain traditions of former times. Historical representations, even 
sometimes under mythological types, as that of Orpheus, are habitual to those 
interesting monuments. The classic tunic, and occasionally the nude figure^ 
continued to be represented in their paintings. We shall find, as basilica 
building and decoration progressed, a marked difference between the sim- 
plicity of accessories of dress and ornament in the West, in contrast with the 
elaboration of colour and detail in the East. The basilicas of Justinian at 
Ravenna are interesting examples of this Byzantine spirit. They represent in 
more than one instance the emperor and his court, and the empress and hers, 
with details of costume carefully copied. But though these designs were rude, 
they were by no means wanting m grandeur. Quite the contrary. That nerve 
and vigour of character which luxury had eaten out of the Italian character, was 

The Offertory at Manchester. 105 

begiDDiog to grow anew from fresh sources^ and Christianity really inanenrated 
the revival of the arts. That revival was slow^ and conducted throu{^ most 
stormy ages of calamity, but a genuine revival it was. The pecuhar changes of 
personal character which Christianity gradually spread, till it affected races and 
nations, often, probably to keen observers always, expresses itself (<tc) in that 
index of the human soul, the face. Whether the early races of believers philo- 
sophized upon this (act or not, thev were undoubtedly affected bv it. It grew 
into an instinctive principle, that the face was the field, in man, for expressing 
diaracter. The power ot representing action or motive was therefore sought 
in the expression of the features, rather than the position or movement of the 
limbs. And though, of course, it was centuries before the refinement of art in 
representation of these objects could be attained, still some influence of the 
kind is observable in these early Christian representations, and, though rude, 
the faces and forms possess a p;randeur which no art, with all its charms, has 
since surpassed ; purpose, position, and architectural character of the repre- 
aentationa being taken into account." 

The above extract is neither very good in point of style or method, 
nor does it convey any very intelligible idea of the earliest types of 
Christian decorative art. But it is, we think, the best part of Mr. 
Pollen's paper. Upon the whole we are surprised that the new Review, 
considering the auspicea under which it appears, and considering the 
far greater value, as it would seem, of its other contents, admitted in its 
first number to hasty and trifling a lucubration on an interesting 
branch of Chrifitiau Art and Archaeology. 


No greater service can be done to the Church of England at the 
present moment than by drawing attention to the uncertain character 
of the pecuniary basis of '* the Establishment," and to the necessity- 
more or less pressing according to the locality — of substituting for it 
some large and comprehensive scheme for the maintenance and in- 
crease of Church operations. The whole subject requires ventilating. 
As yet it has been taken up seriously by few who are not, by 
profession at least, more opponents than friends of the Church. We 
should welcome any partial attempts, and any plans, however imperfect, 
as honest endeavours after the solution of this great question, in which 
experience warns us not to look for success until after much longer 
trial and many failures. Very possibly it may turn out that there is 
no complete cure for patent evils, and that some modification of the 
present mixed system will have to be continued. It would seem that 
in proportion as a religious community is aggressive and increasing, as 
it ought to be in towns, or quiet and established as in sparsely popu- 
lated rural districts, the Voluntary or the Endowment system must 
predominate ; and therefore that for a Church, which like our own is 
of both characters, the double system is the most natural and the best. 
But whether this be so or not, it is certain that very large inroads will 
soon be made upon permanent sources of income on which the Church 

106 The Offertory at Manchester. 

has hitherto relied ; and it wotild be wise in us to be prepared for this, 
and as a first step to give full scope to any plan that promised to sup- 
ply the deficiency. 

In Manchester an active body of Churchmen feeling strongly the 
mischief as well as inadequacy of compulsoiy payments for Church 
purposes^ have for some time thrown themselves upon the Offertory- — 
the purest and simplest form of voluntary collection — for the entire 
support, and in part the very erection, of their church. We gladly 
record the success already met with, in spite of distrust and misrepre- 
sentation, as we learn from an excellent speech lately delivered by the 
Dean of Manchester at a meeting of those interested in the movement. 

'' As to discouragement," he says, ^' we have no reason to be discouraged 
when we look at what has been accomplished alread]|r. Although we have 
not received from the rich that amount of support which might nave been 
expected, we have received from the poor and the many the grateful tribute 
of their heartfelt acknowledgments for the benefits they have received. And 
while we have received that, we have received it not for ourselves, but simply 
as stewards for them ; we receive it for the purpose of employing it in that 
useful way which shall redound to their temporal and ipiritual happiness, and 
every portion of it is applied for their good and not to benefit us. The man- 
ner of these contributions is made veiy questionable upon some occasions of 
public assembling and public discussion, and because they are called oflertory 
collections they are by many supposed to be improper collections. Now I 
have yet to learn that it is not the duty of all persons to make offerings to 
God m some shape or other for Uie benefits they receive and the blessings 
that are conferrea upon them. I have yet to learn that it is not the best and 
properest occasion to make these offerings in places of religious assembling. 
I have yet to learn that such a plan of proceeding is against those primitive 
orders which have existed for ages, and those primitive rules under which our 
own Church professes to take its guidance. We know it is one of the estab- 
lished orders in our Prayer Book that the offertory collections shall be made 
at certain specified times. We know that when they are so made we are not 
violating any religious obligation, but my conviction is that we are neglect- 
ing our religious duty when we do not make them. Besides there are many 
reasons why this should be preferred to other modes, because then these 
become really religious offerings, being the offerings of the people to God's 
service aoconiing to the means they possess, of which themselves alone are 
the fittest judges. They are not extracted from them by earnestness of en- 
treaty, but they are their own voluntary acknowledgments of the blessings 
they themselves have received, of the duties which Uiey owe to their fellow- 
beings, and their desire to be in every respect what their religion teaches. I 
myself shall invariably maintain, not merely the importance, but almost the 
necessity of offertory collections in our churches for the purposes of religious 
service. And although it is said that these offertory collections are intended 
in our churches solely for the poor, and solely for the relief of the necessi- 
tous, we know also that they may be applied under certain directions for 
other uses besides the mere reUef of necessity, and for those purooses which 
cannot be accomplished on account of the pressing necessities of those who 
may in a particular neighbourhood contribute. Such an application appears 
to me to be eligible and to be judicious, and I see no objections why they 
should not be continued, but many reasons why they should be encouraged.'' 

The Dean goes on to recommend the substitution of these col- 
lections in place of pew-rents. His remarks are important. 

Cemetery Chapel^ Cambridge. 107 

*' But it ia said .... that the offertory collections are to be substitutes 
for pew-rents. Well, for my part, I Have no objection to that application; I 
think it a very wise one. I do not kaow that our ecclesiastical authorities gene- 
rally will have any ereater objection than I have to it. On the contrary, I be- 
lieve that most of them are rather desirous that some such experiment should 

be made to maintain the decencies and order of public divine worship 

I do not maintain, I never have, that it is desirable, or expedient, or practicablCf 
that pew-rents in now existiag churches can be completely done away with. 
.... But on the contrary we are desirous to let everything remain in the 
position in which it now stands, according to the plans already established by 
those who have the management of their own affairs. But at the same time 
we state that in this important city .... some other plan should be estab- 
lished in which there should be no such thing as an excuse possible to be given 
by people that they cannot enter because they will have something to pay. 
My belief is that many are kept out of our churches on account of the 
expense of goine into them. Therefore I say, let us try the experiment, 
and have a church in which they shall have nothing to pay to go in." .... 

"And now with reference to the attendance upon these services, whether it 
is necessary to form a congreeation of this kind or not, the question is already 
answered. There is a building already provided, a congregation is already 
established, sprung up (juite suddenly, and the service carried on, and the 
people attentive, and givmg the best support to it in the way suggested that 
they should." 

The whole of the Dean's speech is worth reading ; but we cannot 
afford space for further quotations. 

We owe to the same body of energetic Churchmen at Manchester a 
valuable letter, embodying the opinion of the well-known Rev. Dr. 
Thomas Guthrie, on the working of the Voluntary System in the Free 
Church of Scotland, which has already appeared in the daily papers. 
His testimony is decisive as to the large returns produced in his own 
Communion by collections at every religious meeting. But it must be 
remembered that the Free Church is still in its infancy, and in the 
early years of a religious body 'pecuniary difficulties are seldom felt. 
Yet even Dr. Guthrie is found to say, — 

'' In some of our churches we have pew-rents, in many of them none ; and 
80 &r from objecting to the substitution of voluntary offerings for these, we 
would much prefer the voluntary offerings, tf they would serve the purpose. 
We would say that pew-rents should not oe attempted wherever an attempt is 
midcing to evangelize a heathen district of any of our large towns." 


This chapel, as originally designed by Mr., Scott, consisting of a nave 
without aisles and a chancel with five-sided aspe of Early Middle- 
Pointed with two-light windows, was a pretty and rather spacious 
stmctare of its class, but was destitute of any very marked character. 
However, the Master of Trinity College having offered the gift of a 
steeple, an experiment has been tried which, for its originality and 
ability, deserves particular mention. The credit of the invention, we 

108 Cemetery Chapel, Cambridge. 

believe, belongs to the Master, while Mr. Scott carried out the detuls 
of the execution. It was thought desirable first to make this steeple 
central, and secondly, not to embarrass the structure with heavy but- 
tresses. It remained, therefore, to build it up from the ground inter- 
nally ; in &ct, to adopt in solid stone a device similar to that which in 
timber was not unfrequently made use of in the Surrey- Sussex bell- 
cote. Only for this case the belfry has had to be constructed between 
the nave and chancel so as to form a kind of lantern. Four pillars 
were accordingly erected so as to form a parallelogram — with a wider 
interval between each pillar of the two pairs north and south respec- 
tively than between those of the east and west pairs — or in other words, 
with the east and west sides of the parallelogram longer thcui the north 
and south sides. The pillars stand so near the wall that a narrow 
passage only, not broad enough to be called an aisle, is left between 
these pairs and the internal walls. Over the central span or lantern a 
stone barrel vault is fixed with ribs dying away similar to those in 
the side chapels of Scarborough. The lateral walls are respectively 
pierced with short vaults at right angles to the main vault, and with 
their crowns below the spring of the main vaidt. On the east and 
west faces respectively these walls are returned and bonded into the 
main walls of the chapel, but as the space between the pillars and the 
chapel walls is so narrow no arch is turned, but the return walls are 
carried on horizontal trabeation. The whole detail of these pillars, 
capitals, trabeation, &c., is that massive Barly French Pointed with 
Gorinthianising foliage which Mr. Scott has lately been fond of em- 
ploying. All this bears the octagonal spire. But this spire being of 
a diameter less than the width of the chapel would, if unsupported, 
rise from the roof like a fleche too large for the pile on which it is super- 
imposed. This difficulty has been cleverly met by raising at this point 
quasi-transeptal gables (invisible of course from within) abutting 
against the base of the spire. One of them affords access to the ringing 
chamber. The lower stage of the spire itself is enriched with eight 
acutely pointed gableta of which the four cardinal ones are pierced 
with two-light openings. The four others are decorated with a kind 
of pilaster ornament abruptly and rather unpleasantly terminating in a 
horizontal line. The roof of the chapel is enriched with a lofty iron 
cresting. The whole design, it will be seen, is one of striking ori- 
ginality, while the effect which it produces is very unlike anything 
found in English Pointed, but rather resembles Uie early work at 
such churches as Iffley or those cavernous-looking churches of the Con- 
tinent which Mr. Petit is so fond of sketching. In the present instance 
we think the experiment has been very legitimately tried, but we 
should doubt the practicability of the expedient in small parishes, des- 
titute of aisles, where so ponderous a construetion would infallibly be 
considered as undidy intercepting the sight and hearing of the con- 
gregation. We trust that a cemetery chapel of so much capacity, and 
now of so much dignity, as this one, will not be used for the exclusive 
performance of the burial service. We have always advocated on 
grounds of common sense and common economy, that cemetery chapels 
ought to be so built and so used as to assist in that too cdften mia* 

TMrd-Poinied Churches of the South- Western Counties. 109 

managed work. " Church Extension"— a work which is generally taken 
to mean the extension, not of services and priests, but of bricks and 
mortar, stone and wood. We were glad to observe — among too many 
broken pillars, veiled urns, &c., — that memorials of a Christian cha- 
racter had begun to find a place in this cemetery. 


That the Third-Pointed Style should prevail more extensively than 
any other, whether mixed or unmixed, among the churches of England, 
It is easy enough to understand ; for during the century preceding the 
Reformation the piety and munificence of our forefathers did much 
which remains unchanged to this day. But in certain districts we find 
it to prevail far more exclusively than the earlier styles ; in its plainest 
and rudest form amidst the mountains of Wales and Cumberland ; less 
rude, yet scarcely better in detail, in the moorland districts of York- 
Bhire ; more showy, yet still coarse, in the red sandstone of Cheshire ; 
while in Norfolk and Suffolk it assumes a far more elegant and ornate 
appearance amidst the flint mosaic peculiar to the eastern counties. 

But nowhere is the prevalence of Third-Pointed work more remark- 
able, or its character more distinct, than in the four south-western 
counties of Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, and Dorset ; in all of which, not 
only the same architectural style, but the same type and arrangement 
of churches are everywhere observed. 

How to account for this, it is difficult to determine. In SomerseU 
shire there is a tradition that the fine Third-Pointed towers were 
generally built by Henry VII., in gratitude for the attachment of the 
inhabitants to the House of Lancaster : but this must be discarded as an 
absurdity, especiaUy as the finest of these towers, though Third. 
Pointed, are clearly anterior to that date. But whatever may be the 
cause, the fact is worthy of attention, and it may be interesting to 
point out the general character of the Third-Pointed churches found in 
these counties, with the points of resemblance and variation in each 

In Cornwall and Devonshire the Third-Pointed style is most uni- 
versal, and the greatest sameness appears in the style and form of the 
churches. There are indeed slight variations in advancing eastward, 
but in both counties the churches are mostly of such a stereotyped 
character, as almost to weary by their monotony the ecclesiologist who 
makes a pilgrimage amongst them. We begin with Cornwall, to which 
some attention has already been given in former volumes of the Eede^ 
siologist, but chiefly for the purpose of pointing out the exceptional 
churches, or rather parts of churches ; of which though the subject is in- 
teresting, and has been ably treated, the list is but small, and in most 
cases includes only doorways and fonts. A very appropriate description 
is given (Vol. X. p. 371) of a Cornish church, "the bare mention of 

▼OL. XXX. Q 

1 10 The Third^Painied Churches 

which is saggestive of a rude Third Pointed building witii two, or 
perhaps three ' aisles,' of equal length, a tranaeptal excrescence on one 
side, and a low tower at the west end.*' And this we readily adopt, 
as belonging to a laige proportion of the Cornish churches, thoagh 
there are cases in which the work is not rude, nor the towers law. The 
towers of S. Mabyn, S. Stephen by Saltash, S. Baryan, LanliTery, &c., 
are lofty : while those of Probus, S. Austell, Fowey, and some othen. 
have an excellent outline, with fine pinnacles, and really good or- 
namental work. The frequent addition of a transept on one side is 
usually awkwardly managed, and ungraceful ; the outline of the bodj 
of the church is almost always bald and displeasing with its low walla 
and long low roof, and the arcades are in many cases coarse and low : 
the arches usually four- centred, but often very obtuse, as at South 
Petherwin, Cubert, S. Erth, S. Clement, &c., or very small and low, as 
at 8. Paul, S. Mabyn. S. Merryn, S. Breage, Mawgan in Meneage. 
&c., or very wide, as at Lanteglos by Fowey, S. Stephen by Saltash. 
S. Gennys, &c. The roofs are almost invariably of waggon form ; the 
chancels wholly without distinction. In a few cases, as at Booopnoc, 
Lamorran, Mylor, there is no tower ; at Talland, a low one detached 
from the body. The granite material is used throughout Cornwall, 
and imparts a striking character, to a certain extent : but it is difficult to 
work, which is the cause of the rudeness of capitals and other orna- 
mental portions. 

In Devonshire we find a great general resemblance in the churches 
to those of Cornwall, especially in the parts adjacent to that county, 
where granite is also used ss a material. Throughout the county the 
arrangement of two or three equal *' aisles " is very common, without 
clerestories, or separate chancel. Perhaps the towers of a large portion 
of Devonshire are inferior to those of Cornwall. Where the red sand- 
stone is used they are usually of a coarse provincial character, though 
often lofty, and have details of apparently earlier work. In another 
part we find a rough slaty stone ; but near the western boundary are 
some fine pinnacled towers of granite, as Okehampton ; S. Andrew, 
Plymouth ; and Widdecombe. 

There are more small churches without usles in Devonshire than in 
Cornwall ; the window tracery is on the whole superior, but some ugly 
local specimens occur without foliation or tracery, as at Marlborough. 
Revelstoke, and Dodbrook ; also some which at first sight have a flow- 
ing Middle-Pointed appearance, as at Sherford and Little Hempston. 
The arcades also are superior, loftier, and more ornamental. Sometimes 
the arch mouldings are enriched with flowers, as at Broad Clyat ; and 
the capitals of the pillars have often finely- sculptured foliage of a cha- 
racter not seen elsewhere. But perhaps one of the most marked features 
in the Devonshire churches is the almost constant presence of the rood- 
screen and parcloses, which are generally of beautiful wood- work, and 
serve to separate the chancel, which otherwise would have no distinc- 
tion. There are also several specimens of enriched pulpits, both in 
wood and stone. 

The earlier styles are nearly as rare in Devonshire as in Cornwall. 
though there are notable exceptions in Exeter Cathedral and Ottery S. 

of the Sauik- Western Counties. 1 1 1 

Mary, and several fonts. As we approach Somersetshire and Dorset- 
shire a change will be observed in the Devonshire churches : a superior 
style, with better towers, and occasionally clerestories, as at Tiverton 
and GoUumpton : in fact, an approach to the Somersetshire use. 

The spire ia not very common in Cornwall or Devonshire, and, where 
it occurs, neither grand nor lofty. There are specimens in Cornwall, 
at S. Hilary, S. Minver, S. Keveme, Sheviock, Cubert, and Menheniot, 
besides the beautiful Middle-Pointed one of Lostwithiel. In Devonshire, 
at Modbury, Marlborough, Slapton, Bigbury, Kingsbridge, North Huish, 
and Diptford ; but they seem confined to the south-western district. 

In Somersetshire, Third-Pointed work is universally prevalent, 
especially in the exterior, but it is less exclusively found than in the 
counties of Cornwall and Devon, though it assumes a far more impos- 
ing and magnificent character. Some instances occur, in which the 
clerestory is wanting and the chancel not very perfectly developed, but 
the chancel arch is found in nearly every case^ though sometimes reach- 
ing quite to the roof. 

The roofs are often of the waggon* form as in Devonshire, but some- 
times have a more enriched and ornamental character, as at Martock, 
Long Sutton, Weston Zoyland, &c. The parapets are not only em- 
battled, but often panelled, and in several instances we find them of 
pierced panelling. The use of pinnacles and of ornamental bands and 
niches is largely adopted in this county, where the abundance of good 
building stone gives full scope for such decorations. Enriched porches 
occur, sometimes with groined roofs, but the grand and conspicuous 
feature of the county, is the magnificent tower, so identified with it, 
and so different from the usual Third-Pointed tower of other districts. 
In these towers we observe panelled and pierced parapets, rich and 
delicate pinnacles, of a particular type, and long double belfry windows, 
with pierced stone work, instead of lufFer boards. Among the richest 
specimens are S. Mary Magdalene, Taunton (now threatened with a 
worse than Vandalic destruction) ; S. Cuthbert, Wells ; S. John, Glas- 
tonbury; Kingsbury Episcopi; North Petherton; Dundry; Bruton ; 
Bishop's Lydiard ; but some others may be seen of nearly equal beauty, 
though less enriched ; while others again are very plain, though sub- 
stantially good in character. The araidee are of very uniform cha- 
racter, and the clustered piers almost always the same, differing from 
those of Devonshire in having the foliage of the capitals less exuberant. 

Small churches without aiales, are of more frequent occurrence in 
Somersetshire than in Devonshire and Cornwall, and several very fair 
examples may be seen. Stone pulpits and rood-screens are also not 
uncommon, and all three counties supply good specimens of enriched 
carved seats. 

Though the exterior presents an unmixed Third-Pointed appear- 
ance, traces of earlier work will often be found within, and there are 
certainly more examples of earlier work than in the other counties. 

In Dorsetshire there is less to observe* except that the local charac- 
ter of the western part of the county is nearly as strongly marked as 
the three other counties, but it is a sort of medium between Devonshire 
and Somersetshire, following in some degree the use of both, but more 

112 Whitewash and YeUaw Dab. 

of the latter. The coyed roof is common ; the clerestory is sometimes 
found, though often wanting ; the usual material is good stone ; and 
the towers, while they never rise to the grandeur of those of Somerset- 
shire, are usually superior to those of Devonshire. 

Throughout the district of England^ which we have been consider- 
ing, one common feature will be observed, both in rich and in plain 
towers, viz., the stair turret, generally octagonal, either at the angle 
or removed from it. In many of the fine Somersetshire towers, as 
well as in some others, it occupies almost the centre of one side, dis- 
placing the belfry windows. 

There is also a large amount of Third*Pointed work in those parts 
of Wiltshire and of Gloucestershire which adjoin Somersetshue. and 
which may perhaps be referred to the same class, varying only in de- 
tails. The same may also be said still more strongly of the city of 
Bristol, where we find instances of town churches following the same 
use as those of the rural districts, yet suited to a town. 

From what has been said, it will probably be seen, that though there 
is much difference between a Cornish church and a Somenetshire 
church, there is also a gradual transition from the peculiarity of one 
county to that of . the other, which, when the same material is em- 
ployed, mellows down the points of difference. The prevalence of a 
local type and arrangement may perhaps be understood, but the fact is 
still unexplained why so large an extent of country should be occupied 
by churches which have been rebuilt either wholly, or in a great de- 
gree, so nesrly at the same period. 

To th€ Editor of the Eeeleeiologiet. 

Mb. Editob, — It is a very common trick of literary critics to head 
their articles with something rich, and rare, and pithy, that by con- 
trast with the first burst of their essay, a pleasantly-irritating perplexity 
may sharpen the wits of their readers. 

I have put whitewash and yellow dab at the top of this letter for no 
such purpose. 

Another trick equally common is, to head an article with quotations 
or names of books, and then to write something slashing about all sorts 
of other things : a cunning device to tempt on the unsuspecting ; a 
sort of wolf with a night-cap on. 

My whitewash and yellow dab are none such. 

I have no intention of going into the natural history or chemistry of 
these useful ingredients of the builder's trade. I have no intention of 
banishing the former to the walls of a fever hospital, nor the latter to 
mop up the infection from some poor cottage room's partitions, and to 
wipe out the melancholy with its wholesome ingredients and cheery 
tone of colour. I value both most thoroughly — hi too well to join in 
their unmitigated abuse, or to despise w^t, like many other things. 

Whitewask and Yellow Dab. 118 

are only bad when they are badly used, and contemptible and wrong 
only when in the wrong place. 

Time was when men had more time — in short, time was — for who 
has it now ? In those happier days of leisure men had time to look 
about them, to meditate on what they looked at, and to produce the 
material results of their mind's labour. Agreeable work it must have 
been. The abstract beauty of Ghreece, digested in those happy hours 
of contemplation, produced the abstract principles on which Greek art 
developed itself. The heart of the Christian, loving every thing in the 
world around him, because its beauty was redolent of the love of Gk>D, 
and reflective of the care of a loviog Creator, stamped in new forms of 
art his ideas of love and devotion. Christian art is like nature printing* 
Classic art was nature printing too, — but it was an intellectual craft ; 
refined, indeed, and beautiful. — ^but the Christian craft was heartwork, 
refined by humility, and beautiful by reverence. 

Time was, when whitewash and yellow dab were used extensively 
against infection, — I mean neither against fever nor small-pox, but 
something else. Men had exaggerated ideas of their medicinal powers 
ecclesiastically. The English medical mind has ever run strong on 
allopathy, — and that not only among doctors of medicine, but Doctors 
of Divinity. They have rushed belong into blunders, — mistaking 
vermilion for transubstantiation, and sky-blue for the elevation of the 
Blessed Virgin. There was, as with bulls, a great run upon scarlet. 

Whitewash and yellow dab were at hand : the plainest and most 
perfect correctives. They were the true alteratives of the ecclesiastical 
pharmacopcna. They were used as men of the last generation used ca- 
lomel : but now people begin to feel the effects like poison, and are try- 
ing to work them off. Homcnopathy and cold*water cure axe coming 
rapidly into vogue — too rapidly — dangerously. Men are washing and 
scrubbing at the articles of my text, — and with them washing and 
scrubbing off most precious treasures which they hide. Or they are 
coating Uiem over with other sorts of wash, and dabbing over in their 
ignorant devotion what might instruct and guide their well-intendimg 

We owe a very great debt to whitewash and yellow dab. What 
man does not remember in his boyish days the old village church with 
deep lines of ochre and of black, enclosing, like square frames, the texts 
which well-meaning religion had scattered over the walls ? — or the piers 
and arch- mouldings, picked out with streaks and scorings of white, 
yeDow, and black ;— -and although meaning nothing, still grateful on this 
ground, that they made the old church look as if it had been thought 
of and cared for ? 

Bat we owe a deeper debt of gratitude to them — they have pre- 
served during the dark ages of the English Church, from the revolution 
of the seventeenth century to the reformation of the nineteenth — ^they 
have preserved what would have otherwise perished, not more by the 
chilling damps of climate than by the cold contempt of men. 

Buried beneath them lie works of great value — ^works illustrative of 
the devotion of our foreliathers, illustrative of arts, of which little re- 
mains beside what manuscripts contain, or whitewash still covers. 

114 WhitewMh and Yellow Dab. 

Those children of the generation of whitewash, the Puritans, have 
done us good service. It is the friends of the Church who are now 
doing us an injury — ^injury which is irremediable. Walls are to be 
cleaned — churches to be restored — away goes everything down to the 
bare stone — whitewash and yellow dab would often be luxury in com- 
parison to what is left ; where walls never intended to be bare were 
built rough, to be coated with plaster and then fresco-painted — but 
away it has all gone, frescoes, powderings, diapers, scrollage, sym- 
bols, inscriptions, everything ! — and this happens more often than 
people suppose. There is hardly a country church where one, who 
knows hmo to look, will not find colour-ornament in all parts of it, — 
except where old puritanism or modem restoration has effaced it. 

I will not here go into the subject of colouring as applied to archi- 
tecture — I am writing of facts, not theories. 

In Middle-Age church work colour is universal. You need not pick 
examples — ^you need not go to the lady chapel of Chester or the choir 
of Salisbury to see the colouring of First-Pointed — you need not go to 
the chapter-house of Ely for the matured stone-pidnting of the four- 
teenth century — nor to the lady chapel of Gloucester for the exquisite 
handling of colour in the style of Late Perpendicular — or among the 
weather-beaten remains of Glastonbury or Tintem, where a cunningly 
used penknife will soon reveal the universal use of colour and of gold. 
But what I crave to do through your pages is to «oimd the note of 
camion — to beg those who love their sacred buildings, who revere the 
spirit of devotion which first inspired the arts of the Middle Ages, to 
go to work with tenderer hands. 

And as now we have museums teeming with Roman remains in 
painted slabs, in coloured pottery, and mosaics, so we may hope to 
rescue from the hands of the restorer works of Middle-Age art, which 
to him may be insignificant or unintelligible as a Roman urn or geolo- 
gical fossil would be to a ploughboy ; but which if collected from many 
places and of many styles, and if perishable perpetuated by tracings, 
drawings or engravings, would form the basis for the perfecting that 
art of architectural colouring which from its rarity, or other reasons 
may be of doubtful pleasure to modern English eyes, but without which 
our buildings are incomplete, and must ever remain so, unless we can 
recover the models of our' instruction — unless we can disinter them 
from the coats of their invaluable preservers, which have thus thwarted 
the objects for which Puritan fingers had employed them. 

Let architects and church restorers go to work with more caution — 
they have destroyed enough already, not knowing what they destroyed 
— and in some cases, from want of art-feeling or art-knowledge, or in- 
sensibility to the beauty, the poetry, the religion of church symbolism, 
not caring if they destroyed it. I hope for better days. If church archi- 
tecture is to be restored in its fulness, its decorative colour must be 
studied. If churches are to be decorated, they must be done properly 
or not at all. 

As many years ago pains were taken by persons all over the country 
to register their notes of mouldings and proportions, so now, ere it be 
too late, let me urge on them to take notes of what stiU remains 

Ecdesioloffical Society. 1 15 

— of what is as integral a part of architectaral beauty as it has been 
made to be of everything in nature, by the care and wisdom of its 
Creator — colour. 

If church restoration and repairs go on as tbey have done, in a few 
years all record of old polychromatic ait will be lost. We know some- 
thing of it, but we have much to learn — soon it will be too late. I 
urge on architects and amateurs to go to work with more care ; and to 
take notes of every tint, scroll, pattern, and monogram, which they 
will find everywhere, even to the very muUions of the windows. 

And as English eyes are once more opened to the beauty of archi* 
tectural colour, which they will be when it is properly used, they 
will acknowledge that among their friends and benefactors they may 
class the now despised, but precious conservators of old treasures — 
whitewash and yellow dab. 

Yours very truly, 

Htghnam, Feb. 8M, 1858. T. G. P. 


A coMMiTTBB meeting was held at Arklow House, on Friday, Feb. 19. 
Present, Mr. Beresford Hope, M .P., Chairman of Committees, in the 
chair ; the Earl of Powis, Vice-President ; Mr. Chambers ; Sir John 
Harington, Bart. ; the Rev. T. Helmore ; Mr. T. Gbmbier Parry ; the 
Rev. W. Scott ; and the Rev. B. Webb. 

The Rev. H. Vigne, of Sunbury Vicarage, was elected an ordinary 
member, and the Lord Bishop of Kilmore was admitted a patron. The 
Rev. George Williams, B.D., Vice-Provost of King's College, Cam- 
bridge, and President of the Cambridge Architectural Society, was 
added to the committee. 

Letters were read from Mr. Joseph Clarke. F.S.A., Messrs. Pugin 
and Murray, Mr. St. Aubyn, Mr. Herford, and others. Mr. Surges 
met the committee by appointment. Mr. Burges kindly undertook 
to prepare his promised paper on Bijouterie, for the Anniversary Meet- 
ing of the society. He also exhibited a beautifully illustrated book, by 
M. Adams, Inspecteur des Travaux de la Sainte Chapelle, entitled, 
Reeueil de Sculptures Gothiques, dessinies et gravies a Veau forte d^aprks 
les plus beaux monuments construits en France depots le onzihne jusqu'au 
quineihne sihcle. A double number of the Dietsche Warande was re- 
ceived from M. Alberdingk Thijm, and a copy of the Rev. J. Baron's 
work on " Scudamore Organs" was exhibited. The Rev. T. Helmore 
produced some copies of the Second Part of the Harmonies of the 
" Hymnal Noted," just published by Mr. Novello, and completing the 
whole work. 

Mr. Slater met the committee, and exhibited his designs for an ad- 
dition to the church of Bovey Tracey, Devonshire, for a font at S. 
Mary's, Dunkeld, and for a parsonage, to cost only £1000, at Obome, 
Dorsetshire. He also consulted the committee as to the reredos for 

116 The Arehiteetural Museum. 

Sherborne Minster, for which he produced the first sketch, together 
with a cartoon by Mr. Clayton, for an alto relievo of the Ascension, in« 
tended to fill the central compartment. 

The committee also examined Mr. Street's designs for the restoration 
of Wantage church ; for new churches at Watchfield, Berkshire, and at 
East Hanney, in the same county ; for a small new church at Firsby, 
Lincolnshire ; for the rebuilding of S. Leonard, Pitcombe, Somerset- 
shire ; for partial restorations at Ascott» Oxfordshire, and Whatley, 
Somersetshire, and for the addition of a tower and spire to Headley 
church, Surrey. 

The Manchester experiment of an entirely free church at the tem- 
porary church of S. Alban was the subject of conversation, and also 
the roofing of Llandaff Cathedral, upon which the committee had 
passed a resolution at its last meeting. 


Thb Architectural Museum has published its report for 1858, with 
lists of officers, subscribers, &c., and of the chief additions to its col- 
lections. We are glad to see that the Museum has not stt£Fered, so 
far as can be judged of at present, by its removal to South Kensington. 
We quote the more important paragraphs of the Report. . 

'* The Subscribers to the Architectural Museum are already in possession of 
the reasons which influenced the Committee in removing the Collections from 
Canon Row to South Rensiogton, but it is necessaiy again to refer to the 
subject with the view of accounting for the seeming inaction of the Society 
dnrmg the earlier portion of the past year, which the length of the nepxaa^ 
tions with the Government, and the arrangement of the numerous specunens 
in their new locality, unavoidably occasioned. 

" The Architectural Museum was formally re-opened on the 2(Hh of June 
last, when Her Majesty accompanied by H.R.H. the Prince Consort, the 
Princess Royal, Prince Frederick William of Prussia, the Archduke Maximilian 
of Austria, and members of the Court, Cabinet Council, and Royal Com- 
mission of 1851, inspected the various Collections in the South Kensington 
Museum. The Committee, with their President, the Earl de Grey, were in 
attendance in the Architectural Museum to receive Her Majesty and suite. 
Private views of the whole of the Collections in the South Kensington Mu- 
seum, to which the members of the Architectural Museum were invited, took 
flace on the 22nd and 2drd of June, and the Building was opened to the 
'ublic on the day following. 

** The only meetings of the Members and friends of the Architectural Mu- 
seum which have as yet been held since the removal are the Annual Conver- 
sazione in July last, and the recent meeting in the Theatre to witness the 
presentation of Mr. Ruskin's prizes to art- workmen by Professor Cockerell, 
R.A., the chairman. It will have been apparent to all who were present at 
either of these meetings that the numbers of visitors exceeded in a great 
deeree the attendances on such occasions in Canon Row, whilst the general 
publicity afforded to the Museum is evinced by the fact that from the opening 
of the South Kensington Museum to the 31 st of December last the number 
of visitors has been no less than 268,291." 

The Archite^vral Museum. 1 1 7 

The Architectural Maseum is bo thoroughly deserving of support, 
that we need scarcely urge its claims upon our readers. We append 
the Committee's prospectus of the prizes offered to art-workmen for 
the present year. This is a way in which much good may be effected, 
and we hope that the number and value of the prizes will increase 
every year. 

" Prizes will be offered to Art-workmen durini? the present year for the 
best Specimens of Metal Work, Wood Carving, Drawing from Specimem in 
the Muaeam, and Modeliiog from Natural Foliage. 

CondUiotu of Prize for Metal Work. 

" The Committee of the Architectural Museum offer a Prize of Ten Pounds 
for the best Specimen of Hammered Work in Iron, secured by welding, or 
riveting ; to be the whole or a complete portion of any work, strictly illustra- 
tive of the capabilities of decorative art, and combining arrhitectural fitness 
with metallic oonstmction. With these restrictions as to material and charac- 
ter the Committee do not limit the competition to any particular style or 
period, though they would suggest a certain regard being bad to Mediseval 

Cottditunu of Prieefor Wood Carting, 

** Mr. A. J. B. Beresford Hope, M.P., offers through the Committee, a Price 
of Five Guineas for the best Specimen of Wood Carving, forming the whole 
or a complete nortion of any work, and consisting of groupings from natural 
or conventional foliage, with or without the introduction of animal life, and 
illustrative of some architectural composition of the 13th or 14th centuries. 
The Specimens may be carved in oak or soft wood, as the competitors may 

Comditiions of Prieefor Drawings, 

" Mr. George Godwin, F.R.S., offers through the Committee, a Prize of 
Five Guineas for the best series of not less than Four Full-size Studies, 
drawn and shaded either in pencil, chalk, or single colour, firom Specimens in 
the Aiehitcctural Museum. 

Conditions of Prieefor Modelling m Plaster. 

** A Priie of Two Guineas will be offered through the Committee for the 
best Specimen of Modelling in Plaster from natural foliage conventionally 
arranged as a boss, finial, or running ornament for hollow mouldings. 

^ The whole of the Specimens to be deposited in the Architecturtd Museum 
free of cost, by the 1st of December, 1858, with the Art- workman's name and 
address, and those of his employer (if any) attached. 

*' The Specimens will be exhibited in the Architectural Museum for one 
month before the prizes are given, and will remain the property of the com- 
petitors or their employers. 

** The Committee will not award the prizes unless there appear sufficient 
merit in any of the specimens to entitle them to such distinction. 

"GaoRGB GiLBBRT ScoTT, A.R.A., Treasurer. 
" Joseph Ci«arkb, F.S.A.> Honorary. Secretary, 
"The Architectural Museum, 
January, 1858." 

VOL. xiz. 



A Mbstino of this Society was held on Thursday, February 25, the 
Rev. S. W. Wayte, B.D., of Trinity College, in the chair. 

J. L. Burra, Esq., of University College, was elected a member. 
Presents received ; — ** Report of the Ecclesiolo^cal Society for 1857." 
Presented by the Society : " The Chancel ; an Appeal for its proper 
use," presented by the author, the Rev. T. Chamberlain, Ch. Ch. : 
" Proceedings and Papers of the Kilkenny and South-east of Ireland 
Archaeological Society for Nov., 1857,'* presented by the Society. 

A paper was read by Mr. Markham J. Thorpe, of S. Edmund Hall, 
entitled, " Holyrood, in connection with Mary Queen of Scots." The 
paper, though not architectural, was read at the request of members of 
the Society. Mr. Thorpe's connection with her Majesty's State Paper- 
office has enabled him to give the interesting information which forms 
the staple of his paper. 

After some remarks upon the recently discovered Conway papers 
through the instrumentality of the late Mr. Wilson Croker, Mr. Thorpe 
explained the nature of a work upon which he had been engaged some 
time, and which would shortly be before the public, namely, a " Ca- 
lendar; or Chronologic Catalogue of the State Papers relating to 
Scotland, from the reign of Henry VIII. to the accession of James VI. 
to the Throne of England, and the union of the two Kingdoms." The 
interest of such papers would be admitted to be of the highest des- 

Papers of the years 1564-65-66 were then noticed, and some curious 
letters respecting the proposed marriage of Mary Queen of Scots with 
the Earl of Leicester read, among them an anonymous one to the 
English Ambassador, which was found to have for its author, William 
Kirkcaldy, the Laird of Grange, a faithful supporter of Queen Mary, 
and one who fell in her cause. The modes of concealment which were 
employed in this case appear most curious. Other letters were read, 
respecting Lord Damley's marriage with Queen Mary, with amusing 
illustrations of the then existing state of society. It also appeared that 
the intended murder of Riccio was not unknown to English statesinen. 
Mr. Thorpe defended John Knox, not from any partiality to that 
preacher, or disrespect to the author who has laid the. accusation, 
against the statements of the late Mr. Tytler in his hbtory, according 
to whom John Knox was implicated in this deed. In addition were 
read several curious passages, showing the barbarous state of society, 
e. g., the narrow escape of a priest from the market, where he was 
subjected to a pelting with eggs by the Edinburgh boys, the reasons 
for apprehending a person of suspicious character, *' a crooked nose," 
(Mr. T. suggested a Roman one), being one of the suspected features. 
In conclusion, Mr. Thorpe kindly volunteered further communications 
of a similar character if the society gave their approval. 

The chairman, at the conclusion of the paper, expressed his assur- 
ance of the pleasure with which the members present had heard Mr. 

Mr. Buckeridge an Modem Stained Glass. 119 

Thorpe, and thanked him for his kind o£Fer of continuing the suhject 
on a fdture occasion. 

After some further remarks from Mr. Thorpe, who was assured of 
the fedse nature of the calumnies against Queen Mary, the meeting was 
adjourned till Thursday, the 11th of March. 

The third Meeting of this Society was held in the society's rooms in 
Holywell Street, on Thursday evening, March 11, the treasurer, the 
Rev. S. W. Wayte, in the chair. 

The following gentlemen were elected memhers of the society : 

Edward Wilberforce, Esq., Trinity CoU^e. 
I. J. Cooper, Esq., IJmyenity College. 
M. J. Thorpe. Esq., S. Edmnhd Hall. 

An Early English capital from Lichfield cathedral, presented by Mr. 
John Oibbs, of Walton Place, architect, was exhibited. The same 
gentleman had presented to the society his work on " Christian Me- 
morials," and a photograph of his design for an entrance-gateway for 
S. Giles's churchyard in this city. 

Mr. Buckeridge read a paper on ''The Production of Modern 
Stained Glass Windows," from which the following is an extract : 

" Since we have so much to do with stained glass, it behoves us not 
a little to make ourselves acquainted with the present state of things 
in this particular section of ecdesiology ; are we satisfied with the 
majority of modem stained glass windows ? Methinks we shall be 
unanimous in answering to this question in that monosyllable * No.' 
And why not ? Because for the most part they are fear^lly wanting 
in true artistic merit ; the arrangement of colour is bad, the grouping 
of figures is bad, and the drawing of the figures is worse. You will 
not be surprised at thu when I tell you that, with a few exceptions, 
our stained glass windows are turned out of establishments the owners 
of which have no more artistic skill than a linendraper ; these men 
turn art into a trade, and deal with it in much the same spirit as a 
greengrocer deals in vegetables. Such doings as these make one ask 
die question, ' Is the production of stained glass windows an art or a 
manufacture ?* Some call it one, some the other, and others split the 
difference and call it an ' art-manufacture,' — a very ambiguous term 
this, which generally means that manufacture has more to do with it 
than art. That it is an art, and that, too, of the highest description. 
may be asserted from the fact that ' there is no aptitude that an artist 
can possess by nature or education for colour, poetry, or composition, 
no power of expression, draughtsmanship, or invention, that may not 
in glass be legitimately wedded to its materials, and the true principles 
of its requirements in design.' It is as much an art as architecture, 
sculpture, or painting — I mean picture-painting ; the art of stained- 
glass painting is a perfect and true art ; but, at the same time, it is an 
individual one, which arises from the nature of its materials, and the 
peculiar treatment, most thoroughly opposed to picture-painting, which 
is necessary to produce a good piece of stained-glass painting ; picture 

120 Cambridge Architectural Socieitf. 

artists for the most part have neither skill in, nor knowledge of, archi^ 
tecture and ornament, both of which are essentia] in works of stained 
glass. We need only go to New College chapel, where we shall see 
how miserably such a. man as Sir Joshua Reynolds* great in his day as 
a picture-painter, failed in his attempt to produce a stained glass win- 
dow. The west window was designed by him, and a wretched thing 
it is. I have frequently been in that chapel, and have heard with 
horror and indignation the Oxford guides calling upon yisitora to ad- 
mire this beautiful window ! A similar infliction awaits one on visiting 
Magdalen College chapel ; there also yon are called upon to admire the 
west window, which is another of these picture productions, to reoeiTe 
which the muUions and tracery have been unblushingly cut away to 
give a greater field for the artist's imagination : here, however, there 
is no attempt at colour as at New College, therefore it is less unbear- 
able, but they are both bad enough. It is quite refreshing to turn 
from the old dingy brown saints who cast a gloom over the whole 
of Magdalen College chapel, and look at the new window lately put 
in by Messrs. Hardman and Co., in which the true principles of glass 
psinting are carried out, though I fear not to such perfection as Messrs. 
Hardman and Co. generally manifest in their productions. Artists in 
glass-painting must be thoroughly imbued with the spirit of medissval 
art, having a thorough knowledge of the human figure, the manage- 
ment of draperies, and be well skilled in the knowledge of arriiitecture 
and ornament. A few such men there are, and their numbers will 
doubtless go on increasing as pupils from time to time go forth from 
their masters' studios imbued with their spirit and skilled in their art." 

Mr. fiuckeridge concluded his paper by reading extracts from an 
article on this subject which af^peared in the Bmider of Deo. 19, 1847. 

Mr. James Pariccr made some observations upon the principle of the 
application of stained glass, and considered one of the first causes of 
failure in modem stained glass windows was that they were often de- 
signed and executed without the slightest regard to the position th^ 
were to occupy, or the building which was to receive them. He con* 
tended that the prevailing idea in the mediaval glass was that it was 
a part of the building, and till the glass was designed in accordance 
with the structure of which it formed a part, there was no hope that 
satisfactory glass would be produced. 


Ths first Meeting of the Society for the Lent term was held on Ilittrs- 
day, Feb. U. The Rev. H. R. Luard, IVinity College* in the chair. 

Mr. T. H. King, architect, of Bruges, was proposed as an honorary 

Mr. J. W. Ckrk, Trinity College, then gave an account of some 
stone coffins which had lately been found at Shepreth» one of them 
contained the fragments of a small chalice, either of lead or pewtor. 

Cambridge ArcMteciwral Society. 121 

Mr. R. R. Rowe then exhibited two Tolames of a magnifioent work 
by Mr. T. H. King, entitled " Orfevrerie du Moyen Age," consisting, 
of examples of charch plate and furniture existing in the churches and 
convents in Belgium. 

The meeting then adjourned. 

Tlie second Meeting of the Society was held on Thursday, Feb. 26, 
when, owing to the absence of the President and Vice-Presidents, the 
chair was taken by Mr. J. W. Clark, Trinity College. 

Mr. T. H. King was elected an honorary member. 

Mr. W. M. Fawcett, Jesus College, then read a paper on S. Robert's 
Chapel. KnaresboroQgh, which is excavated out of the solid limestone, 

The meeting then adjourned till March 11. 

The last Meeting of the Society for the Lent term was held on 
Thursday evening, March 11, the Rev. the President in the chair. 

The Hev. W. J. Besmont, M.A., Trinttj College, 
Mr. W. Maples, Clare College, 

were proposed as ordinary members of the society. 

The Secretary then read a report upon the state of Shepreth church, 
which had been drawn up by desire of the society. It was then pro« 
posed and agreed to '* that the report should be printed." 

The following is a copy of the Report : — 

*' Shepreth church formerly consbted of a Decorated chancel, 
entered by a Norman arch, a nave with a south aisle of four bays, a 
tower, and two porches. 

" The present condition of each of these parts is as follows : — 

" I. The roof of the chancel is of plaister, which is much stained and 
cracked by the rain, which has penetrated the tiles* ' The Communion 
table ' has now a neat green cloth, but no books. 

*' II. The nave and south aisle have been rebuflt, and the original 
stone walls are replaced by new ones of yellow brick, with plain Early 
English windows of poor design. The original doorways remain, but 
the two fine Early English porches have been destroyed. In the in- 
terior, the walls have been coloured yellow, and then splashed with red 
and black in a mean and most tasteless style. About one-half of the 
floor is occupied by the old open seats, which are in a most disgraceful 
state of decay ; some are quite loose, and are scarcely kept together by 
a liberal use of cramps and nails ; hi others the wood is so rotten that 
it crumbles away at a touch. The flooring of the only three pews in 
the church is also sunk and very roughly patched up. There is a 
Prayer Book in the reading-desk, but no Bible. The tie-beams of the 
old roof (1 635.) remain, and have been covered in with deal planking, 
so imperfectly slated, that when the mortar, which is employed instead 
of ridge tiles, falls off, the rain enters, and threatens to make the con- 
dition of the beams (which are already very rotten) still worse. Be- 
sides all thb, the gable is so imperfectly joined to the tower, that the 

122 Leicestershire Architectural Society. 

wet trickles down the east face of the latter, and penetrates into the 

"III. The whole tower also (although the upper part has been re- 
moved) is still in a most dangerous state. The walls are cracked in all 
directions, especially on the north and west sides. Its northern wall also 
bulges inwards to an alarming degree. The upper part of the tower is 
merely kept together by strong iron braces. Two out of the three 
bells are dismounted ; and the beams which support the remaining one 
are in a bad state. To protect the interior to a certain extent, a square 
roof of f or I inch plank has been erected. 

" ly. The fences of the churchyard are also in a very bad condition : 
in places they only consist of a heap of the debris of the tower and 

" In conclusion, we have to express our earnest hope that some im- 
mediate steps may be taken, not only to rescue the building from its 
present disgraceful and dangerous state, but also to prcivide suitable 
accommodation for the numerous parishioners, who are willing, but un- 
able, to take part in the services of the Church." 

Mr. J. W. Clark, B.A., Trinity College, then read a paper on some 
of the churches of Oottland. He prefaced his account with a short de- 
scription of the island, and a sketch of its history, which is extremely 
obscure, as the original records have been lost. Wisby, the capital, 
was probably a place of importance in Pagan times, and continued to be 
a great commercial city until it was sacked by the Danes, a.d. 1361. 
The ruins are very extensive ; the walls and the remains of eighteen 
churches may still be seen. In the island are upwards of one hundred 
churches in good repair, all built between a.d. 1050 and 1200. Of 
these he gave a general description, noting by the way any remarkable 
deviation from the more usual type. 

The Rev. H. R. Luard, Trinity College, then exhibited a magnificent 
series of engravings of the church of Orvieto. 

The thanks of the society were given to Mr. Clark for his paper, and 
the meeting then adjourned till April %. 


A Mbbtikg of this Society was held at the Town Hall Library, Leices- 
ter, on February 22nd, the Rev. R. Bumaby in the chair. 

The subject of the Oadby church clock was again brought before 
the meeting, and some correspondence in reference to it r^, when, 
instead of the present expensive and by no means tasteful plan of cut- 
ting a large hole in the Qpire, and then building out a place for the 
dock, the society recommended that, if the clock is to have three 
faces placed in the lower part of the spire, instead of any building 
connected with it, the three dials be made of open or skeleton work 
of cast or wrought iron, of a light design, taking care that the letters 

Mr. Wing on the Architecture of certain Churches. 123 

and hands, which should be gilded, be as visible as possible, and the 
rest of the frame comparatiyely invisible. The dials will project from 
or stand out of the spire, so that the faces will be perfecUy verti* 
cal. This plan would not interfere with the fabric, and not much in- 
jure the appearance of the church ; it will render all stonework and 
building unnecessary, and be a great saving in ezpenife, and the clock 
would be conspicuous from a distance. This plan has been adopted 
with success elsewhere. 

Mr. y. Wing exhibited some views of churches, and also an archi- 
tectural drawing by himself of the beautiful church of Melton Mow- 
bray restored, and read the following paper upon them : — 

" Gentlemen. — I submit for your inspection a few views of churches, 
which I think will be found interesting. Some of them show great 
beauty of design, and others furnish valuable hints to the ecclesiastical 
architect. The first to be produced is that of Dunchurch, in War- 
wickshire, the tower of which is worth observation. The next is the 
beautiful Perpendicular church at Devizes, in Wiltshire. In each of 
these much judgment appears in overcoming the difficulty which 
occurs with the staircase of the steeple. A common arrangement is 
that of an octagonal structure attached to one angle, rearing its head 
above the rest, in the form of a turret. In castellated buildings nothing 
looks better than the bastion of a tower ; but in a church this aspiring 
turret is out of character, and has somewhat of the appearance of an 
ill-placed chimney. The designers of these two edifices feeling the 
objection have overcome it, in one instance by carrying each comer 
battlement to the same height as that of the staircase; and in the 
other, by keeping down the battlements of the whole nearly at a level, 
and making them more subordinate by erecting, as a further finish, a 
pinnacle at each comer ; thus leaving the staircase with a buttressed 
appearance, by which means it seems to serve as a backbone, and 
yields that first element of trae architectural design, namely, constrac- 
tive firmness. In many cases the stairs are built within the angle, and 
the consequence is the distortion of the features of the tower, on one 
side if not more. The next is a lithograph of the porch of Skelton 
church, in Yorkshire. This gives a viduable hint, which I am not 
aware that any one of the present day has availed himself of. Since 
the time of Pugin a preference has obtained in some quarters for the 
more mixed Continental styles (possibly an ebbing has set in 
towards debasement by invention and novelty,) with a disposition to 
repudiate research amongst ancient examples of the purer Gothic 
of this country ; and, if so, it will not be out of season to call 
attention to some of these masterly strokes of our own great authors. 
We need scarcely be reminded that they were giants in their days. 
Witness the Norman front of the grand nave of Peterborough Minster, 
screened and eclipsed by that unrivalled west front of the 13th cen- 
tury ; or at the same period, with a taste not inferior, the Norman 
work of Lincoln, preserved and boldly interwoven — the old cloth and 
the new gartnent — ^in the union of the rade as well as more elaborate 
Norman with the extension of the fagade in elegant Early English, and in 
the 1 5th century the Perpendicular towers erected upon their Norman 

124 Leicestenkire ArchUecharal Society. 

bases, tnd curried up in all their eonsummate beauty and sublimity ; 
the result being a combination of the awful g;randeur of the arches and 
deep shade of Peterborough with perfect outline and an astonishing ex- 
panse of decoration. ' Difficulties ' was then but another word for ' op- 
portunities/ Hie falling of the central tower of Ely Cathedral only 
evoked a reconstruction of the centre, almost Colossean in magnitude, 
and led to such a display of taste as no lover of the art would rest 
content without visiting. At Skelton, within the limits of a porch 
doorway, the designer has evidently aimed at magnificence, and has as 
evidently succeeded. In the jambs he has obtained what may be called an 
avenue of pillars nine in number, on either side, bold and uncramped, 
which throw out their ramifications of mouldings above, in more than 
four orders, with admirable efiect. The chief ingenuity of the scheme 
to which I request attention consists in a contrivance to show large 
and handsome capitals and bases, notwithstanding the contiguity of 
the shafts. This is effected by corbelling back some of the bases, 
whereby the nine merge into six, whilst the nine capitals plunge into 
and lose themselves in their well-contrived foliage, and their abaci or 
tops without the appearance of mutilation, come out four in number. 
It is possible that the steeple of Market Harborough church, thou^ 
so near, may not have excited the admiration which it deserves. It is 
one of the most beautiful of broach steeples, and we in Leicestershire 
may feel justly proud of it. In Northamptonshire there are some in- 
stances of an attempt to combine in one both the broached and the pa- 
rapeted spire. This you will see illustrated by Desborough steeple. 
The happy inventions which necessity not unfrequently gives rise to, 
sometimes appeared in the erection of a tower or bell-gable, to secure 
a fioling western walL Of this we have a good instance at Burton, 
near Melton, ^nd a better at Romsley, in Worcestershire. The plan 
is to make the new erection partly within and partly without the 
church ; from the support so given the wall is prevented from fdling 
either way, and the two buttresses on the exterior being united by an 
arch, to carry the superstructure — a feature as good as it is unique — 
developes itself in a kind of spontaneous design. I submit Romsley as 
giving an example of this. Li inviting your attention to the church of 
Hawton,^ near Newark, I regret that I have not complete delineations 
of it to lay before you. A more tasteful structure than the Decorated 
chancel of this church can scarcely be conceived. The exterior is 
not gorgeous, but truly good. In all its proportions and details it is a 
standard and study of excellence. The grand seven-light window, 
which with its flowing tracery adorns the east, can scarcely divert at- 
tention from the beauties of the southern side. Upon whatever point 
the eye fixes, whether the buttresses, the base mouldings, and string- 
courses, the cornice, the doorway, the three southern windows, or any 
other part, perfection seems to smile upon it everywhere. The en* 
giaving which I have, I am happy to think, gives some idea of the 
building t and I am the more pleased because it gives us one arrange- 
ment, which shows a very bold stroke of a master mind, whereby, with 

1 [The lecturer does not leem to be aware of the existence of Mr. Place's fine 
drawings of Hawton chaneel, pnblished by the Bceleaiologioal Society. — Bo.] 

New Churches. 125 

singular success, a difficulty has been OTercome, which conventionalities 
would have rendered to inferior minds insuperable. The southern side 
of the chancel is divided by simple but elegaut buttresses into three 
equal bays ; and in perfecting the design it was necessary to have 8 
corresponding window in each. Here was the difficulty ; for a door 
was equally necessary, not only for utility, but to relieve in some degree 
the dulness of uniformity ; and where was room for it to be found ? 
The designer has not hesitated to cut off a portion of the lower part of 
one side of the centre window with a blank piece of wall, defined 
with a skewtable cutting across in a slanting direction, as in perspective 
a porch would intersect a window, and yet without detriment. Into 
this portion so gained he has inserted a doorway worthy of the rest of 
the edifice. This church, it may be, is familiarly known to most of us, 
but those who are not acquainted with it are advised to see it ; not 
only is its exterior so good, but in the interior the sepulchre and 
founder's tomb afford equal if not greater attractions. The sepulchres 
formerly used in the worship of the Church of Rome having been 
usually of wood, are seldom found in existence in our English churches. 
The most interesting example in this district is, I apprehend, that at 
Ashwell, on this side Oakham. But the most famous for their pro* 
fusion of ornament are those of Heckington and Hawton. Of the 
former I have a print ; in producing it as giving some idea of the latter 
one, I have to remark that it is mutilated and inferior to it. The ex* 
quisite enrichment of the walls of Hawton chancel by the founder's 
tomb and the sepulchre, it is impossible to describe. The work is in 
excellent preservation, and is as good in execution as in design. A 
person of a practised eye often finds annoyance from the unsatisfactory 
representations of architectural subjects given in engravings. The 
church at Melton, in the best yet published, is, so to speak, every 
stone wrong ; and consequently, it is no guide to the periods and styles 
of its different parts. For my own satisfaction, I undertook a few yeara 
ago to make an architectural drawing of it, and have been induced to 
bring it to lay before the meeting. In two instances the church suffers 
very materially from dilapidations. The parapet of the aisles has dis- 
appeared, and the caps or pinnacles of the porch octangular buttressea 
have perished, and been replaced by debased substitutes. In the draw- 
ing I have restored the parapets, and the pinnacles I have ventured to 
supply from a design furnished by a canopy in York Minster.*' 


8, Mary, Sfoke Newington, Middlesex. — Alongside of the little old 
church of Stoke Newington, that small village structure so strangely 
left standing in what is now almost a quarter of London, is rising its 
imposing successor, due to the pencil of Mr. Scoct. It is not our 
business to enter into the entanglements which have accompanied th& 
foundation of this church. Ecclesiologically, it is a signal gain to the 

VOL. XIX. s 

126 New Ciurekei. 

metropolifl^ and as anch we welcome it. We reaenre our full deacrip- 
tion tUl its completion and fitting. But in passing we may note that 
it is cruciform and apsidal : the aisles out-gable, like those of its archi> 
tect's churches in Victoria Street and at Dundee. Mr. Scott, with 
bold eclecticism, carries his arcade across the transepts with a hori- 
zontal cornice, after Italian precedent ; while he deviates from his 
exemplars in filling up the space above with wooden screenwork, of a 
massive and open character. The external aspect would have been im- 
proved by the introduction of a fleche. The foliage of the nave capi- 
tals deserves particular commendation for its delicacy of execution. 
The pillars, we should observe, are circular. The steeple stands at the 
west end. 

S. Thomas, Orchard Street, S, Marylebone. — ^The notorious Calmel 
Buildings have, we are glad to say, been swept away, and are now oc- 
cupied by this new church, of which Mr. P. C. Hardwick is the archi- 
tecti As in the case of Stoke Newington, we postpone our fuller notice 
of it till its completion. But we cannot resist recording the astonish- 
ment and disappointment which we felt when, after we had inspected 
the building, we learned to whom it was due. The " influences " (to 
use the slang of the day) under which it was bttUt precluded the sup- 
position of very correct arrangement ; but no influences are sufficient to 
account for its architectural shortcomings. Perhaps the absence of 
chancel was inevitable. But we can hardly suppose that the architect 
was ordered to provide for the galleries by the barbarous expedient of 
inserting little brackets against the circular nave-pillars. Nor can we 
conclude that any theological value attaches to the lame contrivance 
by which the aisle and the gallery windows are coupled into one maaH 
by a horizontal strip of stone, feebly panelled in quatrefoils. The 
timid attempt to produce a polychromatic effect by a few spidery lines 
of bad-coloured black brick, only betrays more forcibly the wretched 
material of the general structure. We regret to speak thus severely ; 
but if Mr. Hardwick means to maintain his reputation as an ecclesias- 
tical architect, he must show a little more strength of character. 
Other architects have risen with their times, and have raised their em- 
ployers with themselves. Mr. Hardwick alone ought not to give an 
instance of the " art of sinking." 

S. , Watchfield, Berkshire, — A small new church by Mr. Street » 

containing chancel, nave, north aisle, and western gable- belfrycote : 
the style a good Middle-Pointed. The east window, of three lights, 
is well placed in the east wall, and the strings and buttresses are ex- 
cellently managed. The double bell-cote is simple but efiective. In- 
side, the roofs are unobtrusive ; the trusses of the nave being formed 
of cross-braces, with a bold foliation. The chancel arch has corbelled 
sub- shafts, and the side arcade, of three arches, is of good character. 
By a novel, but laudable arrangement, the western end of the aisle ia 
treated as a porch, being walled off from the rest of the aisle, and 
opening into the nave on the north, and to the exterior on its west 
side. The ritual arrangements are perfect. The woodwork betrays a 
tendency to somewhat unusual forms. The font too is rather inele- 
gant. But the whole forms a village church of unusual merit. 

New Churches. 127 

S^. , East HoMney, Berks. — Another small rural church for an 

outlying hamlet, by Mr. Street. There is a chancel 17 ft. by 16 ft. 
6 in., and a nave 49 ft. by 18 ft. 10 in., with a porch, of small pro* 
jection, at the south-west. The building being so small there is no 
pulpit, the sermon being preached from the stalls. The style is Late 
First- Pointed, and the roof over chancel and nave is continuous. The 
west window is of two trefoiled lancets, enclosed in a wide arch. The 
beU-cote» of shingles, and square in plan, springs diagonally from the 
western part of the ridge of the nave roof. The porch is covered by 
a continuation of the roof of the nave. The east window is of three 
unequal adjacent trefoiled lancets under a common hood : and, inside^ 
the jambs of the containing arch are continued to the ground, forming 
a" kind of frame-work, by way of reredos, to the altar. This effect 
is not very satisfactory. The whole cost is not to exceed £450. 

S. Leonard, Pitcombe, Somersetshire. — Here Mr. Street has erected 
a very pleasing and effective church, retaining only the tower and 
some windows of the former building. There is a chancel 21 ft. 10 in. 
by 17 ft. 3 in., with a transeptal chapel, or chancel aisle, on the north 
side ; a nave 42 ft. 6 in. by 17 ft. 3 in., with north aisle, western 
tower, and a porch on the middle of the south side. The accommo- 
dation is for 200 persons. The arcade is of three arches, somewhat 
elaborate, and the chancel arch is of bold span and excellent detail. 
The windows saved from the old church are of a rather Early Third- 
Pointed; but the new east window is somewhat crudely traceried. 
The tower, which is old, is a square one of four stages, with embattled 
parapet and angle pinnacles and a staircase-turret on the north side. 
The north aisle is of Early Pointed character, with tripled lancets. 
The north side of the chapel has three single narrow lights at some 
distance from each other. The woodwork throughout the church 
here is of a good type, and there is a pretty timber lychgate. 
The seats indeed are copied from the ancient ones : and the remains 
of the old glass have been most properly collected and preserved in 
the west window. 

8. James, Firsby, Lincolnshire. — A modest little new church, by Mr. 
Street, consisting only of nave and apsidal chancel, and a vestry, llie 
style is early Middle- Pointed, and the whole cost was not more than 
£900. The west end is good, with a small traceried circle and a 
double bell-cote. The round apse has a gabled east window, an effect 
which we cannot commend, on the exterior, though of course it gives 
height to the window from within. But even inside the interruption 
of the coved ceiling is not agreeable to the eye. 

Holy Trinity, Hastings. — We have more than once mentioned this 
church of Mr. S. S. Teulon^s. It is now building, with certain modi- 
fications, on the new site in Robinson Street. It presents a bold 
adaptation to an awkward site: containing a broad nave nearly 100ft. 
long by 35 ft. broad, with spacious chancel and five- sided apse ; a 
broad north aisle; with a square tower forming a porch, set obliquely 
in the triangular space between the chancel and north aisle, and the thri'e 
interstices filled up by a vestry, a lobby, and an organ -chamber. Still 
more space is gained by extending the area to the outside of the but- 

128 New Chwrches. 

tresses, and roofing each space with a separate gable ; thus breakiog 
very effectively the roof of the nave. The internal arrangement is 
satisfactory, were it not for the insertion of a prayer-desk facing due 
west at the south side of the chancel-arch. There is much architec- 
tural merit in the design — bold tracery, good mouldings, and general 
power in managing the style ; but we hope some day to speak of the 
church from actual inspection. There is a tendency of exaggeration in ' 
the perspective view, with which the architect has favoured us, which 
may perhaps not be so manifest in the building itself. As it is, the 
lofty gabled walls of the nave and of the broad apse, — the latter en- 
riched in addition with pinnacles, statuary, and adoring angels, — ^the 
high roofs, coloured and banded, and the rich perforated stepped gable 
tetween nave and chancel, — recalling the famous Frauenkirche at Nu- 
remberg, — with crosses in stone and metal, ridge-crests, roof- gablets, 
crockets, pierced parapets, incised spandrils, and every imaginable en- 
richment — ^to say nothing of the elaborate tower, with its belfry-stage, 
pinnacles, and projecting clock in intricate metal-work — all these fea- 
tures of highly decorative architecture form an unwonted whole of great 
artistic interest. We hope that they will look as well in execution as 
they do in drawing, and that real effectiveness may not be sacrificed to 
excess of ornament. As a rule, we should prefer to see greater internal 
dignity and richness of ornament where the exterior promises so much. 
iS. John Baptist, IHdebrook, Wadhunt, East Sussex.— We were both 
pleased with and surprised at this new church, of the " chapel " class* 
standing in a wild glen of the Sussex Weald, more particularly as it 
is the first work of a young architect, Mr. Rushforth, of whom we 
had not previously heard. The situation is remarkable — a bank falling 
precipitously from east to west : and good use has been made of this 
to raise the west end on a substructure (we can hardly call it a crypt), 
so as to give remarkable elevation to this end. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, this feature is not visible from the road, which skirts the east 
end. The door to this quasi-crypt wears externally the aspect of being 
the west door of the church itself ; while entrance is in reality gained 
by a south lean-to porch, opening into the church by four steps, near the- 
chancel-arch, where the ground is highest. The general character of 
the structure is in conformity with its locale, bold and massive ; and 
the style partakes rather more of First-Pointed than we should, except 
under such circumstances, have approved. The bold grass table, and 
the battening of the lower portion of the walls to the west, correspond 
with the general motif. The western fa9ade comprises two discon- 
tinuous trefoil-headed lancets, with a three-light window above of 
nidimental tracery ; the heads of the lights being trefoiled, the centre 
ihe highest, while circles are pierced in the spandrils. In the gable is 
a.qui^trefoiled eyelet. The nave is divided into four bays, the windows 
being partly trefoiled lancets, and partly two-lights, with nidimental 
tracery; the buttresses few and massive. A lofty bell-gable, for a 
single beU, rises over the chancel-arch. The chancel is of two bays* 
without windows to the more western one ; while on the south side an 
equal triplet marks the sedilia, and to the north a lancet (in either case 
trefoiled in the head) is constructed so as to form internally a credence* 

New Churches. 129 

The east window is externally a trefoil-headed quintuplet* with an in- 
ternal screen of five unfoliated arches borne on black marble shafts. The 
vestry is a lean-to attached to the northern side of the chancel. The 
material is sandstone, the roof being covered with light red tiles, with 
bands of a darker colour. Internally the roof is very simple, composed 
of braces and queen- posts. The nave is on a level ; the chancel rises 
on three steps ; the pulpit, which is of wood, and square, rising to the 
north on a stone base, with angels carved at the angles, of too late a 
motif, — a criticism which we have also to make upon the angel corbels 
of the chancel-roof : while, on the other hand, the broad, flat soffit, 
with angle chamfers, of the chancel-arch, and the details of the sedilia, 
recall Romanesque too prominently. The prayer-desk stands within 
the chancel to the north, and the lectern at the top of the steps faces 
west. There are quasi-stalls. The credence and sedilia, as we stated, 
work into the windows. The sanctuary rises upon a step, with an 
open wooden rail ; and there is a foot-pace. The font stands close to 
the south entrance, composed of a square block on one large and four 
small circular shafts. The seats are all open. The glazing is a mis- 
take, being composed of sheets of opaque glass, stamped with the sham 
imitation of quarries. The general impression of the interior is that of 
breadth. We trust that Mr. Rushforth may follow up with success so 
good a beginning. 

8, John, Preston, Lancashire, — The parish church of Preston, to 
which we have already alluded, has lately been rebuilt by Mr. Shellard, 
in a kind of showy, yet incorrect, Third- Pointed, and with arrangements 
evincing an attempt, as laborious as it is unsuccessful, to effect a truce 
between the bad system of a few years back and the better ideas of our 
own time. As a proof of the quality of the architecture, we need 
only observe, that gurgoyles strike out of the pinnacles with which the 
nave is bedizened, while their duty of carrying off the water is per- 
formed by more prosaic and disconnected stack-pipes. The western 
tower forms a comfortable porch, which is also used as a baptistery, 
being duly cut off from the church, and is surmounted by a spire pro- 
liisely crocketed. The nave is composed of five bays, besides a minia- 
tore bay to the east. The pillars are trefoiled in section, with foliaged 
capitals, and the galleries come flush to them. The clerestory is com- 
posed of coupled two-light windows. The pulpit stands northwards, 
and the prayer- desk faces due west, and we need not say pews abound. 
The chancel is slightly raised, and has a southern aisle, but none to 
the north. It is seated with three rows of benches on each side, the 
uppermost being composed of stalls, of which those to the south abutting 
against a parclose are devoted to the corporation. The sanctuary rises 
on two steps besides the footpace, and there are wooden sedilia. The 
east window, and the seven others in the chancel and its aisle, are filled 
with painted glass. Some of them are by Mr. Wailes, and are of toler- 
able, though not first-rate merit. There are also three painted windows 
in the nave, and more will follow. The money which must have been 
spent on this rebuilding would have paid for a really good church. The 
size of the unoccupied churchyard around, which might have been in- 
tended for a more spacious structure, cuts awayall excuse for the galleries. 



S8. Peter and Paul, Wantage, has been elaborately restored by Mr. 
Street. The chancel has received a new roof, of good and somewhat 
elaborate character, and the clerestory and other windows have been 
renewed. The levels have been readjusted, and the old altar-stone, 
nine feet long, restored to use. The east window, a noble composi- 
tion, has been filled with stained glass by Hardman ; the subjects 
being S. Peter, S. Paul, S. John Baptist, S. John Evangelist, and S. 
Mary, with a Crucifixion in the tracery. The central tower has been 
revaulted in stone ; and the space below it is made use of for the 
choir, the chancel proper being too much obstructed from the congre- 
gation by the intervening arches. Light stalls are placed under the 
tower for the singers, and the old stalls are reserved for the use of clergy 
on solemn occasions. The nave has received a tile floor throughout, and 
is full of moveable oak benches. The pulpit is new, and has ori- 
ginality as well as merit. It is circular in plan, of alabaster, with 
marble shafts. The sides are pierced between the columns, and the 
spaces occupied with richly wrought iron tracery. The stem is a 
central shaft clustered round by eight smaller columns. The reredos 
is very rich and successful ; of Painswick stone, inlaid with alabaster 
and marbles of various colours. A beautiful cross is inlaid in the 
pedimented central space. But the most remarkable feature is the 
polychromatic decoration of the east wall of the nave. Here there is 
a distemper painting representing our Lord in majesty, in a pointed 
aureole, with saints in session, six on each side. In the spandril spaces 
of the nave-arch, there are subjects in large circles. This is a resto- 
ration that deserves a notice from actual inspection. 

8, Gilee, Hurtington, Derbyshire. — ^The ancient church of this small, 
decayed market- town, from which the Duke of Devonshire takes his 
second title, is known to all tourists who are adventurous enough to 
trace the Dove upwards from Dove Dale to the classic haunts of Izaak 
Walton at Beresford. It is a most interesting structure, built on a 
picturesque height above the little village — for it is no more than a 
village — that nestles at its feet. The plan is cruciform. The north 
transept seems to be the earliest portion : of rude but vigorous late 
First- Pointed : the chancel and south transept (which has a western 
aisle) are of average Middle-Pointed : the clerestoried nave and its 
aisles are somewhat later ; and there is a western tower, with embat- 
tled parapet, of singularly good Third-Pointed design. The whole 
exterior is striking, and is sketched by Mr. Petit, in his Ckureh Archie 
tectvre, vol. ii. p. 96, though his view is not very accurate, nor his 
remarks very discriminating. The most curious thing in the church 
that will strike an intelligent observer, is perhaps the bold adaptation 
of Pointed detail to the nature of the stone of which the earlier por- 
tions are built. Coane broad chamfen and rude forms betray the 
impracticability of the native material, and perhaps the incompetency 
of the native masons. However there are remains of finer and deli- 

Church Regiarations. 181 

cate detail, even of dog-tooth moulding, in the fragments of the altar- 
brackets, &c., still preserved ; and the tower, built in the more manage- 
able gritstone, which, from its peculiar red tone, may be well thought 
to have come from the ancient quarries of Sheen Hill, on the Stafford- 
shire side of the Dove, b as excellent in its masonry as its design. 
Equally interesting are, or rather were, the ritual arrangements of the 
building. Hartington was a church of collegiate dignity, and it can 
boast to this very day of a sinecure dean. Population, still very scanty, 
and even diminishing, must in the middle ages have been very thin, 
and probably very much scattered, in the moorlands and bleak lime- 
atone uplands that alternate in that southern extremity of the High 
Peak. For such a district a collegiate body of almost missionary 
clergy, settled in a central position, and extending their occasional 
ministrations in circuits far and wide, was likely to be far more useful 
than the more modern plan of multiplying parochial centres all over a 
sparsely inhabited region. No record remains, so far as we know, of 
the number of the ecclesiastical foundation at Hartington. But besides 
the high altar there were two, if not three, altars on the east wall of the 
north transept, and two altars in the south transept. The remains of the 
brackets, the piscinae, the ledges for lamps or images, the floor levels, 
and on the south side the traces of the parcloses, were very interest- 
ing. It would appear that the two altars in the south transept were 
screened off on three sides by parcloses, and that admission to them 
was only to be had from the western transept- aisle, a feature, we need 
not say, most rare in churches of this small size. Unfortunately, in 
the recent restoration, nearly all these curious features have been ob- . 
literated, and we have to regret the well-meant but unintelligent de- 
molition of many nearly unique specialities. 

No church, indeed, could more need improvement than this did be- 
fore the late works. It was in a state of damp desolation and abase- 
ment, the very existence of which would be incredible to those whose 
memories do not go back for twenty or twenty-five years. The pews 
were most singular, of every size, and shape, and position. Some of 
the earliest were actually isolated, four-square boxes — built indepen- 
dently, as it were — in the nave and transepts. Some of these were well 
carved in Jacobean style ; and the altar, which was square, and stood 
apart from the east wall, bore a date and inscriptions on each of its 
four faces, viz., the names of the churchwardens (four) at Hartington, 
who made it. All these seem to have disappeared. It was positively 
necessary that the internal state of the church should be improved, 
bnt the task was a delicate one, and might with advantage have fallen 
into more practised hands. 

As it is, the walls have been repaired and made good, and an open 
drain made round their foundations. The roofs, having been substan- 
tiaUy renewed in the last century, have not been touched. They are 
unfortunately flat and bad ; and the exterior of the building, showing 
traces of their former high pitch, makes one long that a more thorough 
restoration had been possible. We cannot commend the method in 
which the repairs have been executed. For instance an external 
atringcourae, whose section shows a scroll moulding, has been cobbled 

134 Church Restorations* 

turret dies off at the middle etage under a pyramidal capping. The 
Bpire is an octagonal shingled broach. 

Holy Trinity, Ascott, Ojeon, — Mr. Street has rearranged and ju- 
diciously restored the nave of this church, — a somewhat mean structure 
externally, but of Romanesque interior, — containing chancel, nave, 
north aisle, western tower, south transeptal chantry, and a north porch 
in the middle of the nave. The windows are renewed where neces- 
sary ; and the architect has boldly adopted a good style in the new work. 
The ritual arrangements are all that can be desired : but the chancel 
is left in a miserable condition, the lay impropriator refusing to allow 
it to be touched. 

iS. George, Whatley, Somersetshire. — ^The chancel here has been re- 
stored by Mr. Street, and a vestry added at the middle of the north 
side. The windows are renewed, and the arrangements all made 
correct. The windows however are not very happily conceived, es- 
pecially the eastern one on the south side, the sill of which is treated 
for the sedilia. The panels of the stall-fronts affect a very inelegant 

S, Michael, Great Oakley, Northamptonshire. — ^This church, situated 
in the grounds of Oakley Hall, was formerly served by the* monks of 
Pipwell abbey. It consists of nave, south aisle, chancel, and low west 
tower, and south porch. The nave and aisle are under a continuous 
roof; the height of the aisle- wall being only six feet. The chancel 
was lengthened eastwards some years ago by the Broke family in order 
to make room for interments and family monuments, and the east 
wall gracefully follows the boundary line of the hall garden. The 
windows are Third- Pointed, and of no particular interest. A great 
many old tiles which were found in the ruins of Pipwell abbey have 
been re-arranged in the chancel. The chancel screen has been re- 
stored, and four stalls put in the chancel. The nave and south aisle have 
been restored, and re-seated in oak seats of the same kind as the old 
open seats, with, however, the retention of two square pews of por- 
tentous bulk at the east end ; a feature for which Mr. Slater, the archi- 
tect employed, was not, we are glad to learn, responsible. The arcade 
is of low but good proportions, and of Middle-Pointed date. Alto- 
gether the type of this church offers many points of difference from the 
usual one of Northamptonshire churches. 

iS. Faith, Newton, near Geddington, Northamptonshire, is to be re- 
stored and enlarged. This church, attached to Geddington, formerly 
belonged and served as a private chapel to the hall belonging to the 
Tresham family, and bears proof of its origin. It is of Third-Pointed 
date, and destitute of aisles or chancel ; consists of a nave and west 
tower and spire ; the latter one of the most frightful and dumpy abor- 
tions of which the Middle Ages were ever guilty, — worthy of the 
Gamberwell of 1835. The present arrangements are most unsatis- 
factory, the altar being enclosed within a space of 8 feet by 6 feet, 
the pulpit and reading-desk being on the north side against the east 
wall, and a pew on the opposite south side, while the nave is seated 
with square pews. ' ft is proposed accordingly to throw out a chancel, 
with stalls, (four on each side) stone sedilia, and enriched reredos. 

Notices and Answers to Correspondents. 135 

The service to be said from the stftlls, and a small vestry to be added 
CD the north side. The present modern flat roof of the nave, will be 
taken off, a high-pitched one substituted, while the nave and tower 
will be restored. The design for the reredos rejiresents an arcade of 
three bays, constructed of marble with mosaics, while the east wall on 
each side is to be effectively diapered in colour. 

S. Thomas the Martyr^ Bovey-Tracey, South Devon, — This large 
church is a good specimen of Third-Pointed Devon church, consisting 
of nave, north and south aisles, chancel, north and south chantries, 
and west tower. It is at present much disfigured by high pews and 
galleries: there being not only side and west galleries, but also a 
gallery over the screen. In order to do away these galleries entirely, it 
was necessary to enlarge the church ; and a new north aisle is to be 
erected to provide the necessary number of seats, — a proceeding the 
more easy as there are but few interments on this side, while there 
were marked features on the south, which it was desirable not to inter- 
fere with. The church is divided from the aisles by an early Third- 
Pointed arcade of four arches, richly moulded. The roofs, which are 
richly moulded, are the usual panelled roofs peculiar to this county. 
The chancel and nave roofs are continuous, there being no chancel 
arch. The aisle roofs are flat. We should advise that the roof 
of the new aisle should also be flat, and not low-pitched as re- 
presented in the drawings. Five panels over the screen are en- 
riched, and portions of the ancient decorative colour remain. A rich 
chancel-screen and parcloses of the third age remain, with decorative 
colour, lliere is a fine old stone pulpit still retaining its polychrome. 
It is not possible at present for the chancel to be restored, belonging as 
it does to a lay impropriation ; but some of the old stalls exist, as well 
as an ancient brass lettem. The seats are to be of oak, and of the 
same design as the old seats still existing at the west end of the nave. 
The tower-arch is to be thrown open to the church. At present the 
church throughout is covered with stucco, which it ia proposed to 
remove, and restore the masonry entirely. Mr. Slater is the architect 
employed. It is rather an interesting fact that over the screen the 
following inscription in colour is to be found : 

" Wm. Laud, Arch B. Cant., beheaded by the Bloody Parliament, 1642:" 
" Every high priest taken from among men is ordained for men in things per- 
taining to God." 

''Jos. Hall B. of Exon, imprisoned by the wicked Parlt., 1642.'! "If 
a man desire the office of a Bisnop, he desireth a good work." 


To the Editor of the Ecclesiologist. 

Sir, — As in the review of Mr. Lukis' account of Church Bells in your 
last number, you very justly appreciate " the beautifully wrought half 
bell wheel at Dunchideock, Devon," and set it forth as a pattern which 

136 Noticen and Antwers to CorrespondenU. 

might be " profitably copied/' speaking of it as being *' well known/' 
may I be allowed (before it gets further copied), to say, that whatever 
merit may be due for bringing this specimen before the public* is* I 
consider, due to me. 

It was in July, 1841, that I took a sketch of the wheel, and from 
it made a drawing, duly proportioning it — ^but not doing it to scale, for 
bell wheels must be varied according to the size of the bell. This 
drawing I produced at Bristol, December, 1840, in illustration of my 
paper on bells, and it is published in the report of that Architectund 
Society, 1860, and I shall have much pleasure in supplying you with 
the same drawing, if yon wish to pnbHsh it in your pages. 

My paper was also illustrated (to use your own words), by " the 
careful working drawings of a bell, with the cage, frame, stock, and 
wheel of the most approved construction," all drawn by myself, and 
now lying before me. The '* picture of a beD with its parts technically 
described in Bnglish and Latin/' is from the tame paper, which I 
copied from the Latin work by Mersennius de Harmonicb, translating 
his terms, and adding others as known in England. 

I am very glad that Mr. Lukis could be supplied with the blocks, 
cut from these drawings, as illustrations of his interesting addition to 
campanalogical literature ; but as Mr. Ghitty and myself are con- 
templating something more full than anything which has yet appeared, 
and I may then or elsewhere make use of these cuts ; perhaps it is 
but fair that I should at once lay claim to them, that I may not here- 
after be accused of cribbing them from my friend Mr. Lulns. I own 
I was rather surprised that he did not say in a note whence certain 
plates were taken. 

Yours obediently, 

Rectory t Cfyat 8. (xeorge, H. T. Ellaoombb. 

Feb. 1858. 

[Mr. Ellacombe accompanied his letter with sketches of half-wheels 
at Ide. near Exeter, and at Woodland, near Ashburton — similar 
in principle to that at Dunchideock, but less well moulded. '' In 
ringing," he informs us, " the ringer only pulls at the end of the 
rope. He does not attempt to catch it up in a bow. The slack falls 
on the floor all loose.''] 

To the Editor of the Ecclesiologist, 

14, Buckingham Street, Strand, 
Sib, — In your criticism on our works at the Architectural Exhibi- 
tion, you state that we have fallen into two misnomers, with regard to 
the church of Notre Dame de Dadizeele. We therefore beg to say that 
the church is at present built to supply the wants of the pilgrimage, 
(which accounts for the absence of choral arrangement,) but that, in 
common with the church at Lille, (which at the present moment is not 
one iota more a cathedral than the church at Dadizeele,) it will in all 
probability be raised to that dignity. 
The name of the Biahop-^«ad not the Archbishop, (which was written 

,NoHce9 and Atmuers to Carrey>ondent$. 137 

by one of oar pupils* and not noticed by us, until our atteption was 
called to the fact by your review) is simply placed on the plans as the 
responsible person for whom the work is executed. 

The plan is not, as you state, taken from the lady chapel at Treves, 
but is simply the result of the peculiar formation of the ground. 

In placing the altar under the central^ tower, we simply followed our 
instructions : this we are happy to say will now be modified, and stalls 
and other choral arrangements will be partially carried out. 

Begging you will do us the favour of inserting the same in your 
valuable publication. 

We remain, sir. 

Your obedient servants, 


To the Editor of the BeeUeiologut. 

25. York Place, City Road, Feb. 16, 1858. 

Sia, — In the last number of the Ecclesiologiet is an article on Stained 
Olass, in which it is stated that the traditional representations of the 
Nativity of our Blessed Lord pourtray the Blessed Virgin as " sitting 
up and fondling her Infant." and " unaccompanied by the distressing 
weakness of the natural birth." Does the above refer to the ancient or 
modem works of art ? If to the former, are there not numerous ex- 
amples of a different treatment of the subject ? At the present mo- 
ment I can only recollect three mediaeval representations of the Na- 
tivity, and they each pourtray the Blessed Virgin as reclining on a low 
couch, whilst at her side is laid her Divine Son in the wooden manger, 
the ox and the ass adoring on bended knees ; and in one S. Joseph 
looks on with tender solicitude, and the shepherds are seen in the 
background coming to worship. 

The examples which show the above mode of treatment are the 
sculptures of our Blessed Loan's life at Notre Dame ; a fragment over 
the altar of the south chapel at Newark, Notts ; and a plate, repre- 
senting a writing tablet of ivory, given in F. Ler^'s " Moyen Age." 
These are all that I at present remember; but doubtless there are 
numerous others in existence. 

The modem treatment of the subject is of course exactly as described 
in the Eccleeiologist, 

I am, sir, yours very respectfully, 

J. Lovis AvDBi. 

We have much pleasure in announcing the publication, by Mr. 
Hayes, of Lyall Place, of what will be a great novelty in Liturgical 
literatuie ; viz., the original text of the Uturgy of S. Mark, at the 
trifling eost of one shilling. The specimen we have seen e^ibits a 
good, legible Greek type, on a ISmo. page. This small size is the only 
drawback to the satisfaction with which we hail this first attempt of an 
£nglish publisher to afford us really cheap editions of documents of so 
much importance. The editor is one of the most competent in £ng- 

138 Notices and Answers to Correspondents^ 

land, the Rev« J. M. Neale. Is it too late to suggest the addition of a 
literal English translation in opposite pages ? The Liturgy might then 
appear in two forms ; the Greek text for a shilling — for students and 
liturgicists ; and the duoglott, for ordinary readers, at (say) one shilling 
and sixpence. We are sure that the additional risk would be more 
than repaid : for it is not to be expected that many readers are pre- 
pared for the simple Greek text. If this attempt succeeds, the Litur- 
gies of S. James. S. Clement, S. Basil, and S. Chrysostom are to follow. 
We subjoin an extract from the prospectus : 

*' While the unspeakable value of the Primitive Liturgies in reference to 
the Eucharistic Controversy is allowed on all hands, it is strange that no cheap 
edition of them has yet been published. To obtain the %.vt which possess the 
greatest value — S. James, S. Mark, S. Clement, S. Basil, S. Chrysostom — ^the 
student must purchase at least two large volumes, each containing much ex- 
traneous matter. It is purposed to publish all the above-named in turn, sliould 
the publisher receive sufficient encouragement from the demand for the first 
as to make him complete an edition of each, at so unprecedently cheap a price 
as a Shilling." 

We have received from the Rev. R. R. Chope, of Stapleton, near Bris- 
tol, a prospectus of " the Rev. J. R. Woodford's Hymn Book with Mu" 
sic: 100 different /o«r-/7ar< Tunes for the 100 Hymns," to be published 
at the low price of 6d., so as to be accessible to the poor. We 
should be glad if the execution of this work were likely to be as good 
as its intention ; but, though the four hymns and tunes which the 
prospectus contains are selected from various parts of the book, and 
therefore may be presumed to be favourable specimens, their merit, 
upon the whole, is not very great. With the hymns there is little 
fault to be found ; but the tunes (which seem to be all modem) are 
not equally good, and the harmonies are worse than the melodies. 

A stained glass window, in memory of the officers and men of the 
27th Regiment who fell in the Russian war, has lately been placed at 
the west end of the south aisle of Winchester cathedral. It is a lliird- 
Pointed window. The upper part contains heraldic insignia and figures 
of S. George, S. Michael, and angels; and the lights are filled with 
figures of the warrior- worthies of the Old Covenant, Joshua, Gideon, 
David, and Jonathan, in the upper tier; and the Saxon monarchs 
Ethelbert, Egbert, Ethelred, and Alfred the Great, in the lower. The 
artist employed is Mr. C. Gibbs, Senior. 

We are requested to state that the artist of the Huskisson memorial 
window in Chichester cathedral, designed by Mr. Digby Wyatt, whicji 
we ascribed to Messrs. Ward and Nixon, was Mr. C. Gibbs, Senior, of 
148, Marylebone Road. 

A correspondent, writing under the name of Alphonse de St. Evereux, 
takes occasion of our remarks in defence of the baldachin in Mr. 
Burges's design for the Constantinople Memorial church, to urge us to 
pronounce a strong opinion against the use of the reredos in a church 
that has aisles, or a chapel, beyond the altar. We should quite agree 
with him had he urged that the high reredos — as at Winchester, and S. 

Notices and Answers to Correspondents. 139 

Alban's, and S. Sanour's, Soathwark — ^is detrimental to the architectural 
effect of an edifice. But the comparatively low altar-screens of West- 
minster, Ely, and the proposed one at Lichfield, are far less obtrusive. 
Oor correspondent has overlooked the circumstance that in all churches 
where there is a shrine or a presbytery behind the altar — wherever, in 
short, the altar does not itself occupy the apse — a reredos is necessary. 
The baldachin is doubtless, however, the more proper and more beau- 
tiful arrangement for an apsidal altar ; and we should be very glad to 
see it introduced. Our correspondent truly remarks that there is a 
want of some English treatise on altars, similar to that by M. VioUet 
Le Due, in his Dictionnaire Raisonnie, He further invites information 
as to the best principles of laying out a garden for houses of semi- 
ecclesiastical character, or of domestic Pointed style. 

An influential committee has been formed for raising a fund to com- 
memorate the late Augustus O'Brien Stafford, by the restoration of 
one of the transepts, or if possible the chancel, of Limerick Cathedral. 
The sum of £800 has already been promised ; and we have every hope, 
considering the deserved popularity of the deceased gentleman, that 
the subscription-list will be much augmented. It is proposed that a 
stained-glass window should form a distinctive portion of the memorial. 
Subscriptions are received at Messrs. Hoares. We should have been 
glad to announce at the same time that the services of a competent 
architect and artist had been secured. 

Most of our readers will have noticed that the new church of S. Paul, 
Heme Hill, near London, — a Third-Pointed design, — has been des- 
troyed by fire — scarcely to be called accidental, for it seems to have 
arisen from the usual carelessness of contractors in building the flues of 
the heating apparatus. We are truly glad to hear that Mr. Street has 
been hivited to rebuild the church in an earlier style of Pointed. 

We hear, with great satisfaction, that the Dean and Chapter of 
Worcester have ordered the doors to be removed from the pews east- 
ward of the pulpit in the choir. We cannot, however, so much com- 
mend the late addition of benches facing west on the chancel steps. 
If this part of the choir muet be used for congregational purposes, 
chairs would surely be much better. 

The Royal University of Christiania, in Norway, have courteously 
forwarded another parcel of their Archaeological publications to the 
Ecclesiological Society; and with them a bronze medal, struck by 
order of the king, in commemoration of the jubilee of the senior pro- 
fessor of the University, Dr. Christopher Hansteen, the Professor of 

Four more Munich windows have been placed in the chapel of S. 
Peter's College, Cambridge. We are sorry to say that the glass from this 
once famous atelier seems to get worse and worse, more transparency- 
like and more theatrical. The only thing we can find to praise in the 
new specimens resides in the delicacy of the landscape backgrounds, and 

140 Notices and Answers to Correspondents, 

thia is a merit of porcelain, and not of ardiitectaral painted glass. The 
anatomy of the figures (especially in the Sacrifice of Isaac) appears to as 
most defective. The pattern glass in the tracery is vulgar and feeble to 
the last extent. It is curious that considering the locale of this glass, 
only one of the windows contains any representation of, or any reference 
to, S. Peter. In striking contrast to this melancholy exhibition of an 
effete though once promising school, Messrs. Clayton and Bell are every 
day improving. Some specimens we have seen of their great under- 
takings at Sherborne Minster, and Sydney University, deserve the 
highest praise. 

The Cambridge Union has put out a circular, soliciting aid towards 
rebuilding ; we hope that this Society, for which we of Cambridge of 
course feel an ancient affection, will follow the good artistic example of 
its Oxford sister, and give us a rival specimen of a Pointed Aesembly- 

Mr. Dyce has resumed work at All Saints, Margaret Street, with a 
success equal to that which accompanied his first fresco. 

We are glad to see that the Royal Institute of British Architects has 
addressed a spirited memorial to the government, complaining of the 
mala fides of the late government in regard to the Barracks and Public 
Offices competition — a breach of faith from which Sir Benjamin Hall 
stands worthily exempt. We trust that liord John Manners will in- 
duce the new Treasury to repair this wrong. 

Mr. Owen Jones's S. James's Music Hall, in Regent Street and 
Piccadilly, is now open. As a specimen of constructive polychrome it 
deserves study. The prevalent tone is blue of various shades ; a little 
infusion of red would have been an improvement. The lighting by 
numerous starlike gas coronse, of eight jets, depending from the coved 
roof, is bold and successful. The general (^n is that of an able-less 
Basilica, and the style, though eclectic, is to no little extent indebted 
to Pointed. The introduction of coloured figures (we cannot call 
them sculpture, for they are of composition) is a spirited invitation 
to controversy. The acoustic and ventilating condition of the hall 
merits much praise, and the seats are roomy. 

The next public meeting of the Ecclesiological Motett choir is fixed 
for Tuesday, 20th April. A very fine Mass, by Orlando di Lasso, for 
five voices, and some Motetts to English words, by Griovanni Croce, are 
in rehearsal. 

Received : P., A. E., A. B. 



' Surge igitur et fac : et crtt IDominos tecum.'^ 

No. CXXVL— JUNE, 1858. 
(nbw bbbibs^ no. xc.) 


By J. W. Clark, Esq., B.A. of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Ik the eighth volume of the Ecclenologut, tliere is a very interesting 
accoimt by Mr. Oordon of the church of the Holy Spirit, at Wisby, 
in a review of a work entitled " Rambles in Sweden and GK>ttland," 
by Sylvanos. At the dose of the paper, it is intimated that further 
infarmation about the island and its churches will not be unacceptable. 
This has induced me to arrange the notes I made during a .week's 
ramble there in the autumn of 1856, in the hope that when the archi- 
teetoral riches of the island are made known, some experienced ec- 
desiologist may be induced to visit it. I shall therefore, at the risk 
of being tedious, first premise a slight sketch of the island's history, 
and then after a general description of a GrolUand church, for a strik- 
ing family likeness pervades them all, give my notes, church by church, 
in the order in which I visited them, to afford not so much a readable 
account, as an exact statement of where the chief objects of interest 
are to be found, in the hope of saving time and trouble to those who 
may hereafter visit Gottland. 

Such a visit is by no means difficult ; steamers run twice a week from 
Stockholm to Wisby in about twenty-six hours, on their way to Kalmar, 
the port of the mainland nearest to the island, about sixty miles from 
Wisby : where they again touch on their way back to the capital. 
Kalmar may easily be reached in about thirty-six hours from Liibeck, 
by the Lubeck and Stockholm steamers; while those who wish to 
avoid the sea can go by way of Copenhagen in two hours to Malmo, 
in Sweden, and thence proceed by land to Kalmar, seeing on their way 
the ancient university town of Lund, where the cathedral will well re- 
pay a carefoi study. 

The island is eighty miles long by thirty in width, with an area of 

VOL. XIX. u 

142 On the Churches in the Island of Gottland. 

about one thousand square miles. It may be generally described as a 
great plateau of limestone rock, at a height of about two hundred feet 
above the sea, gradually rising however towards its northern extremity, 
which is also more deeply indented with bays than any other part of 
the coast. Here and there are slight elevations, where the rock makes 
its way through the thin covering of soil : and in a few places the 
cliffs along the coast reach a height of three hundred feet, and are so 
abrupt and rugged as to appear much loftier. The fertility of the soil 
is very great : from its insular position it enjoys a much milder climate 
than ibe main land, and grapes, mulberries, and other fruits come to 
perfection in the open air. In winter there are rarely more than eight 
days of sledging, while on the continent three months is the average. 
Though there is positively no scenery, yet a drive through Gottland is 
very charming ; the monotony of the corn-fields is broken by frequent 
tracts of meadow land and extensive pine- forests, with here and there 
a cluster of giant oaks, while every three or four miles you come upon 
a group of happy-looking farm-houses, clean and trim, gay with the pots 
of flowers in their windows, each with its garden and orchard ; and 
whichever way you look, the horizon is dotted with churches, their 
great high-pitched roofs and tall spires looking still larger across the 
level fields around them. 

Good roads abound in all directions, with stations for change of 
horses at intervals of six or seven English miles. At nearly all of 
these a traveller, who does not object to roughing it a little, may lodge 
comfortably enough ; and some offer accommodation which is posi- 
tively luxurious for Scandinavia. But wherever he goes, he is sure to 
meet with kindness and hospitality from every one, be he clergyman 
or peasant : the people have a great love for their churches, and take 
a pride in showing them ; and when they learn that you have come so 
far for the purpose of seeing them, they offer you every fecility, and 
much information about what is best worth seeing. Some churches 
enjoy a great reputation, and we had their praises incessantly rehearsed 
to us from the moment of landing in the island. 

The first view of Wisby the capital from the sea, is very striking. 
A site was chosen by its founders, where the limestone cliffs rise 
from the sea, terrace above terrace; along the lowest level, where 
once were busy wharves thronged with traders and their wares, is now 
a street of paltry fishing cabins, and low one-storied tenements, with 
here and there a tall gabled mansion to tell its tale of old magnificence. 
Behind these on a higher level is a broad belt, so to speak, of ancient 
buildings, extending from the northern to the southern gate ; towers 
of churches, and huge naves with lofty gables east and west, generally 
roofless, but with the vaults still entire, so covered with grass and 
dwarf shrubs, as to look like a series of little hillocks ; while so 
many large trees grow amid the ruins as completely to overshadow the 
more humble erections of recent date. High above all rise the three 
towers of our Lady's Church, the only one still in use. Behind, on 
the highest ground, is a wide open space, once no doubt, covered with 
houses, but now nothing but a desolate bare rock ; whence one looks 
down upon the ruins and the little harbour and the sea beyond. Round 

On the Churches in the Island of Goitkmd. 143 

the whole is carried a semi-circular wall, still quite perfect, with em- 
hattled towers, at intenrals, and gates with portcullises, and flanking 
bastions at the northern and southern extremities of the city. 

There is nothing here, as in Liibeck and Nuremberg, to detract from 
the thoroughly mediaeval character of all around ; no modern town is 
encroaching on and gradually sweeping away, the ancient streets: 
Wisby's prosperity ceased before a.d. 1400; and from that day to 
this time has been her only foe. Her commerce has gone to enrich 
her former foes ; the standard of the Lamb and Cross is for ever furled ; 
no merchants seek her port ; her very name is almost forgotten ; but 
still those gray piles of ruins besides the Baltic Sea tell what she once 
was, and how she used her power and her wealth. 

The chronicles of Wisby are said to have been lost ; at any rate, no 
continuous history of the island now exists, and the " disjecta mem- 
bra " of its story have to be looked for in the Histories of Sweden and 
Denmark, and the records of the Hanseatic League.^ 

There are records however, more or less authentic, still to be met 
with. Sylvanus quotes one, and I was fortunate enough to meet with 
a volume called " Chronica Guthilandorum," at Copenhagen. It gives 
many curious facts about Gottland, and having been written by the 
Parish Priest of Wald, a village of the island, who would have of course 
plenty of opportunity of collecting local traditions, seems a rehable 
source of information. He gives the date of most of the churches, the 
accuracy of which is borne out by the testimony of the architecture. 

Hallam is certainly wrong when he argues that Wisby could not 
have been a town of much importance before a.d. 1388, because that 
is the date of the erection of its walls, meaning of course, those now 
standing. The architecture of many of its churches points to a date 
earlier by at least two centuries ; while the fact of the discovery of 
numerous English coins prior to the Norman* Conquest, and none 
after it, proves an extensive commerce with Denmark at the time 
when she was levying a Dane-gelt upon us. I conceive, from the ar- 
rangement of the churches, as I attempted to describe, near the sea, 
with an open space behind them, that the old wall enclosed a much 

^ I have not thought it necessary to give references for every statement I have 
made respecting Gottland's history. The works whence information may be derived 

Werdenhagen, De Rebnspnbltcis Hanseaticis, in which there is a view of Wisby, 
which still gives an excellent idea of the place ; and in VoL II., I believe there is 
some historical account of it ; but this I have not seen. 

Sartorius, Geschichte des Hanseatischen Bundes. 

Anderson's History of Commerce— polrim — by far the richest in facta : and he 
g;ives his authorities. 

Sylvanus' " Rambles in Sweden and Gottland." London : Bentley. 1847. His 
drawings are accurate, and the extracts he gives from an ancient chronicle, very 

There is an admirable monograph on the church of the Holy Spirit at Wisby, 
entitled " Hellig Aands Kirken i Wisby paa Gutland,'' by J. D. Herholdt, Archi- 
tect, and Professor N. Hoyen. Copenhagen, 1852. He gives four folio views of 
the church. 

The reference to Hallam is, Middle Ages, ii. p. 397. The question of the com- 
parative antiquity of the laws of Wisby and Oleron is discussed by Beckmann, 
" Hist of Inventions," s. v. Insurance. 

144 On ike Churches in the Island of Gottkmd. 

more limited space than the present one, and when, in 138S, it was 
foond necessary to enlarge the city, the present walls were erected. 

We have documentary evidence of its importance as far back as 
1062. At the end of the " Origines Hamburgenses,"^ is printed a 
certificate drawn up by the Dominican or Franciscan monks of Wisby, 
bearing date May 25th, 1368, to the effect that they had seen the 
charters granted to their city by Henry the lion, Duke of Saxony, and 
John and Gerard, Earls of Holstein, in 1162 and 1266 respectively, 
securing to the citizens of Wisby, and the rest of the inhabitante of 
the island of Gottland, resorting to and passing through their country, 
•• all manner of protection for them and their goods and merchandise, 
and all other favours and liberties which they had enjoyed in the time ef 
their beloved father and his predecessors.*' 

Beckmann is of opinion that the famous maritime laws of Wisby are 
older than those of Oleron, which he thinks Anderson right in referring 
to 1194. 

It seems highly probable that Wisby was a prosperous place in Pagan 
times. One meets every where with the legend tiiat it rose to sudden 
power from the destruction of Julin and Veneta, two Pagan cities of 
Pomerania, near the mouth of the river Oder, about a.d. 800. S. 
Anschar did not preach in Sweden till 826 ; and if the legend be true 
that it was not he but S. Olaf who preached in Gottland, ite inhabi- 
tents were not converted before a.d. 1026. This theory of a Pagan 
prosperity will account for the fact of one hundred existing churches 
of great size and beauty, all in the Romanesque style, which must 
have been built soon after their conversion to Christianity, and whkh 
they would have been unable to erect had not a long and prosperooB 
trade filled their treasury. 

I will not take up space with recountbg the frivolous legends re- 
specting Olaf and his Inigands — for they seem to have been little better 
— but will simply mention, that he is said to have built the first Chris- 
tian church in the island on S. Olafsholm, an islet off the east coast, 
and the first in Wisby also, under the invocation of the Holy Trinity, 
" where S. Peter's now stends" — to quote the Chronicle. 

Besides various legends not worth relating here, which point to a 
foreign founder for Wisby, we read that so early as 1 158, certain Pagan 
merchants from Pomerania, sailing to the "famous emporium of 
Wisby," discover Livonia. Later on in ite history, the Gernuina of 
Wisby appear as an integral part of the citizens, taking part in the 
government, and bearing their share of the expenses, and as German 
influence is evident every where in the architecture, which does not 
resemble the stone architecture of the mainland at all, except the 


By Petnifi Lambecius. Hamburgh, 1651. The Chronicle I piirchaaed at 
Copenhagen, ia called '* Chronica Gathilandomm. Aff Hana Nielsaon Strelow, 
GuthUcnder, Sogneprest till Wald oc Honffgren Sogner, paa Gnthiland." Prentet 
i Kiobinghaffn, aff Mclchior Markan. Anno 1633. 

In *• the Norse-folk, or, a Visit to the Homes of Norway and Sweden," pahhahed 
by Bentlcy in 1857, the author, Mr. C. L. Brace, an American, mentions that an 
American artist, Mr. Burton of Waterbury, Ct. has made a scries of drawings of 
the ruins ; and that a Mr. Siive of Wisby, is collecting materials for a history of the 

On the Churches in the Island of Crottktnd. 145 

cathedral of Lund, which do&btless was buUt by Grermana — ^it seems 
to me highly probable that Wisby was a factory of German merchants, 
which from small beginnings, grew into a large and important city, 
powerful enough to subject the rest of the isknd to its rule, and to 
treat with Sweden as one independent power with another. In 1288 
was war between the Burghers of Wisby and the peasants, which was 
taken advantage of by Magnus I. of Sweden, to establish, says the 
Chronicle, his ancient dominion in the island. Very baneful seems 
this dominion to have been, for from that date begins a series of disas- 
ters : Grottland was too rich an island to be undisturbed, and served as 
a fruitful source of contention between Sweden, Denmark, Germany, 
and the Hanse Towns, whose emporium it was, but not as far as I can 
discover at present one of their confederacy. Certainly it was not one 
of the first league of cities on the south coast of the Baltic; and 
whether it joined the league started by Lubeck and Hamburg in 1241, 
I have not been able to ascertain with certainty. 

It is no where expressly stated what was the political status of Gott- 
land, when the civil war above-mentioned broke out, but it seems pro- 
bable that Wisby was a free city, holding the rest of the island in 

I should only weary my readers if I set down the various notices 
which occur in almost every page of the Chronicle of storm, fire, pesti- 
lence, and siege, which combined to try the spirit of Wisby 's burghers. 
With this brief reference to them, I pass to the mortal blow, which 
was struck at her by Valdemar the Dane, to glut his own appetite 
for plunder, and the Swedish kiog^s treacherous revenge. 

Magnus II. of Sweden, hated by his own subjects, had entered into 
an alliance with Denmark, and when the inhabitants of Wisby re- 
fused to pay their accustomed tribute, he bade their king, Valdemar IV. 
chastise them, llie Gottlanders treated his coming with ridicule at 
first, but they were soon undeceived by his landing with a large force 
at some distance from Wisby, upon which he at once marched. Before 
he reached it, he was met by a large force of country people, who 
offered a desperate resistance. They were defeated, but renewed the 
battle on the two succeeding days, till at last the whole force of Gott- 
land was destroyed. The burghers then prepared to defend their city. 
They burnt the large north and south suburbs, and assembled the in- 
habitants within their walls. Not till one thousand eight hundred 
borghers had been slain did the town surrender. Valdemar's booty 
was immense. His ships were so overladen that one sank on its 
way home, near the S. Carl Islands ; and still, say the fishermen, may 
the gold and silver, and the carbuncles which he tore from the front of 
S. Nicholas', be seen in calm weather shining through the waves. 
He seems soon to have repented him of his violence : he raised a cross 
to the memory of the fallen, and restored to Wisby all its commercial 
privileges, and allowed it its own coinage. 

Two years afterwards the crown of Sweden was given to Prince 
Albert of Mecklenburg. The favour he showed to Germans above 
Swedes caused a revolt : the nobles offered the crown to Margaret, 
Queen of Denmark and Norway, — and Albert, to gain money, pawned 

146 On the Churches in the Island of Crottland, 

Gottland to the Teutonic Knights for twenty thousand rose nobles. 
Margaret subsequently stormed Wisby Castle, which was garrisoned 
for Albert. In the next century it was rebuilt at the southern angle 
of the city by Eric of Pomerania, who, on being driven from the throne 
of Sweden in 1429, came and resided in it; whence for ten years be 
made piratical raids upon the neighbouring coasts of Sweden, and the 
shipping in the Baltic, doing great damage to the city from the re- 
prisals which his robberies brought down upon it. 

After his death I find little of interest to relate. The frequent sack- 
ings which the city underwent, must have disturbed its commerce and 
straitened its revenues; it was again stormed and pillaged by the 
Liibeckers in 1509, and in 1600 a great conflagration broke out acci- 
dentally and destroyed the place, so fatally that it was not rebuilt. The 
fire raged all day, fanned by a violent gale, and very little seems to 
have escaped. The church of our Lady alone has been made fit for 
service; the rest remain as the fire left them, disused but not 
neglected ; the ruins are watched with jealous care ; fenced about to 
prevent desecration and further destruction. 

There were originally in Wisby eighteen churches. Some of these 
have been so effectually destroyed that their very site can scarcely be 
made out; but of the others the remains are very extensive. I will 
enumerate them in what I conceive to be their chronological order. 

Of the Earliest Romanesque style are S. Clement, S. Lawrence, and 
the church of the Holy Trinity, llie Transition to Pointed Gothic is 
visible in the church of the Holy Spirit, and S. George's without the 
walls to the north. S. Catherine's is an exquisite First-Pointed church, 
and those of S. Nicolas and S. Mary are rather later. The latter has 
been restored in the 18th century. Besides these there were S. Hans, 
S. Peter, and S. Olaf, which would seem from the scanty remains now 
standing, to have been Romanesque edifices. The Russian church, 
S. Michael, S. James, the Castle Chapel, and the Solberga Nunnery 
outside the south gate, have almost wholly disappeared. 

I will begin with what I conceive to be the oldest church, that of 
<S. Lawrence, which is called also S. Anne's, or the South Church of 
the Sisters. It is said to have been built by merchants from Wismar, 
in 1086, a date which suits well the style of its architecture. Its 
plan, which is unusual, may be described as a parallelogram, with a 
square cut out of each of the angles : on the western and eastern sides, 
which are the longer ones, are respectively a sort of vestibule, entered 
by a very lofty and grand door ; and a chancel, terminating in a semi- 
circular apse. Four square masses of masonry, with the most rudi- 
mentary bases and capitals, placed in a line with the north and south 
walls of the chancel, support the domical vaulting which serves as roof 
to the square central space. A side of this measures 20 ft. between the 
piers, while the total length of the church is 118 ft. The walls are 
very massive, and in the thickness thereof is contrived a curious stair- 
case. It starts behind the north-east pier, and after winding up and 
down at various heights above the ground, reappears on the west wall 
of the south transept. At several points in its course the wall is 
pierced with apertures at various heights, which look into the church. 

On ike Churches in the Island of Oottland. 147 

One I measured was 6 ft. 8 in. wide, and had apparently been divided 
into two parts by a shaft in the centre. They were all a foot or two 
above the level of the floor of the passage. But for what use could 
they have been constructed ? They could hardly have been intended to 
accommodate worshippers who did not wish to be seen in the body of 
the church, for they were generally so placed as to render a view of the 
altar impossible. Nor was there any way of approaching the stairs 
without entering the church, and I could find no trace of any blocked 
up door. The church has only three doors, — a priest*s door on the 
south side of the chancel, one in the north transept, and the west door 
I mentioned before. This last is extremely simple, but grand in effect. 
The jamb is divided into three stages by shafts, now lost. There is a 
continuous impost moulding, and round the semicircular top are three 
broad rolls, answering to the shafts below. As in most Gottland 
churches, there is a considerable space between the termination of the 
jamb and the actual opening, which in this case is left plain. The 
windows, few in number, are narrow round-headed slits. The general 
characteristic of the whole church is a massive plainness ; and almost 
wholly destitute of ornament as it is, you feel it would be superfluous 
in a building where the main idea, to which all the parts are made 
subordinate, seems to have been to construct a grand vaulted central 
^>aoe, where the worshippers might be fitly grouped in view of the 
ceremonies at the altar. 

The Church of the Holy Trinity, of the same style, and built, I should 
think, at about* the same time as the last, is now a complete ruin. Its 
plan is a parallelogram, whose longest side runs north and south, 
measuring 47 ft. by 37 ft. This was originally divided into three 
aisles. The chiOicel resembles that of S. Lawrence. The west tower 
IS wholly detached ; its width about half that of the church. 

Of 8. Clemenfs Church 1 have unfortunately no notes. As far as I 
can remember, it was a Romanesque church, of no great size or beauty, 
with a First-Pointed triplet inserted at the east end. 

The most splendid example of the transition from Romanesque to 
Pointed Gothic is S. Nicholas' church. It is 75 ft. in length, and con- 
sists of a nave of six bays, with aisles, and a chancel of one, with a three- 
sided apse. This part of the church is more modem than the rest ; 
perhaps it was rebuilt in 1^5, when the church is said to have been 
ceded to the Dominicans. Its windows are very graceful. Pointed, 
divided into two lights, with geometrical tracery. There are sedilia 
on the south side. The vaulting of the nave is of the ribless domical 
character, so common in the island. Its windows are narrow, round- 
headed slits, arranged in pairs ; some are later insertions, particularly 
a beautiful rose window over the door in the westernmost bay of the 
south side. In the tympanum of the arch this door has figures of S. 
Nicholas and S. Augustine in his episcopal robes. These are not in 
relief^ but engraved as it were, just like a brass. This is a common 
style of art in these churches, though more frequently employed upon 
a pattern than a figure. There is no west door ; the west front which 
faces the sea has three very large Pointed windows, whereof the centre 
one is the largest. Above it are a great number of small round- 

148 On the Churches in the Island of Gottland. 

headed slits, not intended to be glazed, whose office was originally to 
give light and air to the space between the roofs ; and above each oi 
the smaller ones is a large rosette of red brick. It was in these that 
the carbuncles are said to have been set, that so excited the capidity 
of King Valdemar. It is just possible that there may have been there 
some encaustic tiles to which the bricks served as framework ; but in 
many parts of this church, as in others, brick itself is much used as a 
material of decoration, and very possibly the rosettes were always as 
we see them now. There are nookshafts of red brick in the exterior 
surface of the windows both here and in the cathedral of Upsala ; and 
the vaulting ribs in many Scandinavian churches are of the same 

There was never any tower ; the whole church, nave, and dianoel, 
were contained under the same roof, whose lofty pitch is borne witness 
to by the great gables east and west which are still standing. 

For a far better account than I can give of the Church if the Holy 
Spirit^ I must refer my readers to the Eecleshloffist, Vol. VIII. p. M5. 

8, George without the WaUs presents a curious appearance. There 
are three gables standing. Besides those east and west there is another, 
similarly pierced with windows, at the junction of nave and chanceL 
From this, and from the greater antiquity of style discernible in the 
nave as compared vrith the chancel. I conjecture that the church ori- 
ginally consisted merely of a nave, a theory which is borne out by the 
gp-eat width of the walls inside on either side of the chancel arch. They 
are pierced with round-headed windows which serve as squints. At 
the eastern end of the chancel is a First-Pointed triplet. About one 
third of the distance from the west door to the entrance of the chancel 
18 a square pillar, which serves partly to support the roof. 

8. Catherine's, belonging to the Fhinciscans, is a church of pure 
Pointed Gothic. It must have been once the loveliest in Wisby, and 
even now, though every ornament has been stripped off, its solemn 
beauty impresses the traveller with reverence, as he treads the soft 
green sward of its aisles. It possesses a nave of seven bays, the 
westernmost of which is occupied by the tower. The aisles are 
divided from the nave by a row of octagonal pillars, supporting vaults 
of red brick, a material which has also been used for the ribs, the sec- 
tions of which are trefoils. Magnificent corbels of great size, support 
the arch through which you enter the chancel. This terminates in a 
seven-sided apse, whose windows are long and narrow, of two lights 
apiece, with geometrical tracery in the head. The dog-tootii orna- 
ment occurs on the outside. 

Our Lady's Church is the last of those in Wisby which I shall men- 
tion. It is the least interesting, though the largest, excepting S. 
Nicholas. There are traces of every style of architecture in it, but un- 
fortunately Renaissance work predominates ; and the whole interior 
is whitewashed, and the woodwork covered with white paint. It was 
built, says the Chronicle, in 1190, by Germans from Ldbeck. The 
only portion of this work now remaining is the east end, where the 
narrow round-headed windows bespeak their early date. It was burnt 
in 1400, and the nave is probably no older than this date. It consists 

Anker-WindawB. 149 

of fire wide bays, with aisles : the pillars are square masses of masonry, 
with a semicircular shaft on each face, and the angles hollowed to re* 
ceive a smaller one. The capitals are of very plain Middle-Pointed 
work, supporting quadripartite vaults, which are separated from each 
other by plain stone ribs. The windows are large ; of several lights, 
with tracery. These are all of late insertion. On the south side is a 
large First-Pointed chapel, now used as a burial-place. It has a 
splendid south door of red sandstone, and the buttress at its north* 
east angle is enriched with shafts of polished limestone. There are 
two western towers, built in 1615 and 1616. They are octagonal, and 
rise two stages above the roof : on each face of each stage is an un- 
glazed window of two lights with tracery, varying in each example. 
In old days the church was very rich, as will be seen by its inventory,^ 
which the chronicler has transferred to his pages. The old altar still 
remains, a single slab measuring 10 ft. by 6 ft. : and the font, a quatre- 
foiled Jnsin of red marble. 

(To be continued.) 


To the Editor of the Ecclesiologist. 

33, Montague Place, May 14, 18.58« 
Dbab Sib, — ^Will you allow me to say a few words in answer to 

your correspondent E. E., who writes with a new interpretation of the 

use of low side windows ? 

Some objections to the use which he suggests are very obvious, e.g. 

1. Old low side windows very seldom command a view of the altar. 

2. If the tract which £. £. quotes from proves anything, it is that 
not only were there anchorites, but that they had their cells built against 
the churches to which they attached themselves. Yet in England 
there is no example of such a cell ; and generally it is impossible that 
one should have existed without traces of its existence still remaining ; 
nor is it in the slightest degree probable that *' wooden huts*' should 
have been erected against our church walls for anchorites, as they were 
not for any other purpose, and as a large proportion of our low side 
windows are glazed above, and opened with a wooden shutter below, 
they could never have had roofs abutting on them, for this would have 
made it useless to glaze them ; nor would there have been any reason 
for the shutters being of wood if they were for the purpose of looking 
through, or openabk only from the inside, if they were for the con- 
tinual use and benefit of a resident anchorite outside, A low side win* 
dow, in short, fitted for the use suggested by E. E., would have been a 
small hagioscope, with a shutter fastened on the outside, pierced in the 
direction of the altar, and with sufficient space above and around it to 
admit of a roof abutting against the wall in which it was pierced to 

1 I hope on a liitare occasion to give a translation of this very interesting record. 


150 Anker^WinJhwB. 

protect the anchorite in his cell — conditions not fulfilled by any window 
with which I am acquainted. 

3. This proposed solution of the question leaves without explanation 
the low side windows in the Sainte Chapelle, Paris, Winchester Col- 
lege chapel. Prior Crauden's chapel, as well as all those windows from. 
which no view of the altar could be obtained. 

4. I must thank £. £. for giving me an additional argument in sup- 
port of my view when he quotes the *' Bavarian rule directing the cell 
to be of stone, with one of the three windows opening into the chair for 
the purpose of iocramental reception.'^ 

6. There is nothing, so far as I see, to prove that anchorites in Eng- 
land could not or would not enter the churches, and it is therefore 
necessary to show in every case that the low side window was an open- 
ing from the cell to the church. The utmost that is proved by the 
Kilkenny case is, that where a cell existed against the walls of the 
chancel, there a window would be made to enable its occupant at all 
times to see the altar. If his cell were at a distance the opening would 
be of no possible use to him. 

6. I think the argument against the probable number of anchorites 
does not " tell just as strongly against the Cagot or Leper theory." 
If E. E. will examine carefully into the evidence as to the rise, spread, 
and decline of the disease of leprosy in the 12th, 13th, and 14th cen- 
turies, he will, I think, be surprised to find how exactly it tallies with 
the introduction of low side windows. In the 13th and 14th centuries 
it was frightfully common, and affected immense numbers. Add to 
this the fact that in the 15th century when the disease disappeared, 
low side windows ceased to be constructed, and that probiEibly the 
anchorites would have been just as numerous at that date as earlier. 
Indeed, Bishop David Roth in speaking of the anker-house at Kil- 
kenny, is clearly speaking in the 17th century of an erection which 
had been recently used at a time when in England the openings in ques- 
tion had unquestionably not been used or introduced for a very long 

Finally ; may I say that my argument has always been that these 
windows were Eucharistic windows? I adduced evidence {Eccle^ 
nologist^ Vol. ix. pp. 113 and 348,) of the existence of classes who 
probably used them, and it is just possible that some anchorites may 
occasionally have done so also. I cannot think, however, that E. B. 
has succeeded in proving the view of the case which he advocates. 

I remain. 

Yours faithfully. 

Obobob E. Stbebt. 

[We thank Mr. Street for his communication ; and will only observe 
upon it that our correspondent E. £. did not contend that the 
" anker- window " should command the altar, but that it was for the 
communicating of the anchorite. And Mr. Street will see from 
W. H. G.'s letter in the present number that the anchorite was 
confined to his cell, and could no otherwise than through his window 
receive the Blessed Sacrament. — En.] 

Anker ^ Windows. 151 

To the Editor of the Eede^otogist. 

April \6th, 1858. 

Sir, — ^A most interesting letter, in this month^s number of your 
learned serial, is devoted to •• Anker- Windows," or ''Lychnoscopes," 
and has delighted me by explaining something, which has greatly 
puzzled not only me, but some recognized architectural authorities, in 
my own church. There are at Packwood, as is well known to the 
readers of Parker's Glossary of Architecture, two lychnoscopes, but it 
18 not so well known, that, west of the northern lychnoscope, there 
is an external orifice, the masonry of which is too good to form the 
ruined niche of an image, and too different from any standard form of 
a window, to render it possible that it can ever have been the upper 
part of one. The church is what under the olden phraseology must 
have been entitled plain Decorated : for, while in the nave and chancel^ 
the ideal is that of an architecture not later than Edward the Third's 
time, the lack of all ornamentation is remarkable. I had long rejected 
the symbolical meaning of lychnoscopes, as exceeding the due limit of 
symbolism ; the view, that they were confessionals, though one docu« 
ment proves that they were sometimes used as such, 1 had rejected, as 
not squaring with the reserve of our forefathers ; and, as to the meaning 
conveyed in the modem word lychnoscope, in mt church the lights 
might easily be discovered through the other chancel window. As to 
the view, that they were used as squints, a fourth view (chronologically 
the second in the architectural revival), a most eminent architectural 
writer remarked to me, that the splay of the Packwood lychnoscopes, 
settled the question, for nobody, through them, could see the high altar. 

The reported discovery of a Christianized Jew communicating 
through such a window in a fresco, which had been covered by white- 
vash and plaister, at Eton College Chapel, — the fact that lepers were 
more common in Europe during the ages of lychnoscopes, than in the 
former architectural ages, — the increasing conviction in my mind, that 
the Cagots were a more numerous body, than has ordinarily been sup- 
posed: all these elements of thought had satisfied me that lychno- 
scopes were meant for the communication of Jews, lepers, and Cagots, 
and the almost junction of an unexplained orifice to a lychnoscope had 
led me to suspect the former existence of an external wooden chapel (I 
am using the word chapel conventionally) for those three parties, when 
your correspondent's admirable letter satisfied me, that I could, on an 
entirely different ground, cry Eureka ! It is still probable, that lepers 
may have been numerous in the vicinity of Packwood, for its ecclesias- 
tical style is '*the Free Chapel of S. Giles," and I do not think 
Egidius would have been the patron Saint of a coxjNTaT church, unless 
there had been a reputation for cases of healing. The ague in this 
clayey country, in those days a complaint which under drainage has 
entirely given way to rheumatism, may, however, have been the source 
of invocation, as much or more so than the leprosy. 

I am, Sir, your faithful servant in Christ, 
RoBBRT William Johnson, 
Official and Incumbent of Packwood, 

152 Anker^Windam. 

To the Editor of the BceUmlogki. 

DxAB Mb. Editor, — I rejoice that the suggestions of your corres- 
pondent £. E., in your last number, quoting Bishop Roth of Ossory's 
tract on that diocese, seem to set at rest the long-doubted use of 
low side windows in chancels. 

I do not feel qualified to give an opinion on the ecclesiological or 
archseological bearing of your correspondent's remarks ; bnt it appears 
to me that the only objection he anticipates to the full reception of his 
arguments, as conclusive of the use of these windows for anchorites, is 
easily answered from a ritual point of view. He says that apparently 
** the only argument on the other side is, the improbability that an- 
chorites were ever so numerous as the commonness of lychnoscopic 
windows would seem to imply.'* But I think an answer to such an 
objection is furnished by the occurrence of the Servitium Includendontm 
in the Manuals of the English Church. If anchorites were not so 
common in the middle ages as that there was a chance of one or more 
being in any parish, why was the especial service, for setting the can- 
didate for ancboritic inclosure apart, inserted in that book which con- 
tained the services (and those only^) which the Parish Priest might at 
any time be called upon to use, and which he required to have ready, 
*' ad manum,'* (as Lyndwoode derives the name) to his hand ? 

It is evidently no reply to this argument in favour of anchorites 
having been numerous, to say that the rubrics of the Servitium InclU' 
dendorum reserve the case of one who presents himself for inclosure for 
the judgment of the Bishop. " Non oportet quemquam inclusum fieri 
sine Episcopi consultu."' The same provision, almost word for word, 
precedes the Office for Adult Baptism in our own Ritual, which no- 
toriously is occasionally celebrated in every parish in the land. And 
the rubric of the Salisbury Manual, in continuation, declares that the 
preliminary instruction and admonition of the proposed anchorite may 
be performed by any Priest ; " sed ab Episcopo aut aliquo alio Presbytero 
erudiatur ac moneatur ;" and that the service of Seclusion or Inclusion 
may in like manner be celebrated by the Priest : ** Episoopus vel Sa- 
cerdos incipiat hoc Responsorium :" a licence which, it is worthy of no- 
tice, is admitted even in the Pontifical itself; " Episcopus vel alius cui 
committitur officium .... sedeat in presbiterio vel vestiario donee 
Cantor incipiat Responsorium." And again : " Deinde Episcopus vel 
officium agens . • • . sublevet prostratum."^ 

It may not be considered irrelevant to note, that among the Inquiries 
of the Archdeacon of Lincoln in 1233, is one (cap. 48,) Whether any 
Anchorite's cells were made without consent of the Bishop ; " An aliqua 
anachorita facta sit sine assensu Episcopi."^ This at least proves 

^ The oceorrence of the Order of Confirmation tcarcely forms an exception. This, 
though an Episcopal OfSce, it was necessary that the Priest should ha^e at hand for 
the instmetion of candidates, and the like. 

' I quote from a " Mannale ad usum Saritbnr,** London^ 1554. 

' Reclnsio Anachoritarum, in the Pontifical of Bishop Lacy, of Exeter, edited by 
Mr. Barnes, 1847. 

* Dacange, Glossarimn, snb titnlo Anachorita, wl^ch he defines " CeQnla Indn* 

Anker-Windom. 168 

that snchorites were ao Gommon in the diocese of Lincoln in the 13th 
century, that there was a possibility that even the buildings in which 
they were secluded might be erected without the Bishop's consent. 

But a most remarkable confirmation of your correspondect's argu- 
ments as to the intention and use of these side windows, is to be found 
in some directions for building the cell or anker- house» printed by 
Ducange.^ " Inclusa, id est» domus inclusi, debet esse lapidea, lon- 
gitude et latitude in 12 pedes abeat,' 3 fenestras, tinam contra Chorum^ 
per quam Corpus Chrigti accipiat, alteram in opposite, per quam victum 
redpiat, tertiam, unde lucem habeat, quae semper debet esse clausa 
vitro vel comu." 

It may be an argument in fEivour of the supposition that the prac- 
tice of secluding Anchorites lingered longer in the English Church 
than in others, to mention that I do not find the Servitium Includen* 
dontm (or an ofiice supplying its place) in the two Manuals of foreign 
use. those of Mechlin and of Cambray, which I am at this moment 
able to refer to. 

To my own mind, the testimony of Bishop Roth, himself a Catholic 
Prelate, at a period little subsequent to the English Reformation, and 
in a country of which the great mass of the Clergy and people had not 
then adopted the change of ritual, is conclusive of the question. But 
as your correspondent seemed to think that an objection might be raised 
to his view of the subject, I have ventured to supply him, through your 
pages, with some arguments in defence of it. 

I hope, with £. £., that we have heard the last of lychnoscopes, and 
that his suggestion to use Anker- windows to designate ttieBe/enesteUm 
may be generally adopted. 

I have much to apologise for trespassing at such length on your valu- 
able space, and I remain. 

Yours faithfully, 

W. H. C. 

[We hope to print in our next number the Serviiium Includendorum 
from the Sarum Manual, which our correspondent has been kind 
enough to copy out and collate for us. — En.] 

To the Editor of the Ecclesiologist* 

Sib, — ^As a further contribution to the discussion which has again 
revived upon the subject of " Anker-windows,*' or (as they used to be 
called) *' lychnoscopes," allow me to give an extract from an article 
on '* Les Ciboires et la reserve Eucharistique,'* by L'Abb^ Corblet, in 
the current number of the " Revue de VArt Chretien." 

** On remarque k I'ext^eur de qnelques ^glises, une ouverture circulaire on 
en forme de trefle, ferm^e par un grille ou par deux barreaux de fer crois^. 
Qnelques arch^logues pensent que ces oculu9,prenant jour sur les cimetiires» 
eommuniquaient atec une credence oil Ton renfermait le saint dboire pen- 

1 Dncange, Glossarinm, snb titulo Inelun, He quotes Begula SeUtariorum, snd 
Ae Ordo Jnchuorum in Radenu's Bavaria Saneia, 
' Sic, bat quaere, habeat 3 fenestras. 

154 Mediaval Remahu of the Austrian Empire. 

dant la Duit, et ah une lampe jazta-pos^ engageait let fiddles k venir adorer 
k rezt^rieur le Saint-Sacrement. ' Get oculiu,' dit M. le baron da Roinn, ' oet 
oeil toujours ouvert, comme le divin regard qui jamais ne perd de vue let 
actions des hommes ; cette lampe, nuit et jour gardienne et adoratrice» in* 
vitant k une ^^vation du coeur I'homme qui se rend au travail^ ou qui, la 
tAche achev^, regagne son foyer ; cette flamme dont le reflet vient expirer 
sur les tombes et qui peut symboliser ces Ames mortes k la pri^re, mais qui 
renattront un jour k Thosanna et au cantique ^temels ; ce sont autant d'id^s 
belles, touchantes, chr^tiennes, en un mot, telles que les aimaient nos p^res, 
telles, certainement, qu'ellea ont bien pu 6tre r^alisees par le mojen-kgeJ ** — 
P. 197-198. 

Yours truly, 



Mittelalterliche Kwutdenkmale de$ Oesterreichischen Kaistretaatea, 
Herausgegeben von Dr. Gubtat Hbidbe, Professor Rud. voir 
EiTBLBBBOBB, uud Architektcn J. Hibsbb. Stuttgart. 1858. 

Thb first volume of a very costly and beautiful work has just appeared, 
under this title, at Stuttgart. It is sumptuously illustrated, with 
thirty-six engravings and one hundred and eight wood-cuts, besides 
illuminated and polychromatized titles and dedication. It must 
always remain a marvel to us, even after making full allowance for the 
greater cheapness of labour on the continent, how foreign publishers 
can find it remunerative to embark so much capital in the illustration 
of archaeological or artistic works. However, we are greatly the 
better for their enterprise or their self-sacrifice so long as we can 
obtain, at not unreasonable cost, so magnificent and valuable a volume 
as the one before us. 

The contents are varied, but all of great interest. The first paper 
is a monograph of the beautiful Cistercian Abbey of Heiligenkreutz, in 
the Archduchy of Austria, by Mr. Feil and Dr. Heider. The letter- 
press contains an able essay on the peculiarities observed by this Order 
in the building of their churches and convents, with a sketch of the 
origin and history of the institution, and then a minute description of 
this particular foundation. The engravings present us an admirably 
picture of this noble group of ecclesiastical buildings. Beginning with 
the church we find a Romanesque nave divided from its somewhat 
narrow aisles by arcades of ten, the vaulting bays being five in the 
nave, and double that number in each aisle. The transepts, which 
form three squares, and the choir with its aisles — all of three bays, 
are of Pointed character. A magnificent vaulted cloister flanka die 
south side of the nave, with a rich octagonal chapel projecting inwards 
from its southern range, and the conventual buildings extending to- 
wards the east. The perspective views and the numerous details of 
caps and bases show the nave to be of late Transitional Romanesque, 
the round arch prevailing in the windows, but the Pointed arch mak- 

Mediaval Remains of the Augtrim Empire. 155 

ing its appearance in the doorways and in the vaulting of the adjacent 
cloisters. The choir is of late geometrical Pointed. The stained glass, 
which is given in coloured plates, must he of great interest. The suh> 
jects of the choir windows are single figures of the founder of the 
monastery, Leopold Duke of Austria, A..D. 1136, and his wife and 
family : the colours are hroad and decided, and the grisaille somewhat 
coarse with but little admixture of white glass. The Romanesque 
windows have nothing but a very effective grisaille of conventional 
patterns and foliage. This abbey would well repay a visit from an 
ecclesiological tourist. 

Dr. Heider contributes also the next paper — an aocount, with an 
engraving, of a Grothic monstrance, preserved at Sedletz in Bohemia. 
This work however, is over praised. It is an elegant, but somewhat 
late, specimen of Pointed metalwork, without much delicacy or purity 
of design. 

The next plate, representing an Altarechrank in the parish church of 
Cilli, in Steiermark, would afford a useful hint for a new series of /m- 
sirumetUa Ecclesiastica, It is a kind of shrine or bufet, having five 
cupboards with doors in a kind of arcade, the whole surmounted by an 
ornate traceried canopy. The style is late Pointed. 

Next Professor Von Eitelberger discourses of the Romanesque 
church of S. Jdk in Hungary, with notices of other early churches in 
that country. S. Jdk is a Transitional building with a nave and aisles 
of foor bays, a narthex between two western towers, apsidal ends to 
the aisles eastward, and a chancel of one square with an apsidal sanc- 
tuary. The western towers affect the type of the campanile — ^four low 
stages with the sides panelled under corbel-tabling, and with low pyra- 
midal cappings. The west door, deeply recessed, with round and 
Pointed arches intermixed, and an array of niched effigies in the 
tympanum, is most curious. And there is in other parts of the build- 
ing, in the window jambs, in odd niches, and on odd brackets, a great 
luxuriance of rude animal sculpture such as is seen in the Early 
Romanesque of Lombardy. The other churches more particularly 
described are Fiinfkirchen, — (Picsvarad, in Magyar) — a remarkable 
parallel triapsidal basilica, with four square towers, one at each angle, 
and a confessionary, or crypt, under its eastern part : Tihany. a Bene- 
dictine convent : Ocza, a Romanesque building, with nave and aisles, 
two western towers, a transept and a parallel triapsidal east end : and 
Zs^mb^ — ^now a ruin — a very elaborate Transitional Romanesque 
parallel triapsidal basilica, with narthex and twin western towers, the 
southern one of which retains a most curious sugarloaf-like solid 
capping, strongly recalling the roofing of some Byzantine churches in 
the East. 

From Hungary we pass in the next paper, also communicated by 
Professor Von Eitelberger, to the shores of the Adriatic, to the 
cathedral of Parenzo in Istria. Here we have a parallel triapsidal 
basilica of the sixth century of immense length, with its aisles separated 
by arcades of ten, a complete square atrium at the west end, west- 
ward of which again is an octagonal baptistery and a square campanile. 
The west gable bears traces of mosaic figures. The capitals bear 

166 Mediaval Remains of the Austrian Empire. 

monograms, like those at Ravenna. The altar has a baldachin. And 
the apsidal semicircular sanctuary has a stone seat all round for the 
presbyters, and a marble throne in the middle, reached by six steps* 
for the bishop. Its conch, and the wall below, are covered with 
mosaic. This monograph is one of extreme interest and excellently 
done. The plates of details are very numerous, and include some 
late wooden stalls, of stiff 1 6th century design. 

With this may be profitably compared the next paper, by the same 
author, on the Patriarchal Throne and the Pulpit (or Ambon) at Grado» 
and the Baptistery at Aquileia. The Grado throne occupies, as does 
that at Parenzo, the extreme east end of a semicircular apse, which 
has — as at Torcello — a concentric stone bench for the assistant clergy. 
The Grado example has sides of rich and graceful carved interlaced 
work, and a flat canopy, supported on the wall and on two columns, 
exactly like a sounding-board. The Kanzel, or Ambon, at Grado, is 
very like that at S. Mark's, Venice ; hexagonal in plan, supported on 
six shafts, with boldly carved figures of the Evangelistic Symbols on 
the sides, and with an oriental- looking domical canopy supported on 
shafts with trifoliated arches. The Baptistery at Aquileia — ^now a 
mere ruin — was octagonal, with an hexagonal bath, raised on steps, and 
covered by a canopy borne upon columns in the centre. 

In the next paper Dr. Ed. Freih. von Sacken, conducts ns back 
again to Upper Austria, to the Flugelaltar, or Triptych, of S. Wolf- 
gang. This is a very beautiful composition. The centre, divided 
into three compartments by very richly traceried canopy work of good 
Pointed detail, is in relief, representing the Blessed Virgin kneeling, 
her train borne by angels, while our Loan seated in majesty and hold* 
ing the orb in His left hand blesses her with His right. On each side 
stands a Bishop. The wings of this are not in relief, but painted, — 
the four subjects being the Nativity, the Circumcision, the Presenta* 
tion, and the Repose of the Virgin. Above there is the usual open 
canopy work of these German triptychs, with the Crucifixion between 
S. Mary and S. John, and the Majesty, adored by angels, above. The 
predella is a central relief of the Offering of the Wise Men, with 
painted volets of the Visitation and the Flight into Egypt. But the 
example at Blaubauren, known in this country by Heideloff's print, is 
a still finer example of this kind of triptych. 

Next Mr. Bock describes and pourtrays a pretty shrine-shaped re* 
liquary of wood, preserved in the Spitalkirche at Salzburg. The 
tracery is a shade coarse, but the general treatment exceedingly rich 
and beautiful, and the device of the door, which is bracketed out angle- 
wise at one end, is charmingly original and naive. The same archteo- 
logist contributes a paper on Mediaeval Doors, illustrating his remarks 
by drawings (coloured) of the metalwork of the doors at Bruck an der 
Murr. This however, is a florid and overdone example. Far better 
are some less pretentious specimens, of which he gives woodcuts, from 
the churches of Collin* in Bohemia, Brucher, Salzburg, and other 

Messrs. Kink and Messmer undertake the monograph of the basilica 
of S. Vigilius at Trent. They give a ground plan — showing the 

A Batch of Churches in OverijsBel and Friedand. 157 

curious management of the stairs to the roof openly arcaded in the 
aisle walls — a longitudinal section — ^transverse section, and a host of 
details, besides a good perspective view taken from the south-east, 
and an enlarged view of the portal and apsidal chapel of the south 

Then we find a view and description of the immense circular Roman- 
esque brass font at Salzburg, carried on four sejant lions, and adorned 
all round with figures of saints in an arcade, with a legend along the 

Far less known to English ecdesiologists than the last two examples 
is the church of S. Barbara at Kuttenberg, which is described at length 
by Professor Wocel — a building in Flamboyant Pointed, containing 
nave and choir, the latter ending in a five-sided apse, of equal height, 
with surrounding aisle, and an outer row of chapels beyond the nave 
aisles. The exterior with its great height, its double range of flying 
buttresses, its open spiral staircase turrets, parapets, pinnacles, &c. is 
very striking — though three modern bulbous-roofed turrets on the 
ridge of the roof, are sufficiently ugly. Inside, the stalls are especially 
beautiful, with elaborately traceried desk fronts and rich poppyhead 
ends, while the seats have canopies of delicate open tracery, each 
shaft between the stalls having the figure of a saint on a bracket and 
under a canopy. Once more, Professor Wocel devotes the last paper 
but one in the series to the description of the Tabernacle or Sacra- 
men tshaus in the church of the Holy Trinity in the same town. This 
however, is an unpleasing specimen of the most degenerate German 
Gothic, with twisted shafts, interpenetrating mouldings, and the like. 
The volume concludes with a paper by Mr. Carl Weiss, on a very 
curious Romanesque metal Leuchteffu»$ or Candle-stand, preserved in 
the church of S. Veitsdome at Prague. It is a spirited design, like 
a tripod, formed out of dragons, lions, and human figures. 

We have seldom seen a more novel and valuable collection of eccle- 
siastical antiquities than that which we have introduced to our readers' 


To the Editor of the Eceleaiologist, 

Groningen, May Ibth, 1858. 
My dbab Mb. Editob, — So few ecdesiologists — not to say Eng- 
lishmen of any description — ^visit the north- eastern provinces of Hol- 
land, that an account of some of their principal churches may be a 
novelty to your pages. 1 will merely premise that I send you the 
actual notes, — without amplification, addition, or even transcription, — 
which I made in the respective buildings, and thus ensure as correct 
a description as I am capable of givifig. Having, on another occasion, 
described Zutphen and Deventer, I now commence at ZwoUe, the 
capital of Overijssel. 


168 A Batch of Churches in Overygsel and Friesland. 

1. ZwoLLB, S. MiehaeL — A large Flamboyant church with three 
aisles, of equal height ; a central apse, trigonal ; side ones, octagonaL 
The windows of four lights, except in the apse, where of three : very 
poor, and now all foliatiou gutted. Eight bays in all ; the roodscreen, 
of wood and brass. (1609), now cuts off two bays only. A large class 
of •'catechumens'* — whatever that may mean — all young women, 
£31ing the choir with a positive uproar of giggling at 10.30 a.m. The 
pulpit, 1618 — 1625, is the lion of the church, bnt not worth anything. 
Piers very poor and shapeless ; vaulting shafts triple, slender, with 
flowered caps and octagonal bases. It would seem as if there had 
been, or had been intended, a tower in the middle of the north aisle ; 
much modernised, and not higher than the roof: a north window 
of eight lights. Material, very coarse crumbling brick : like the 
*' klinkers" of which the roads are made. At the east end is built in a 
semicircular stone, with vineleaf moulding ; a figure with peaked beard 
and surplice sleeves, giving the blessing ; on its breast, three heads 
with nimbus. An inscription round it, of which the last word is 

The Deventer gate, a square edifice with a stunted pyramidal spire, 
and four angular spirelets. is a good, rough, but very picturesque 
specimen, of (as it seems to me) fourteenth century work. 

2. ZwoLLc, S. Cross (the Catholic church.) — An apsidal cross 
church, with aisles destroyed ; vaulting quite plain and cross ; win- 
dows all modern lancets. Pews throughout the building. Modem 
western tower, with a kind of cupola. This has been given back to 
Catholic worship. 

S. ZwoLLB, the Brothers Church: [originally belonging to the 
Brothers of the Common Life.] — Choir, nave, south aif^le to the latter : 
no tower; apse, pentagonal; windows of three lights, poor Flam- 
boyant. Three windows each side choir, very lofty, of simply inter- 
secting lights ; vaulting shafts circular, with very elegant octagonal 
caps. Nave, seven bays. Windows in north, of three intersecting 
lights : in south aisle, all gutted : piers lofty, well proportioned, circu- 
lar, circular base, and circular cap, with moulding like Crown of 
Thorns. Vaulting shafts to south aisle from these caps managed 
with singular beauty: so also those on north wall of nave. West 
window of four intersecting lights ; vaulting cross ; aisle same height 
a9 nave. This a very interesting church, though in an out-of-the way, 
dirty alley in the north of the town. Length of nave about 130, of 
choir about 84, feet. A great number of merchants* marks. Here, as 
so constantly, the choir used for catechising. Material brick, with 
regular brick buttresses, very poor. 

4. ZwoLLB, Walloon Church, — ^Evidently the chapel of some small 
convent. A mere Flamboyant choir ; five bays, windows of two lights, 
but now gutted ; apse trigonal, with not inelegant vaulting. Vault- 
ing corbels, octagonal and flowered. Material, brick. West window 
blocked, of three lights, transomed — the lower, brick ; the upper, 
stone. Small angular turret at north-west; gable panelled, but 

5. ZwoLLB, Church of Bethlehem. — A large untidy brick diiirch. 

A Batch of Ckurckes in Overijssel and Friesland, 159 

Apse, pentagonal, cut off by organ : choir has large chapel in south 
side, to which it opens by two lancet arches* without base or cap. 
North aisle destroyed. Four bays to south aisle. Piers circular, with 
circular base, and rude vaulting shafts, all of the very worst and poojr- 
est Flamboyant. — N.B. This is the first church as you come in from 
the Deventer gate. No ecclesiologist need wish to see it. 

6. Hassblt. — A large brick church ; apsidal choir ; nave with aisles ; 
all rebuilt. 

7. Blokztl (on the Zuyder Zee.) — ^A cross church, simply curious 
as a Flamboyant imitation of 1621. The transept windows not with- 
out spirit. 

8. Babuls — A most desolate church, on the very borders of the 
Zuyder Zee, apparently built on the foundations of a small trigonal 
apiodal chapel. Two or three houses seem to compose the village. 

9. KuiNRB. — A modem church. Crowded congregations in all 
these places, it being Ascension-Day. 

10. Snbbk. — A very large church, but entirely modernised within 
and without^ except the vaulting shafts of the enormous aps^al choir, 
which appears never to have had aisles. Sneek is the capital of one 
of the three arrqndissements of Friedland ; and this must have been a 
noble building.' The west end, after the modem Dutch^/ashion, is now 
apsidal too. 

The next church, which I saw only at a distance, has a packsaddle 
tower of brick, gabled east and west. The first packsaddle I ever saw 
in Holland. The rest of the church is modem. 

And hereabouts the character of the churches changes very dis- 
tinctly. There is something about them which reminds me of Sles- 
wick, though scarcely as yet equal to those. It seems to have been 
necessary, in consequence of the terrible inundatipns to which me- 
diaeval Frieslfuid was subject, that the churches should be raised 
on artificial mounds, (teppen,) and these again, for economy of labour, 
were as small and as circular as possible. This mi^st necessarily in- 
fluence the shape of the building, which accordingly is always small, 
with ill developed chancel. Three out of four of the old churches 
have packsaddle tower, and thfit always gabled east and west. 

11. Lbeuwabobv, Jacobijner Kerk (the Cathedral.) — ^A large, 
but dreadfully mutilated brick church. At present, choir, nave, 
aisles : no tower. Apse pentagonal, glazed off from the church. 
Choir seems to have had a north aisle. Choir arch destroyed. Nave, 
four large bays. Date may be anything. Very plain Pointed arches : 
perhaps Transitional. Piers circular; circular caps; bases hidden. 
Northern piers not so massy as, but very much higher than, southern. 
Roof modernised, so that it is impossible to tell how the difficulty was 
met. Outside of the church perfectly disgraceful. North side painted 
black. Cloisters seem to have been porth-west, and now form a part 
of the Koater's house ; liUier and rude Flamboyant. 

12. Lbeuwabden, S. .—The tower alone remains, of what 

seems to have been a magnificent Flamboyant church, of real red brick, 
with stone facings ; panelled on all sides in two stages, with three 
excessively deep and well moulded lancets. A massy, noble tower, it 

160 A Batch of Churches in Overijssel and FHeskmd. 

leans excessively. There is a seyenteentb-century tower on the otJier 
side of the city, which leans much more ; also of brick, faced with stone. 

13. Lbbuwabdbn, GalUaeer Kerk, — ^The poor choir and nave, 
without any tower, of a large Flamboyant church. As it was market- 
day, no persuasion could induce the Koster to open it. 

Leeuwarden, the capital of so ancient and interesting a province, is 
certainly a most disappointing city to the ecclesiologist. 

14. Lbkkvm. — A new church, with a spire. 

15. FuNKUM. — A packsaddle tower, with modem church. 

16. DoKKUM. — Chancel, nave, north aisle. Built apparently on an- 
cient foundations, but entirely modern. 

17. Wbstbbobbst. —About four miles east of Dokkum. A brick 
church, very lofty, without external separation of choir and nave. 
Western tower, partly engaged, with pyramidal roof, stands on a 
mound, with a few thatched cottages sprinkled round it. Interior has 
no division ; apse circular ; all windows gutted. Remains of Ro- 
manesqae arch on the north side, and piscina, the first I have seen, 
clearly Romanesque. A very rude slab in low relief, apparently 
a priest, in albe and stole. Above, the Blessed Tbinitt, a rude mould- 
ing all round ; by it a cross, which seems to be the Friesland type of 
monumental crosses, and of which therefore you will perhaps allow me 
to give a drawing on a future occasion. Roof now flat wood, but 
traces of vaulting. Apse arch circular, and whole apse waggon-vaulted. 
A very curious church. External circular arches like Danish churches ; 
a poor Flamboyant door from nave to tower. 

18. S. , Ondbwokdb. — Choir, with trigonal apse and nave, with- 
out any external and internal separation ; belfry towards west. West 
end cut off for school. A passage between it and church to " pastoorie," 
on the side of a little canal beyond. In the wall a mural slab, very 

rude, partly mutilated, to " Oerardus D , Abbas in Je , 1557." 

A curious kind of sixteenth- century floor-slab here has legend running 
round it, with circles in comers, as if for the Evangelisdc symbols ; 
instead of that, for portraits. Material, brick. One or two Pointed 
arches in exterior, apparently First-Pointed. Buttresses very mde. 
The show side of this church painted black. 

Then followed what, in any other game but ecclesiology, must be 
called a run of ill-luck. 

10. LuTKBWBNDB : 20. BuiTBKPosT : 21. Stboosbosch : 22. Zmel- 
bibn : 23. Ebmtil, are all new churches. 

My next will require and will repay, a far more elaborate de- 

24. Gboninobn, S. Martin. — Choir, nave, aisles, to each ; disengaged 
westem tower ; a vast church. The groundwork of the whole choir 
would seem Middle-Pointed, of the mdest and poorest kind. Apse, 
circular, with six very stilted lancets — effect very noble ; choir of five 
bays ; nave of five. Choir very much loftier than nave, and so origi- 
nally intended. Piers of choir circular, with double octagonal base, and 
mere string for cap. The triforium, a mere series of pointed panels, 
which become lancets over the apse. Clerestory of three simply inter- 
secting lights (two over apse.) Very thin shafts rise from the cap- 

A Batch of Churches in Overijssel and Friesland. 161 

string, themselves circalar, and with plain circular cap. In apse, 
a very pretty Middle-Pointed screen, which perhaps originally went 
round the whole choir ; trefoiled lights, and the cresting of reversed 
trifoliations. Windows in choir-aisles and procession-path of four 
simple intersecting lights, as meagre as any I ever saw of that always 
unsatisfactory arrangement. 

Nave, First-Pointed : choir and nave arches, of four orders, alter- 
nately square and circular, with the same, flowered, cap ; these very 
elegant. Vaulting of crossing very singular. Ribs from angles, and 
from apex of each arch converge in centre, and thence, in the centre 
of a circle, hang down, the rudest and most incipient of pendents. The 
piers in the nate grow plainer to the west ; the last a mere circle. 
Vaulting of nave bays like that of crossing, only the strings from the 
apices of the arches omitted. Windows all gutted. Manifestly the 
choir of this church was rebuilt in Middle- Pointed times. 

The tower, on the model of that of Utrecht. The lower stage like 
that of the whole rest of the church, brick ; the upper part, stone. The 
stages here, as at Utrecht, though not quite so much so, painfully dis- 
tinct ; rather a series of towers, one set upon the other, than parts of 
the same tower. The whole tower faced with stone, except the north 
and south sides of lowest stage. Five stages ; the three lowest square, 
the rest octagonal, surmounted by a crown. The two lowest richly 
panelled in deep lancets ; a good deal of the work trefoiled and re- 
foliated. The topmost stage modernised. A pierced parapet and ex- 
ternal gallery round each stage, increasing the e£Pect of bittiness, or of 
Buch a tower as a child builds with bricks. A huge passage through 
the tower from north to south ; not as at Utrecht, from east to west. 

On the north side, a pretty quiet English dose, planted ; but the 
want of all external moulding, and the painful newness and freshness 
of the bricks, destroy all external effect. 

95. Gboningrk. 8. • — Cross church, with aisles to choir and 

nave, and engaged tower at west end. Date given on tower, 1246. 
Choir almost identical with that of S. Martin's, though much smaller. 
Apse circular, of five stilted arches : four bays to choir vaulting. 
Screen between choir and procession-path, triforium, and clerestory 
nearly the same as in the other church. Nave, same height as choir, 
and same date. Crossing arches of poor multiplex mouldings ; piers 
bevilled, or rather shaved, off in the middle, to make them smaller, 
which also is the case in all the vaulting arches. Transepts scarcely 
- extend beyond aisles, windows gutted, nave of two bays ; square wall- 
piers, a sort of imitation of Romanesque. Triforium of first bay on each 
side panelled in a semi-arch. Clerestory of five intersecting lights ; 
demi- windows, above spring of arch. Aisle- windows, where not gut- 
ted, of five intersecting lights, and so at their west end. Crossing 
arches screwed up with timber, as if ruinous. Connstorhm, on south 
side, a pretty little sacristy of two bays ; side windows of two plain 
lights, plain cross vaulting. 

Tower, rebuilt in 1471, fell down in 1710, and rebuilt again by the 
S. P. Q. G.,^ very lofty, brick ; a battering wooden lantern of three 
1 Senatns populnsque Groningensis. 

162 A Batch of Churches in Overijssel and Friesland. 

stages on it. Material of church, hrick. Here, as at S. Martin's, no 
external mouldings ; painfully meagre. 

26. GaoNiNGjSN, S. . — A brick church, with modem spire, so 

completely modernised as to have no object of interest. 

27. Harbn (in the province of Groningen.) — Chancel, nave, west- 
ern tower. A very remarkable church. I^ate Romanesque ; the whole 
brick. Choir vaulted in two bays ; east window, apparently, an original 
triplet of circular- headed lights. Wall arches, as in Denmark, each side 
of chancel. In each of these a circular- headed light, with two exter- 
nal orders. Vaulting very low, and octopartite. Chancel- arch, three 
orders ; the interior, with plain double abacus. On the north side a 
hagioscope, or perhaps mere recess, with roll moulding in apex, as well 
as abacus. Nave, five pointed wall-arches, within and without, with 
plain abacus. The upper part of each, a plain circular-headed light ; 
flat wooden roof. Tower, packsaddle; gabled east and west, but 
slightly hipped ; very lofty ; five stages. The upper* on south and north, 
curiously arcaded; and the second, on the same side, with a window 
of two circular lights, the rest single lights. The west door very rude, 
of six orders. Interior of belfry a rude wall arch on each side. East 
facade, very curious ; gable, a quintuplet, circular-headed, two orders ; 
three interior orders, bricks disposed in a different pattern. Below, 
triplet of circular- headed lights ; central higher at base, as well as at 
top. Two north doors, and one south, now blocked, Romanesque. 
The first bay, north of chancel, in exterior, has two small, triangular- 
headed recesses, like unpierced lycbnoscopes. 

28. Vbibs. (in the province of Drenthe: as the four following 
also are). One of the most curious ch^irches I ever saw. Chancel, nave, 
disengaged western tower. Chancel very much higher than nave; 
late Middle- Pointed trigonal apse, or perhaps rather p.entagonal ; a 
large shapeless lancet in each bay: between each two windows a 
bracket : a very large, well-moulded aximbry on north ; and at north- 
west of choir two flat-arched recesses, that may be blocked lycbno- 
scopes. All round the church the usual Danish (and Friesland,) flat- 
arched recesses. Roof externally well pitched ; flat inside ; chancel 
arch, three orders, without cap or base« 

Nave, the earliest Romanesque. Interior : on each side five circular- 
headed single lights, high up; (these destroyed on south ;) flat roof. 
Exterior : tower, exactly of the kind we call " Saxon '* in England ; 
very massy; never had an internal staircase. Five stages: top- 
most, on each side ; a single baluster- window of two lights, (exactly 
like those of S. Benet, at Cambridge,) in a sunk panel, with scal- 
loped top. Second stage : two windows of the same kind, north, 
west and south. An arcade continues from them in circular- headed 
lights. Third stage : same as first. Fourth stage ; an arcade in each 
side, the mullions only continuing through in alternate lights. Fifth 
stage : western door, extremely rude : tympanum now at least filled ; 
bricks in arch set anglewise. so as to give effect of chevron. Low pyra- 
midal head ; the whole edifice brick. Romanesque font, circular, very 
elegantiy carved, supported on a cylindrical shaft, very nearly as large 
as font, with four sphinx-like beasts ; a square base. The only ancient 

A Batch of Churches m Overijssel and FHesland. 168 

font I have yet seen remaining. Material, dark gray stone ; now as 
lumber, in belfry. 

29. AasBN, (the capital of Drenthe.) — Modern church. 

SO. RoLDK. — Chancel, nave, disengaged; western tower, circular 
apse. Apse, five lights ; chancel, two ; nave, three ; but all gutted. 
Tower, very lofty, with octagonal spire ; four stages. £ach of the 
three upper panelled in a plain two-light window, without foliation ; a 
blocked lychnoscope, at south-east and north-east of nave. The whole 
brick. A flat-headed door, now blocked, each side of nave. 

31. ScHooNiiOo. — A modem church. 

Eight hours' travelling at a walking pace, over deep sand, to 

32. Dalsn, (rebuilt in 1824.) — ^Tower remains; First-Pointed, with 
octagonal spire. Belfry windows north and south, of two lancets; 
the latter under one head, the former under two, corbelled off instead of 
a mnllion. Second stage : a semi- window, one pointed light, beneath 
it a billet moulding ; all of brick. 

33. Eblinkaiif (in Hanover, but Galvinistic). — Chancel, nave, 
western tower, apse trigonal ; all windows (Third- Pointed insertions) 
gutted. Chancel and apse of two bays : nave of three. Vaulting 
rather low, but plain and good. The church itself First- Pointed. 
Vaulting shafts double, with plain cushion caps ; bases hidden by pave- 
ment. Wooden gallery at west end, apparently same date as tower ; 
one of the supports curiously worked. Belfry-arch very massy and 
pointed, with simple abacus. Font, almost the facsimile of that at 
Vries, only instead of animals a kind of legs. Belfry vaulting itself, 
same date as tower, but with a different centreing from the original 
belfry-arch. Whole material, stone. At north of nave, a square- 
headed door, with date 1477, which no doubt is the date of the tower 
also. This square, rather low and small, with plain octagonal spire. 
Three stages. Belfry windows, and those in second stage, square- 
headed of two unfoliated lights : a trefoiled niche over (modem) west 
door. Good buttresses of three stages to whole church, Third-Pointed. 
Fourth window on south has been curious^; its sill, the head of a square- 
headed door, with trefoiled spandrils. 

34. ScHALK. Ground-plan as last church ; rebuilt 1727. 

36. MsLSBM (in Hanover, but Galvinistic). — Chancel, nave, lean-to 
north aisle to each, south porch, western tower, apparently late Middle- 
Pointed. Apse, pentagonal : windows, gutted. Chancel, two bays ; 
nave, four. South windows high and narrow, two lights trefoiled; 
quatrefoil in head (in chancel), in nave instead of the latter, tracery 
simpler. Windows in north aisle gutted. Pier arches to chancel 
simple apertures, without pier : to nave, circular piers : circular base ; 
pi era rudely shaved off into square cap. East bay of aisle blocked off. 
West window two lights trefoiled. Flat-headed wall recesses as in 
Dutch churches. Vaulting, from octagonal corbel heads, merely cross, 
as at Eblinkamp. In aisle from circular shafts with octagonal caps ; 
bosses to cross vaulting. Tower, very massy and lofty, with three 
stages and octagonal spire ; Middle -pointed. Belfry windows, two ; 
each of one light, trefoiled and refoliated ; elegant. Second stage, on 
each side, windows of two lights, circular-headed, under a circular arch — 

164 A Batch of Churches in Overijssel and Friesland. 

a mere freak. West door under a very lofty deeply recessed arch, some 
thirty feet high, of four orders ; door itself square-headed ; a curious, 
but very fine eflFect, and one which might well be imitated. The upper 
part of the arch has been a fresco, I think a Majesty, with the Company 
of Heaven above, and Purgatory below. Good bold buttresses of two 
stages to church ; none to tower. Door under window, as at Eblin- 
kamp, which seems a technicality here. South porch, Third-Pointed, 
now disused, has been elegant ; angular buttresses, with ogee trefoiled 
sets-off; large, but now destroyed, parvise windows: south door, 
square-headed, set in a deep, high recess (like the western door), the 
four-centred arch of which forms the sill of the window. Crockets very 
curious, like small processional lanterns, with twisted stems. An 
interesting church ; all of sandstone, worked of tolerable size. Cu- 
rious that, the moment the frontier is passed, we exchange brick for 
stone, — there being no apparent means of procuring it here, that there 
were not in Drenthe. 

36. OoTMABSUM (in Overijssel, but a Catholic church). — A magni- 
ficent Romanesque building, though not very large. Apse, choir, and 
nave; the two latter without distinction. Western tower. Apse« 
pentagonal ; windows of three lights. Flamboyant. Choir and nave of 
four bays — 1st, piers plain pointed, with plain abacus ; 2nd, 3rd, 4th, of 
three orders, external circular, internal square, some slight differences 
between them ; the cross arches of nave have circular shafts with square 
harp caps : those in the aisles have the same. The windows are now 
gutted. The vaulting of let and 2nd bays cross ; of 3rd and 4th 
octopartite. The 3rd and 4th are divided very strangely each into 
two pier arches, inserted in the bay arch : the central pier square and 
massy, with square abacus. From this abacus, to the apex of the bay 
arch a shaft, with square base, and three circular bands. One bay in 
north aisle has a beautiful idea in vaulting. Northern door, very mag* 
nificent, of three orders, circular shaft and flowered cap ; an exterior 
moulding of stars. First two ba;^*s of aisles gabled transeptally ; this 
probably marks the choir aisles.' One original Romanesque window 
remains on south side, quite Transitional in its character, deeply 
recessed, of three orders in head ; under it a fine door of four orders, 
but not so rich as that on the opposite side. Tower must have been 
very massy ; now modernized. 

37. Olobnzaal, 8. Plechelm. — A magnificent Catholic church. 
This was the aim and object of my whole tour : it was one of those 
splendid collegiate churches, which reticulated mediaeval Holland, and 
is frequently referred to in its Ecclesiastical History.^ The distance 
cannot he more than sixty miles from Assen. But it took two days to 
perform : the roads are a mere track, — sometimes not that, — over a 
boundless heath, and so deep in sand that the horses can hardly ever 
get out of a walking pace. The only conveyance is a wagon : the 
only sleeping-place (at Koeverden,) a mere pothouse. Oldenzaal is 
indeed well worth a visit ; but the right way to get at it is to take 
the Miineter and Emden Railway as far as Salzbergen, whence a car- 
riage will convey you in three, hours and a half to your destination. 

^ See for example, Neale's Jansenist Church of HoUand, page 141. 

A Batch of Churchei in Overijssel and Friealand. 165 

Originally a very plain, solemn, simple Romanesque building ; with 
apsidal chancel of one bay, and eastern apses to transepts. At present 
it has also a large Flamboyant south aisle, and a Middle-Pointed eastern 
addition, with a Middle-Pointed north chapel and chancel. Choir, three 
bays. 1st and 2nd merely vaulted, with simple cross vaulting. 3rd wall- 
arch, Romanesque. And this 3rd was the end of the original church, 
the 1st (and 2nd) being Middle-Pointed additions. In this addition, 
windows, north and south, are of three Middle-Pointed lights, with very 
elegant tracery. Apse, trigonal ; central windows now alone remain 
unblocked ; three lights, with pretty tracery. The new part of choir 
distinctly marked on outside. The old chancel had two clerestory cir« 
colar-headed lights on each side, beside apse. Altar, modem and 
vulgar. North chapel, east window, and two on north side, of two 
trefoiled lights with quatrefoil in head. North transept, Welsh vault- 
ing from circular shafts, with reeded caps. Two circular-headed lights 
in clerestory ; and low wall arches all round. Below these, outside, 
three circular-headed wall arches. Apparent traces of eastern apse 
here also — ^but Q) as a lancet has also been inserted. South transept, 
much the same, except that south windows one and two, Middle- 
Pointed, very plain, of three hghts, without tracery. Nave, properly 
speaking, three bays ; Welsh vaulting. But far below each of their 
circular arches, which reach to the roof, two very small, massy circular- 
headed arches, not half their height. The vast tympanum above, if it 
may be so called, a blank. This only on north side ; on south, what 
are here vaulting arches are cut away, leaving however traces of their 
abaci ; and the vaulting arch becomes also the real pier arch. South 
aisle Flamboyant — destroying the solemnity of the whole effect — yet 
not badly put in. Three bays, each a Flamboyant window of four ^ 
lights. Vaulting piers ; a curious attempt to assimilate themselves ' 
to the Romanesque arches. Exterior, an apse, very small, with Ro- 
manesque arcade of six arches. Two Romanesque lights unblocked, 
at east end, belonged originally to the transept, to the extremity of 
which the whole south aisle is now thrown out. Windows in north 
aisle original Romanesque ; cross arches here as pier arches. On the 
outside, a series of buildings for domestic hfe. 

Exterior : material, stone. Tower very magnificent : massy and 
lofty, with (apparently) modern pyramidal head, ending in a lantern. 
Five stages : Four lower Rpmanesque : fifth Middle-Pointed. Belfry 
windows : 3. two-lights, trefoiled, quatrefoil in head ; next stage ar- 
caded in six ; central muUion supplied by corbel ; next the same ; 
but a little ' improved' in Middle-Pointed times. The two lowest, a 
plainer arcade, as the sebond : all these arches Pointed. At west end : 
a lancet window and a Romanesque door, with a square head insertion. 
The general idea of this tower is taken from those of the cathedral of 
Munster, naturally the prototypes of this district. 

42. Sambbrgen, Hanover. (Catholic.) — A very curious little 
church : cruciform, with western tower, exceedingly small and lean-to 
transepts. The original church, Romanesque : on this a Middle-Pointed 
superstructure : apse, peotagonal : windows, of two trefoiled lights, a 
trdbii in head. Central: now blocked, and shown inside, of three 

TOL. XIX. z 

166 Cologne Cathedral. 

lights Flamboyant, vaulting throughout church cross, ribs well moulded. 
South transept has a deeply-recessed Romanesque arch at east, very 
Early, with a blocked siugle-light, very massy. A similar arch, less 
massy, in we^t. South window, Middle-Pointed, as choir. Font 
almost identical with that at Vries. No transept arch ; mere barrel- 
vaulting. North transept, apparently originally the same, but more 
defiaced ; a shapeless lancet for window. No original window in nave. 
Belfry arch, very massy. Pointed Romanesque ; belfry cross vaulted : 
church restored, with a little colour, &c, in 1 856 ; a gallery left. Outside, 
the Romanesque windows perfectly visible, single-light. On north of 
nave a Romanesque door, with a head in apex, turned to a square- 
headed one A.D., m. v. vi. Tower, disengaged, small : of 

three stages, pyramidal, bevilled into octagond spire. Curious coping 
at base of spire. Middle-Pointed belfry windows, — two lights cmq- 
foiled. West window (of two trefoiled Xights), and one Flamboyant. 
. At Salzbergen I feU into the Munster-Emden railway, and into a 
line of churches which I had visited before, and with the account of 
which I will not further trespass on your patience. 

I remain, &c 

O. A. B. 


Abchitbct's Fortixth Report rbspbctino thb Works at 
Cologne Cathedral. 

''When, in the year 1855, the outer walls of the nave and transept of the 
Cathedral had been finished, and all the vaulting-ribs of those parts and 
of the crossing had been turned, the next object lot the building operations 
was the external upright buttresses. These form the chief constituents 
of the grand system of buttresses, which have now to be erected along the 
nave and transepts, according to the example of the choir, in order to give 
them the firmness necessary for receiving the interior vaulting. Their num- 
ber is determined by that of the vaulting- shafts in the outer walls, and 
accordingly there are in the choir fourteen sets of buttresses, namely, eight 
with four arches each, and six with two ; making altogether forty-four arches. 
On the other hand, in the nave and transepts, there are twenty- six new sets 
of buttresses^ namely, — 

14 with 4 arches^ making 56 arches. 
*2 M 2 „ „ 24 „ 

26 sets altogether, with 80 arches, 

including eighteen external and ten middle upright buttresses to be erected 
now for the first time, besides four old buttresses of the choir to be restored. 
"The great extent of these nutgnificent systems of buttresses demands 
a serious expenditure of labour and building materials, so that the total costs 
were, as long ago as the year 1842, estimated at 776,480, and inclusively of 
the abutments of the arches {Bo§man$ehliis8e) on the outer walls, at 800,000 
thalers. This serves to expUdn the long duration of theprocess of building, 
which is regulated by the influx of contributions. The operations have. 

Cohgne CaiheiraL 167 

during the past year, been applied chiefly to the ad^aneement of the upright 
battressea, begun in the year 1856. 

** Onthe $(mth tide of the none the external buttretaea, which aacend regu- 
larly in graduated stages with great richness of detail, above the comioe of 
the aisle, have been lulvanced to the middle of the setond stage; and the 
middle buttresses, applied on a cruciform ground-plan, have been built up to 
an equal height. As to the south transept, we have only been able to erect 
the two buttresses and the staircases connected with them on each side of the 
great portal-window, as far as the upper arch-work of the second stage ; on the 
other hand the remaining buttresses of the transept have been necessarily 
deferred, because the seraolding required for them would have interfered 
with the nave-scaffolding ; besides that there was not room on the drawing- 
table {Zeu^KciUfodm) to proceed in laying out the other constructions at the 
same time with those previously mentioned. The vaulting-shafts towards the 
east have been completed by the requisite arch-abutments ; the old cornice, 
together with the gable-work and pinnacles, has been restored ; and the aper- 
tures for glass have been cut in the stone tracery of the windows which were 
restored in 1828 and 1829 ; for, as the completion of the building was not 
then thought of, the laborious process of cutting these apertures, as well as 
the piercing of the window-roses, was omitted. Further restoration-works 
have also been undertaken on the east side of the great south tower, and been 
carried on here particularly at the upper cornice, also at the roses and other 
tracery of the windows, and at the gables, adorned with sculptured foliage of 
extreme richness. For want of shelter to the walls of this unfinished tower 
the stones had been very much injured through the penetration of wet into 
their numerous joints, and their restoration has consequently become a work 
of great extent and labour. About twenty stonemasons have been engaged 
upon them throughout the year ; and we must proceed in like manner with- 
out intermission, because hereafter, when the arched buttresses are completed, 
no scaffolding can be applied to that part 

" On the north tide of the Cathedral, where the building, as is well known, is 
carried on for the account of the Association, the new upright buttresses of 
the nave and transept have been carried to the same height as on the south 
side ; also, during the late winter months, many stones have been hewn for them 
in the various buikiing sheds. With the exception of the two comer buttresses 
and staurcases at the north portal-front, which have received an equal degree 
of enrichment with those on the south side, all the buttresses are being 
erected, after the example of the north choir-buttresses, according to a simpli* 
fied pattern. 

** Thia simplification of the architectural forms on the north side has been 
attributed to various motives. Some think that a simpler style was adopted 
f(Nr the north side on account of its being less exposed to view than the south : 
others are of opinion that the north side was built last, and that the simplifi- 
cation of the buttresses was occasioned by a deficiency in the building funds. 
Even if considerations of expense had something to do with the matter, there 
is this objection, on constructional grounds, to the premised supposition, 
namely, that the systems of buttresses most have been reared at the same 
time on both sides, because they stand in equilibrium to each other. Mudi 
more probably, however, this simplification is owing to the circumstance that 
the north side is never irradiated except in the longest summer days, and even 
then only immediately after sunrise and shortly before sunset, and only with 
a few streaks of light ; remaining all the rest of the year in shade ; so that 
it can never present the picturesque working of beautiful effects of light, as 
the south side of the Cathedral does to the richest extent. Here then a 
greater richness of detail in the architectural treatment of the various parts of 
the oonstruction was befitting, and it has been carried out at a prodigious 
expense. It is worth remarking, however, that in the choir proper the outer 

168 Cologne Cathedral 

walls on the north and lonth sides are treated quite alike in their archi- 
tecture ; and since their erection must in any case have preceded that of the 
buttresses, (as may be proved still more strictly by several indications,) it 
is likely diat people then began to perceive that, notwithstanding the 'deli- 
cacy and richness of detail, the north side of the middle choir remained 
ineffective, for which reason they simplified the buttresses which were after- 
wards built, and thus at any rate economized the costs considerably at the 
same time. 

" The <)uestion which of the theories here proposed with respect to the 
simplification is the true one, may be left undecided ; but this i* a fact, that 
the above-described architectural treatment of the nor-th side produces an in- 
disputably advantageous effect. The usual square mouldings {Fasen) unac- 
companied by any round ones, (StaJnoerk) and hollows running up into 
simple pointed arches without the intervention of capitals, the smooth slopes 
with beautifully proportioned profiles, but unadorned with sculptured foliage 
or side-pinnacles, form agreeable transitions, and even increase the sublimity 
of these mighty constructions, viewed in their relation to the whole, as one 
can very well judge from the older buttresses of ;the choir, and may now also 
perceive from the new ones of the nave. 

*' On the west of the Cathedral progress has been made with the building 
of the north tower. At the north entrance an old flight of steps was here 
found, buried through the gradual raising of the ground-level. On account 
of its defective construction and poor design, it could only be regarded as a 
provisional work, forming part of the unfinished substructure. This con* 
sisted only of rude walls of basalt, and therefore has been completed, to- 
gether with the staircase, with new free stone, according to the plan. 

" The rebuilding of the masswe north-west comer pier, which was begun in 
the year 1856, according to a modified plan of the turret-staircase, was con- 
tinued to, an equal height with the newer middle portal-pier beside this tower, 
after that the plan drawn out for it by the undersigned, upon a competent 
ezaminalion and most careful consideration of all the archaeological, archi- 
tectural, ^d constructional conditions relating; to it, had been decided by the 
fully expij^sied opinions of the proper authonties, even apart from its impor- 
tant econo^ucal advantages, to be in all other respects well adapted for its 
purpose, and had been sanctioned by a supreme Cabinet Order of the 29th 
June, 1857. 

"The further building of the tower according to its entire plan must now be 
carried on more vigorously than, in consequence of the small amount of funds 
^nted for the purpose, it has hitherto been, in order that the piers, as yet 
insulated, may as soon as possible, by the overarching of the windows and 
bays, be connected one with another, and, next to that, with the north-west 
end pier of the nave : for the vaulting in of the latter ought to take place 
within a few years, and it therefore appears necessary to secure the stability 
in a westward direction of the above-mentioned end pier, which is 160 feet in 
height. The building up of the north tower is therefore a constructive 
necessity ; and it must previously be raised at least to the level of the top of 
the outer wall of the aisle, in order to accomplish that first horizontal con- 
nection of this skilfully arranged system of piers. In consequence of the 
large solid contents of these masses of stone, and the extraordinary richness 
of the architectural details and ornamentation, externally and internally, an 
outlay of about 110,000 thalers will be required, which must therefore be ab- 
stracted from the fund for completing the body of the church. Whether, 
after finishing the latter, it will still be possible to obtain means for proceed- 
ine with the towers, must be left to the good Genius which has hitherto pre- 
sided over the whole undertaking. 

" Besides the regular grants of the large sums from the resources of the 
State, which up to the end of the year now concluded have amounted to 

Cologne Cathedral. 169 

800,000 thalers, for the oonpletioa of the Cath^Rtl, abont $06,000 thalen 
have been raited by the persevering activity of the Cathedral-I^uilding Asso- 
ciations, inclusively of the Cathedral assessment and products of colleqitions. 
Such an event perhaps stands quite alone in the history of presept times. 
Public interest haa indeed now and then abated during the existence^ for 
nearly sixteen years, of the Central Cathedral-building Association of this 
city ; hnty while out-lying Filial Associations have, eome to an end» or become 
less active than before, the receipts have nevertheless, increased through Me 
very liberal cfrntrUnutiona vf anonymc^ societies, which for several years have 
been helping to advance the noble nndertaking^ .The good success of this 
difficult work of art finds just reeognitidaon the part of con^)etent judgesy 
while its- decidedly visible advances are contemplated with joy by the sym- 
pathising public, whose hopes are augmented to a certainty, that the gigantic 
structure^ rising day by day above the weather-stained; fragments) will,, within 
a few years, stand majestically as a finished House of God. 

'* Amid such cheering . results we cannoty> howeyari on the other hand, be 
unmindful that .they have been attained at the cost of endless toil, trouble, 
and hardships, on the part of all actively engaged therein. Many strong 
workmen, most of them, alas, in early manhood, have sunk under these con- 
tinued exertions, and, in particular, the more aapid ./ailing, away during the 
last few years has filled the director, of the work with sadmess and c^re. By 
a suitable provision and strict maintenance of precautionary regulations, 
external accidents, such as are always liable to occur whent buildings are 
carried to so great a height, are prevented as much as po8sQ>le;. and,. with the 
protection of God, )they have hecn, with few exceptions, avoided. On the 
other hand it follows from the nature of the employment, that through 
repeated chills and the unavoidable inhalatioo^of ^on^*d^sf.;:ati)id severe- 
labour, diseases of the chest are easily contracted. The great dearth during 
the past year has also operated disadvantageously, inasmuch as the young 
men have for the most part families whoqi they maintain out of their 
daily earnings, and perhaps are obliged in consequence to make shift with lesa 
nutritious food for themselves, notwithstanding that the wages distributed 
after working hours have been considerably raised during the winter in com- 
parison %ith preceding times. It is worthy of remark that the older work- 
men have continued healthy, and that several of those who were employed 
during the restoration-works are still efficient. Anton Stegmayer alone, the 
veteran of the stonemasons' work-shed, departed this life in the course of last 
winter, and deserves an honourable mention in this report, inasmuch as, with 
singular fidelity in his vocation, he approved himself a trusty practical man. 
He was at first a common stonemason to the Cathedral, but from the year 
1832 a polishing stonemason ; and as such he rendered very good service in 
arranging and putting together the stones during the extensive restoration- 
works at the Choir : he had the good fortune to continue working in the 
same manner during the building of the nave and the south portal from its 
foundation until the solemn erection of the floriated cross on tne drd of Oc- 
tober, 1865, after which he was soon taken ill, and expired on the 7th of 
January, 1857* 

" On an average there have been 280 men continually employed on the 
building, both in summer and winter. The number of workmen who have 
died since the year 1842, amounted, at the end of last year, to 96 ; of whom 
2 were clerks of the works; 62, stonemasons; 3, apprentices; 1, a mason; 
7, carpenters; 1, a tiler; and 19, labourers. 

** The Cathedral work-shed has by degrees been renovated, and continues 
still to be so, since many accomplished workmen quit it for various parts of the 
country, and as clerks of works, builders, or skilled stonemasons, make 
themselves useful at the numerous gothic structures which are in course 
Ot erection in many places. The Cathedral work-shed is a practical training 

170 Memorial Eeclmology. 

■chool for them, and it it ebeering to be able to report on thtt occasion that 
the Ardiiteet now appointed Professor in the Imperial and Royal Academy of 
Arts at Milan, Herr Friedrich Schmidt, acquired his professional knowledge 
in that shed. He had been at the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart, and 
in 1843, when eighteen years old, entered our Cathedral work-shed. He was 
at first employed in stoneHnitting, then at the drawing-table in setting out 
the ehablonen^ and parts of the constructions at full sixe, afterwards as a 
polisher, particularly for carrying on the work of arrangement at the building 
of the portal on the north side of the Cathedral; and was next stationed in 
the drawing-office. After passing an examination in the meantime, he was in 
the year 1864 entrusted with the office of a clerk of the works, and in this 
exhibited pleasing endences of his abihty, in like manner as, in the examina- 
tion for domestic architects, which he passed with the p^eatest credit at 
Berlin in the autumn of 1856, he exhibited his higher architectural capacity. 
The best wishes with regard to his new calling follow him from the Cathediml 
work-shed, always dear to him, and from its mrector. 

*' Respectug the adornment of the Cathedral during the past year, exter- 
nally with sculptured figures, which have been executed at the south-portal at 
the expense of His Royal Highness the Prince of Prussia, as also in the 
interior of the church with a new altar, embroidered hangings and stained 
^ass windows, all that is needful has already been said in the last Report. 
The additional sacristy completed in the noith transept, under the retired 
anciewt vault of the former record^Jice, by the enclosing of the side walls^ 
has in the course of last summer been taken into use. 

** (Signed) Zwirnbr, 

" Cathedral Arehitect, &e. 
** Cologne, lOM January, 1858." 


The Sultan has made a gift towards the memorial church at Constan- 
tinople of a sufficient piece of ground, admirably situated in the main 
street of Galata, not far from the Tower of Gkdata. Mr. Surges re- 
turned from Constantinople last year strongly prepossessed in favour of 
this site, towards the acquisition of which the good offices of Lord Strat- 
ford de Redclifie and of Lord Clarendon were very efficacious. Mr. 
Burges will revise his design with reference to this site and the actual 
money in the hands of the committee, in order that the work may be 
without delay commenced. 

llie StafiPord memorial committee has appointed Mr. Slater its archi- 
tect — a post for which he has peculiar claims, both from his own 
merits, and as a native of that county with which, as well as with 
Limerick, Mr. Stafford was connected. Mr. Slater has since his appoint- 
ment visited Limerick, to inspect and report upon the cathedral. We 
shall give the results arrived at in a subsequent number. It was de- 
cided that painted glass in the east window of th^ church should in the 
first instance be provided. 

> The trsnalator has not been able to discover the meaning of this word* 



Sbason alter season the same dreary complaint meets us, as often as 
ever we reach that annual topic, the architecture in Trafalgar Square* 
headed as heretofore hy a title to which we have adhered for the sake of 
consistency long after its appropriateness has disappeared. As usual, 
the north and part of the east and west walls of one of the smaller 
rooms of the Royal Academy are hung round with a scanty display of 
architectural drawings. That in this limited and fortuitous exhibition 
ecclesiology should happen to be less fully represented than upon 
other occasions, is of course only the fortune of war. A large space 
of the available wall is devoted to the perspectives of Messrs. Coe's and 
6arling*9 first prize designs for the once-promised War and Foreign 
Offices, and Messrs. Banks and Barry's (or to drop circumlocution, Mr* 
0. Barry's) second prize design for the first named building. No one 
can complain of this. The most conspicuous design however in the 
collection, is one for the concentration of all the offices, bearing the name 
of Sir Charles Barry (974)» and sufficiently resembling, though im- 
proved from, the one which public reviewers attributed at the competi- 
tion to Mr. £. M. Barry, to prove that the advice of that gentleman*s 
eminent father was not a stranger to his tender for the prize ;— a tender 
we are not afraid to say far more deserving a prize than many which 
obtained that distinction. Against the adoption of Italian as the style 
of this project we of course protest, although it appeals to the eco- 
nomic instincts of the people through the fact of its incorporating the 
existing *' Treasury '* into the pile, elevated by a Mansarde roof into a 
little more life than the actual fragment. A circular cupola replaces the 
quadrangular one of the competition. But this design has the two great 
merits of concentration, and of providing for a riverside garden — albeit 
that from its working into the "Treasury," and dealing with the 
** Parade *' as a Carousel, it pushes the building so far southward as 
serves to intercept that continuity of pleasance which ought to join 
the Riverside to S. James's park. 

Among ecdesiological architects we may name Mr. Slater and Mr. 
Street, who respectively exhibit (063) Kilmore cathedral and the rifa- 
dmento of S. Dionis Backchurch (1004), the trickery of colour being 
in either case dispensed with. Mr. Teulon's Holy Trinity Church, 
Hastings (1050), and Mr. Norton's church at Highbridge (087), we 
have akeady noticed. 

Mr. Scott appears in (1057) a drawing by Mr. J. D. Wyatt of his 
new Museum at Pippbrook House, Dorking, in which the dull insi- 
pidity of the building to which he had to join it seems to have chilled 
the conception. 

That compilation, the Roman Catholic Cathedral at Salford, by 
Messrs. Weighbum and Hadfield, with its choir fittings, due to their 
able partner Mr. Goldie (1058), has hardly justice done to them in a 
heavy water colour by Mr. H. W. Brewer. 

Mr. C. Hambridge presents us with the exterior (1080) and the 

172 Architectural Room of the Royal Academy, 1858. 

iaterior (1060) of a church proposed to be erected at Highbury. The 
outside (showing the apse) has very little to distinguish it from any 
other moderately sized cruciform church of random masonry in First* 
Pointed, with a quintuplet at the west end rather awkwardly intruded 
on by a lofty gabled portal. But internally — if the church is to be 
carried out as here designed — there will be much to arrest attention. 
The high chancel screen we of course commend. We rather doubt 
however how fax the general dimensions justify the procession path 
which runs round the apse, screened from it by open percloses between 
the pillars. A procession path ought at least to be surmounted by a 
space of clerestory wall ; and if a triforium be found to boot, so much 
the better. But there the chancel roof, of wood or plaster groining, 
comes down upon the arches, the circular clerestory windows standing in 
the vertical wall, bounded by the wall ribs. Polychrome is shown on 
and about the chancel ; but if we understand the drawing, the walling 
of the nave and aisles is to consist of random work rubbed down to 
a smooth surface, and so presenting a fantastic network of crooked 
and curved cement lines. We can no way approve of such unartistic 

Mr. Crapp (982), Mr. F. G. Lee (984), and Mr. James (1053), give 
rival designs submitted in competition for a proposed New Church at 
Tottenham. In Mr. Crapp's conception, the nave assumes the dimen- 
sions of a huge auditorium, and the aisles are reduced to the height 
and width of mere passages. Mr. Lee, dispensing with aisles alto- 
gether, gives a cruciform structure of the Shottesbrook or Poynings 
type, somewhat crushed by the heavy central tower and broach. 

Mr. Penson's church, just completed, at Wrexham (1016), exhibits 
at the junction of the south transept and vestry, capped by a little 
stone spirelet, too large an expanse of unbroken walling. 

Mr. 6ibson*s Bodelwyddan Church at S. Asaph (1042), now being 
erected for Lady Willoughby de Broke, is a prescription Middle- Pointed 
building, with (at least) a south aisle gabled, a chancel duly smaller 
than the nave, two pinnacles flanking the east end of the latter, and a 
western steeple. 

Mr. P. Webb's design for the interior of a town church, width of 
nave 37 feet (1053), shows in the manipulation of the design great 
dexterity in the imitation of Mr. Street's style ; and in the building 
itself study profitably made in his school. The Italianising roof, tre- 
foiled in section, with the massive spanning arches of stone at intervals, 
is a bold conception, although in execution it might prove rather heavy. 
The chancel is of less width than the nave, affording room for a two- 
faced organ to the north, and to the south of the arch an entrance into 
the vestry from the nave. We have excellent hopes of Mr. Webb, 
only let him avoid while young the snare of excessive originality. 

Mr. Sorby's somewhat similar conception of a spacious church 
(1077) is deficient in grace; and Mr. P. E. Masey's design for a 
church (1061) is a conglomeration of '* tags*' borrowed from the pro- 
gressive architects, and not well put together. This gentleman does 
much better in a design for a mansion (988). 

Mr. E. M. Barry's New Grammar School, in course of erection at 

The Late Mr. Minion. 178 

Woodhouee Moor, Leeds (1018), is a spacious and not undignified 
pile of the Franco- Gk>thic, which convenience points out for such con- 
structions. Its fault is that it is rather too regular or else too irre- 
gular ; the main mass consisting of a receding centre rising over a 
cloistered passage, fringed with gables and flanked by projecting 
wings, to one only of which a steepled portal is appended on the 
inner face. 

The resources which the foreign Chateau of the fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries offers towards the picturesque handliug of pointed 
country houses, make themselves felt in more than one drawing, out 
of which we must select Menley Manor, Farnborough (986), by Mr. 
Glutton. If any thing indeed, the roofs are almost too steep. But if 
a fanlt, it is one on the right side. 

Mr. Digby Wyatt's East India Museum, constructed in Leadenhall 
Street, in the Mahommedan style of Hindoetan (1023), is a graceful 

Mr. J. Leighton's design for a Library Window, to be executed 
upon single plates of glass, and depicting Outtenburg and Caxton — 
{977), fails, as might be supposed. If the progress of art is destined 
to evolve " monopinacic" painted glass, we have not yet got ^e men 
nor the means to solve the problem. It will not only need the artist to 
formalise new rules of execution, but the chemist to elaborate new pro* 
cesses of enamel staining. Till we are sure of the co-operation of both 
these personages, we rest content with the beaten track. 

Before we conclude, we must notice the unusually large display of 
classical restoration which this year's exhibition has elidted, including 
Mr. Ashpitel's Ancient Rome ; Professor Ck>ckerell*s Mausoleum at Ha- 
licarnassus ; the Roman Wlla and town house by his son ; and the in- 
terior of the Parthenon, by Mr. Falkener. Learned exercitadons such 
as these prove nothing of course as to the practical popularity of the 
ancient styles for present use. 


Wb have again the task of recording the loss of on? whose services to 
eccleuology demimd a grateful notioe at our hands. Our pages have 
sucoessivdy oootained memoirs of Gerente, Pugin, and Carpenter ; and 
now the fourth obituary tribute must be paid to the zealous, the muaifi* 
cent, the good, and modest Herbert Minton. Though he was4x>n8picuoac 
as a practical man rather than an artist, and in one branch only of church 
decQcationy it may yet be asserted tiiiat the services which Mr. Minton 
rendered to the cause of eoclesiology axe not to be measured by the 
extent of his own productions. His mission was to spread taste ( and 
while directly aiding it in one particular only, he indirectly gave the 
impube to avei^ otjber manifestatioa ; and we have little doubt that 
the " pavement from Minton's " in many a village chuvch has beoi tht 
first atep which ^[>ened out the road and showed the way to other and 

VOL. XIX. ▲ A 

174 The Late Mr. Minton. 

greater reBtorations. Upon the munificence which our friend never 
wearied of showing in offering the productions of his furnaces to the 
honour of the sanctuary, no need is there that we should expatiate. It 
is proverbial, we need hardly note, that the earliest object to which 
Mr. Minton's attention was directed was the literal reproduction of 
those encaustic tiles which the revival of mediaeval art brought into 
favour. He was not at the outset alone in the race, but he soon dis- 
tanced all competitors. As the resources of ecclesiology opened out, 
it became evident that the employment of polychromatic tiles need not 
be confined to the pavement, but afforded a durable and satisfactory 
system of decoration for vertical surfaces likewise, reredoses, &c. At 
the same time it was also patent that mediaeval precedent need 
not be exclusively followed, but that there was ample scope for de- 
velopment. This consciousness gave an impetus to the manufactory 
with which Mr. Minton was ready, willing, and able to cope. Fortu- 
nately too Stoke- upon-Trent was situated very few miles from Alton 
Towers, and Pugin accordingly was a frequent visitor at Mr. Minton's, 
and aided much in developing the new processes. We have heard it 
from his own lips that when he first began his manufacture of tiles, in 
distinction to porcelain, his partners remonstrated at what they imagined 
would be an unprofitable attempt Who was in the right time soon 
made manifest. 

But Mr. Minton^s generosity did not confine itself to the numerous 
gifts he made to distant churches. No man now-a-days is more truly 
a squire than the great manufacturer. He has his body of dependents, 
whose weal or woe he is able to promote as completely as Sir Roger 
de Coverley would sway his village, and in the case of Mr. Minton 
a dense population had gathered round his pleasant residence of Harts- 
hill, crowning a hill outside the fogs of Stoke. For their use, some 
sixteen or eighteen years ago, he built and he endowed church, schools 
and parsonage. This church, an early one of Mr. Scott's, is, of course, 
very diflTerent from what he would now produce : but, for its date, is 
most creditable, with clerestoried nave and aisles and well developed 
chance], and details taken from the mother church of Lichfield, which 
it likewise recalls by the red sandstone of which it is constructed. There 
are open seats and reverent fittings inside, a rich pavement of tiles in 
the chancel of course not being forgotten. 

We have only spoken hitherto of Mr. Minton's ecclesiological good 
deeds. 1851 and 1855 showed that it was not to Sevres or Dresden, 
but to Stoke-upon-Trent that men had to look for the revival of great 
old days of porcelain, and in particular Minton*s Neo-Majolica, won the 
surprise and approbation of Europe. In proof of Mr. Minton's well- 
earned popularity, when shattered health compelled him to abandon 
business and retire to Torquay, there was but one feeling in all his 
town, to found some institution which should, by the social benefits 
which it conferred, embalm the memory of Herbert Minton in the way 
that he liked best and practised most often — ^that of doing good. 
Thus honoured and loved alike by rich and poor, by artist and by 
operative, he lived a happy and useful life, andhis name will, we feel 
certain, not be easily forgotten, while the churches stand, whose 
beauty has been enhanced by the productions of his taste and energy. 



Church music * is a sabject on which it is difficult to find two men like 
mioded. There is, indeed, a general agreement that the singing of 
God's praises in a large number of our churches is not what it ought 
to be : but then every body has r. plan of his own for its improvement, 
from the youngest curate up (or down) to " Habitans in 8icc6,'' Now 
we do not think this diversity of opinion an unmixed evil. The ques- 
tion is obviously one on which considerable latitude may be allowed, 
without serious prejudice to the cause, which, we may presume, all 
have at heart. The whole subject requires deep investigation ; and 
this, if fairly and impartially conducted, will, we may hope, in process 
of time, reduce the number of conflicting theories, and furnish some 
intelligible and consistent principles, to guide the course of present 
and future reformers of Church music. 

We think that it has been too much forgotten, what the real ques- 
tion for investigation is. Yet the discussion can, evidently, make but 
little way, until something like unanimity is attained on the premises. 

We ourselves should state the points to be determined thus : — 

Given, a ritual, the greater part of which is to be vocally joined in 
by the people ; psalms, and hymns, and canticles, to be sung, not by a 
few trained voices, but by a congregation of men, women, and chil- 
dren, of various musical capacities: required a style of music, and 
of singing, which, satisfying at once the musical and the devotional 
sense, shall be the most fitting vehicle for the language of this united 

This, in our opinion, is the problem which Church-music reformers 
have to solve. And in attempting its solution we shall soon discover 
that mere theory will help us but little, but that we must have re- 
course to the test of experience. 

It is in this conviction that we look with much hopefulness at 
the Choir Festival movement, (as it may be called,) which appears to 
be gaining ground among us. We consider these meetings to have a 
value beyond the obvious one of affording a stimulus to the cause of 
Church music. They seem to us to present the best — almost indeed 
the only — means of deciding the question referred to above — •• What 
style of music is best adapted to the circumstances of the English 
Church in the nineteenth century ?'* 

The honour of having inaugurated the movement in favour of 
Choir Festivals belongs to the diocese of Lichfield, a report of whose 
second annual meeting was given in the Eccleaiologist for last Decem- 
ber. But the choirs of the county of Nottingham, in following the lead 
of their neighbours in Stafifordshire and Derbyshire, have themselves 
set an example, which, we hope and believe, will have a greater and 
more beneficial influence on Church music than any similar demon- 
stration that we have yet seen. 

We shall not easily forget the sights and sounds of that ^8^h of 
April at Southwell. We will not now dwell on the venerable minster. 

176 The Chair Festival at Southwell 

with its dim and solemn Romanesque nave, its rich and noble First- 
Pointed choir, and above all, its exquisite chapter-house, with its incom- 
parable carved work and tracery, of the finest Middle-Pointed. Our 
present concern is with the Divine services as they were performed on 
this day ; and these we at once proceed to describe. 

The arrangements were as follow : Matins, Litany, and Holy Ck)m- 
munion, at 11. Evensong, at 4.30. 

At a few minutes before eleven a surpliced procession, two hundred 
strong, marshalled in the chapter- house, moved down the north aisle, 
and, meeting the fiishop of the diocese at the west door, preceded him 
in two lines — open order — up the nave. The effect of this, and of the 
122nd Psalm to the 5th tone sung in unison, the organ accompanying, 
was extremely good, — would have been better had the clergy in the 
procession raised their voices as vigorously as did their choirs. 

The music chosen for the morning service was as follows : — 

Preees ) 

Venite | TaUis. 

Communion Office . . . . ) 

Psalms Tumeff in A. (Single Chant.) 

jubuar : : : : : : :fBM(smgiech«t.) 

Litany: from "The Brief Directory of Plain Song." 
Anthem—If ye love Me . . TaUis. 
Introit : The Hundredth Psalm, O. Y. 

It wfll be seen by this programme, that in the morning service the 
** Anglican*' element pre^^ed. Our readers know already that our 
sympathies do not lie in that direction. Nevertheless the selec- 
tion was judiciously made, and being sung with much steadiness and 
precision, afforded a very fair example of that kind of music. The 
Litany from Mr. Helmore's '* Directory" was in every respect satis- 
factory ; more so, perhaps, than the Preees of Tallis, which, fine as 
they are, we can hardly think suited to a service of this sort. We 
should advise that on another occasion the arrangement of the Brief 
Directory be followed throughout, and that, if harmonized, the melody 
be strongly thrown out by tenor as well as treble voices. Tallis* exquisite 
little anthem, " If ye love Me,'* was taken rather too fast, and its exe- 
cution was perhaps deficient in delicacy, which is no more than might 
have been expected. The Old Hundredth, sung in unison with oigan 
harmony, was extremely grand. 

Of the Communion Service we shall say nothing, except that the 
adoption of an ad libitum polytonic recitation by the celebrant (the 
Bishop of Lincoln) was distressingly incongruous. Can it be really 
and seriously imagined that there is anything undignified in the use of 
the monotone ? Some notion of this kind would seem to have taken 
possession of the muds of the greater number of our bishops and 
cathedral "dignitaries," who (wiUi a few exceptions) invariably do 
their best to spoil any choral service in which they may have to take 

We have now only to describe the evening serviofi, which to our 

The Presence of Nfm^Commiaiicants at Holy Communion. 177 

mind was undoubtedly the great BUcoesB of the day. Again there vaa 
a procession before service, still more effective than the morning one. 
With the exception of Tallis' Responses, the whole of the music at 
Evensong was taken from Mr. Helmore's Psalter and Canticles* and 
our own Hymnal Noted. In other words this service was (and was 
intended to be) a fair and complete trial how far Gregorian music 
is suited to our Prayer Book offices. It was an experiment that had 
certainly never hitherto been tried on anything like the scale of the 
present attempt. But its value, as an experiment, consisted not only 
in its imposing scale, but also and mainly, in the manner in which the 
music was appointed to be executed. We mean in the prohibition 
of vocal harmony ; men and boys all singing the melody, accompanied 
by the organ. The psalms and canticles thus poured forth by 350 
voices, (the instrumental harmonies being very beautiful and judici- 
onsly varied,) were grand beyond description. And the hymn {Veni 
Creator Spiritus) as arranged in the Hymnal Noted from the old Salis« 
bury version was most strikingly effective. 

We have no manner of doubt that this style of music, and this mode 
of performance, are the best that have yet been devised for congrega- 
tional worship; the best suited, therefore, to our present services, 
which are so essentially congregational. And we are happy to say 
this opinion of ours was shared (quoad this particular service, at least,) 
by a large proportion of persons quite competent to judge, who were 
present at Southwell on the 28th of April. It was gratifying to hear 
the almost universal expressions of commendation, even on the part of 
those who had previously execrated and vilified " those horrid Grego- 
rians !" All appeared impressed with the grand simplicity and hearti- 
ness of the old music. One could not help feeling that here was no 
studied display of nicely balanced parts, which the addition or subtrac- 
tion of a few voices would seriously impair, but a simple strain, in which 
a whole congregation whether large or small might join, with pre- 
cisely the same effect, the difference being merely in the volume 
of sound. That there were a few faults of execution cannot be 
denied, but they were just such as every assembly of a like promis- 
cuous nature would necessarily be liable to. As a whole the service 
was most creditable both to those concerned in its promotion, and 
to the assembled choirs. We only trust the example will not be 


Ths great importance of the question whether the practice of the 
presence of non-communicants during the Eucharistic Office has the 
sanction of Catholic Antiquity, leads us to comply with the request of 
more than one correspondent that we should enrich our pages with a 
reprint of a most valuable opinion of the late Dr. Mill on that subject. 

178 The Presence of Ntm-Qnnmunicante at Holy Communion. 

The point has been practically settled in all churches where ritoal 
propriety and dignity have been especially studied ; but the question 
has been again raised in connection with those Diocesan FestLvals of 
Parochial Choirs, which were inaugurated last year at Lichfield, and 
which are likely to become common in other dioceses. Our present 
number records a most successful Festival of this kind held at South- 
well Minster for part of the diocese of Lincoln. It is obvious that for 
such Festivals to be curtailed of the highest act of Christian wor- 
ship would be most lamentably a step in the wrong direction : and 
scarcely less fatal would it be for the celebration on such occasions to 
be deprived of its fullest musical accompaniments, owing to a scruple 
as to the presence, during the Holy Sacrifice, of some choir men or 
choir boys who might happen to be unable, or unwilling, to communi- 
cate. The question therefore is likely to be fully discussed, and we 
shall hope to give an argument on the subject in our next number. 
Meanwhile, by the kind permission of the editor of the " Tracts on 
Catholic Unity. By Members of the Church of England/* (London, 
Darling,) we republish from No. 7 of that series — (although the ori- 
ginal is not yet out of print) — a most important letter showing how far 
the practice of non-communicants remaining during the celebration of 
the Holy Eucharist has the sanction of Catholic Antiquity. It is no 
secret that the author of this letter was Dr. Mill, though it was pub- 
lished at the time anonymously. 

••Thb Prbsencb op Non-communtcants at the Celebration of 
THE Holy Eucharist, how far a Catholic Practice : com- 


" [The following Letter , originally toritten in reply to a private inquiry for 
advice on the subject of which it treats, is now published with the consent of 
the learned author."] 

*' I hardly know how to apologize to you for being so long in replying to 
your interesting and important letter received in the middle of April. To 
return either an ill-considered or an undecided answer was felt to be a frus- 
tration of your purpose in writing to me ; and 1 was not for some time in a 
condition to answer otherwise : the apparent contradiction of trustworthy testi- 
monies having put me in some doubts on one material part of the question, — 
the fact as to the practice of the Ante-Nicene Church in respect to exclusion 
during the celebration of the Holy Mysteries. This doubt was not removed 
by a long conference which I had in the interval with .... and 1 could not 
renaove it without a research, for which it was impossible for me to find time 
amidst my unusually heavy business at ... in May. I have availed myself 
of my first breathing- time in Whitsuntide to make up my mind on that par- 
ticular matter, — which I have done hy no very extensive search here. I now 
send you the result, with the rest of the reply, of which this is an essential 
part I only regret that I could not foresee all sufficiently in April to send you 
then a few lines to say when you might expect a reply from me. 

" The Church requires all the faithful baptized to be Communicants ; and 
of old provided Holy Communion every day : while from the very nature of 
tlie thing, the prescript of the service does not embrace — but rather ignores — 
the case of those who do not avail themselves on every occasion of their full 
privilege. But this case, which must have existed, and to a considerable de- 
gree, from the very first, was certainly not the object of prohibition or penalty. 
The utmost rigour to which the most ancient discipline proceeded, was to 

The Presence of Non-Communicants at Holy Communion. 179 

ezcommanicate those who, /or three successive Sundays, did not participate 
once at least. The question then is, how was it with the persons that satisfied 
this rule during the other twenty ante-meridian services of the period, to 
which the Holy Communion was attached. Were they (who refrained moat 
frequently on account of defect in the special preparation they thought essen- 
tial-— as fasting and other abstinences, which would make daily Communion 
an impossibility to the many — were they, I say) obliged necessarily to absent 
themselves throughout from these prayers, the principal ones of each day ? 
Or, if they went, to withdraw before the celebration? 

"My present conviction is, that neither of these was the rule. It was only 
the Clergy concerned in the administration of the Eucharist that were ob- 
nosious to censure and punishment if they did not also communicate : they 
were so on the express ground of their giving scandaU and exciting suspicion 
of tke celebrating Priest, or the validity of the consecration by him; while 
even with respect to th&se, the same Apostolical Canon, the 8th, tells us, that 
the censure and punishment proceeds only on the Clerk failing to show just 
and reasonable cause €t\oyo¥ cdrlay, why he did not participate : implying of 
course therefore, that such reasons were possible even with those who were 
not only attending, but officiating. With respect to the rest — the laity, or 
such Clergy as might be in the congregation — the practice, if they did not 
communicate, was rather to stay throughout the celebration to the end, than 
to introduce disorder {itra^lw) into the congregation^ and show aversion from 
tke Communion, by retiring before. So Bnlsamon and Zonaras interpret the 
9th Apostolical Canon, as well as another which illustrates it, while going 
over the same ground with it and the 8th and 10th, viz., the 2nd Canon of 
the Council of Antioch, holden a.d. 341. [Bevereg. Pandect. Vol. I., 
pp. 5, 6, 431.] Balsamon says, that it was with a view of giving effect to 
these Canons, and obliging even those who did not communicate to stay 
tfaronghout the Service, that the custom was afterwards introduced of dis- 
tributing, after the close of the Communion, to those who had been unable to 
partake of it {raiis iiij ^uvatiivois fieraXafiur r&r knpivrwv fiwmiplwv) what was 
called the *Arri9»po¥ — viz. the bread blessed but unconsecrated, which re- 
mained over and above what -was required for the Communion, of the loaves 
eontribttted for it by the faithful. 

'* Now this undoubtedly became an abuse, when, in the declining fervour of 
Christians, that came to be considered, as a normal proceeding, which was 
originally an exceptional one, and which from its nature ought ever to be so 
considered with respect to the Body of the Faithful in Christ, whatever 
might be the number of those that made the exception. It was a great 
abnse when that Pants EulogitB which S. Augustin esteemed proper food for 
Catechumens only, who could not join the Sacred Mysteries, came to be accepted 
by baptized persons habitually, as an ^Aprllhtpoy in the highest sense, i.e., as an 
actual substitute for the Afipoy of the Lord's Body. It was a crying abuse 
when habitual unworthiness, not supposed to disqualify from attendance at 
the service, was made a self-allowed reason for refraimng from actual Com- 
munion, while witnessing it. It had come to something uke this, as early as 
the time of S. Chrysostom : and hence his invective against the last-men- 
tioned plea in the passage yon quote from one of the Homilies on the Epistle 
to the Bphesians— saying, among other strong things, that it were better to 
stay away, than to attend in that spirit. 

*' But it is surely erroneous to infer from these words of S. Chrysostom, 
that Non-Communicants Were not allowed to stay. It is just as if one were 
to infer from the invective of a zealous English preacher against people 
turning their backs on the Holy Sacrament— that the English Church did not 
allow anybody to do so. Bingham does not draw that inference : but I think 
he exaggerates the difference of sentiment in this matter, between the age of 
Chrysostom and that immediately suoceediog. (Book xv., c. 4, s. 1, 2, 3.) 

180 The Pre$ence of Ntm^Communieants at Holy Communion. 

I donbt whether there was any difference at all in the prescript of the two 
periods thus contrasted: and as to spirit, the Fathers of the two would 
speak much the same. I can fancy e^en those who wished to secure the 
presence of the whole people during the Eucharistic Service, pressing these 
same considerations on the rare Communicants among them — to show them 
the inconsistency of what they did with what they left undone — to induce 
them not to go backward by absenting themselves from the Prayers, but on- 
ward by joining the Communion. 

" With respect to the theological rationale of this. The Holy Euchariat 
is a Commemorative Sacrifice, as well as a Feast on the One Great Sacrifice : 
but as it is the former simply in order to the latter, I think you had reason 
to demur to the expression, that ' it is no ground for losing onk blessing, 
that we lose another/ Yet as the Blo^less Offering of our praise and 
thanksgiving in union with the prescribed memorials of the Sacrifice, that 
procures them acceptance — was ever tbouglit by the Church to be beneficial 
to others beside the offerers and participators — whether absent or present— I 
would not conceive those persons to be excluded from its benefit, whoae 
presence is intended to express their sympathy with the act — who feel 
strongly that it is better to be with the Communicants, than with those who 
turn their backs upon them, while prevented from any cause satisfactory to 
their own conscience, and not offensive to others, from participating with the 
reverence they feel due to the Body and Blood of the Lord. I cannot but 
think they are included, if they are duly sensible of the great blessing and 
privilege of actual Communion, and are not in any way seeking excuses for 
standing aloof from it: and (I would add,) if they are not seeking new and 
unauthorized modes of approaching the Divine Majesty, — seeking through a 
sight of the Elements, what is only promised to the manducation of them. 

" With respect to other Churches, and the Eastern Churches in particular — 
it is truly said, that they do not forbid the presence of those who do not 
pro hae vice communicafe. I was present one Maundy Thursday, at a Com- 
munion in the Patriarchal Church of the Copts, at Cairo — when, while there 
were several Participants, there were several also who did not partake, though 
joining the prayers. I administered the Holy Communion myself, according 
to our Anglican Ritual in Arabic, to a Syrian Christian who had intended to 
have been present at the entire service (being Whitsunday,) without partici- 
pating, on account of a disability in ritual preparation, which he whispered to 
me, but I overcame his scruple. He would have thought it iraeverent to 
retire before the celebration. 

" With respect to our own Church, . . . *s remarks on the alternative be* 
fore ns at the Reformation, and the choice actually made, are well worthy 
of attention ; though I cannot join him in thinking that the course taken, 
was a virtual denial of the Eucharistie Sacrifice. The actual issue of tfattt 
choice I think with him, to be the great opprobrium of our Church ; viz., the 
Missa Sicca thus truly identified with what was denounced as a great abuse 
by the best doctors of the age in which it sprang up. The fruits with us are 
as bad, thoueh very different : but I should doubt greatly, whether our beat 
step out of Uiem is that which he advocates. I own that while the compari- 
•on with the PrimiHve Church makes me very well pleased that our Church 
has never commanded the absenoe of those who do not participate, when 
many of the Puritan school were for enforcing such an order, — I should be 
stKNi|^ opposed, under our present circumstances, to inviting their pre- 
aenee am iioic'COMMUNICant8. This could hardly be without a direct 
antagonism to Chrysostom in that argument of his Homily, which no 
CatlKilic ahould ventuie. 

" But I nmat close here — reserving my remarks as to the analogy of the 
Sacrifices of the Old Dispensation. 

*' Once more begging pardon for the long delay of this anawer, such as it is, 

" I remain, dear ^" 



A ooRRBSPONDBifT gives the following account of a most interesting 
litui^cal discovery : — 

" The trustees of the British Museum have purchased a perfect copy 
of the Hereford Missal for £300. The book is said to have belonged 
to the Franciscans, and to have been carried abroad with them, and to 
have been brought back with other books, and kept packed up ; no one 
knowing anything about them. 

" It would seem that this Order in England is now reduced to three 
or four, and is not to be kept up ; and leave is said to have been ob- 
tained of the proper authorities to sell their property, and apply the 
proceeds to the necessities of their communion. 

" A gentleman well learned in ritual matters was consulted by the 
Roman Catholic Bishop of the district, who told him that there was 
among these books a missal plainly not of Sarum use, which was of 
course concluded at once to be a foreign use, until the erasures of the 
references to the Pope, and the name of the book of ' Helford,' (as it 
appears in the title and colophon,) were mentioned. This raised, of 
course, Mr. Maskell's curiosity : the book was sent for immediately, 
and the nature of the treasure soon ascertained. It is a handsome 
copy, and in good order, except that some one has made private pro- 
perty of the binding." 


To the Editor of the EccUsiologist. 

Mt dbab Mr. Editor, — ^There can be no doubt in the mind of any 
person who understands the subject, and has a correct taste in Church 
music, that the system of organ bailding, as commonly practised in our 
country, still needs reformation, notwithstanding the decided improve* 
ment that has taken place since the beginning of the present century. 
Without meaning to condemn indiscriminately any class of persons, it 
must nevertheless be allowed that self-interest on the part of organ- 
builders, love of display on that of organists, and ignorance on that of 
Church-goers in general, have combined to promote a very vicious state 
of things, from which we are only partially recovering. The Rector 
of Upton Scudamore, — whose book you reviewed in your last number, 
— ^being not even an amateur organist, is free from the various kinds of 
bias to which organ-builders and organists are liable ; while he has by 
study raised himself considerably above the level of popular knowledge 
with respect to organ- building : he is therefore in several ways qualified 
for the part of a reformer* I should be glad if I had nothing to say 

▼OL. SIX. B B 

182 The Gloria in Excekis. 

about his book except in the way of commendation ; but I feel obliged 
to assert, in supplement to your own remarks, that Mr. Baron's views 
want that mellowing which larger experience alone can give. He evi- 
dently does not nnderstand what stops and contrivances in the organ 
are essential, or at least highly useful, for '* regulating and supporting 
tbe singing," sad what, on the other hand, serve only for embellish- 
ment ; and therefore he rejects several of the former along with the 
ktter. While he rceommends extreme simplicity as to the ncnnber of 
ttops^ &c., be is indined, like some Quaker ladies m matters of dresB» 
to be rather extimvagant as to the quality of the roateriala employed. 
He also ma(ke« very scanty provision for the congregation joming in the 
singing. I shall be ready to make good these aesertions, il required ; 
hfOit it will ocGtipy some pages to establish them clearly, except to or- 
^nists, who, if ^y have read Mr. Baron's book, will readily assent 
to what i say. In a fiiture letter I may be able to n^ake some detailed 
remarks — scientific rather than aestbetica) — ^upon the organs of which 
views and descriptions are given, and to ofiet my own ideas respecting 
the simplest kind of organ which it is advisable to ereet in village 
diurches. in the meantime I heartily agree with you in recommending 
those of your readers who are interested in organs, including all pro- 
fessional church architects, to get the book entitled " Scudamore 
Oigaos ;" suice, notwithstanding a few mistakes, it is well worth its 

Yours, &c., 

S. S. G. 


To the Editor of the Eccleeiologiet. 

SiE, — May I ask in your pages whether it is generally known that 
we owe, as it would seem, to the Second Prayer Book of 1 552 the 
insertion of a clause in the Gloria in Excelsis, which is neither to be 
found in the Latin version nor in the Greek original ? This discovery 
—if it be one — was made by a ^end and myself in examining Tallis*s 
music for the •' Angelical Hymn." We found that the clause, " Thou 
that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us," which 
is repeated, without any intelligible reason for its repetition, in the 
Prayer Book version, was not to be found in that musician's setting. 
Accustomed to sing that clause in the plain-song of Marbeck, as given 
not only in Mr. Dyce's beautiful edition, but in the manuals of Mr. 
Janes, the organist at Ely, and of Mr. Helmore, we did not at once 
think of consulting the Marbeck original. But on further investigation 
it appeared that as Marbeck noted the Gloria in Excelsis from the First 
Prayer Book — as may be seen in Dr. Rimbault*s valuable edition — the 
repetition of that invocatory clause is not found. Other editors, or 
rather adapters, of the original Plain Song have supplied the deficiency 
by repeating the music as well as the words from the preceding clauses. 

Eeekriologieal Society . 183 

Bat, 80 far as I can 8ee, no one has eaBed attention to the 8i3ft>ject ; 
and perhaps the discrepancy was thought to be merely accidental. Of 
the ritualists, Palmer, diough he comments on other variations in the 
hymn, makes no mention of the insertion of 1559. Nor does Keeling 
in his LUurpim Britanmiea. Bnlley alone, in his Variations of the Com- 
mamon and Baptismal Offices (p. 6,) has observed the fact ; and remarics 
that the Latin Prayer Books of Elizabeth and the New Communion 
Office of Scotland are without the repetition. 

The case seems to be then, that the editors of the Book of 1559 in- 
serted, without explanation, a repetition of a particular clause, not to 
be found in the Book of 1 549, and which has been retained ever since in 
our own Prayer Books and those of affiliated Churches. Hie question 
arises whether this was anything more, in the first instance, than a 
typographical error, arising perhaps from the compositor's eye catching 
over again a line he had already set up. The probability of this might 
perhaps be determined by a reference to the actual division of the lines 
in an original copy of the edition of 1553 ; but I am unable to make 
tiie collation. 

Perhaps some of your readers may be able to throw light on this 
question, and oblige. 

Your obedient Servant, 



A CoMMrrrBS Meeting was held at Arklow House, on Tuesday, 
April 27 : present Mr. Beresford Hope, M.P., in the chair; Sir Ste- 
phen R. Glynne, Bart.. V.P., Mr. Dickinson, the Rev. S. S. Oreat- 
heed. Sir John E. Harington, Bart., the Rev. H. L. Jenner, the Hon. 
F. Lygon, M.P., and the Rev. B. Webb. 

Two numbers of the Dietsche Warande were received from Mr. 
Alberdingk Thijm ; and acknowledgments of the Ecclesiologist from 
the Surrey Archaological Society. Letters were read ; among others, 
from the Rev. H. W. Ku-by. S. S. Teulon, Esq., W. J. Hopkins, Esq., 
&c. A packet of publications was received from the Royal University 
at Christiania, accompanied by a medal struck by order of the King 
of Sweden in honour of Professor Hansteen, on occasion of his reaching 
the fiftieth year of his professoriate. 

Mr. Slater met the committee, and consulted it on the question of re> 
building the nave of S. John, Devizes, which it was proposed by some 
to harmonize with the ancient transepts, by making it Romanesque. 
Upon examination it appeared doubtful whether the present nave, a 
late ITiird-Pointed structure, would require to be pulled down. The 
following resolution was adopted : " That in the event of its being 
necessary to rebuild the nave of the church of S. John, Devizes, the 
committee strongly deprecates the use of the Norman style." 

Mr. Slater also exhibited his drawings for a granite memorial 

184 Ecdesiological Sodeiy. 

cro88« to be erected in the churchyard at Powderham ; for the arrange- 
ment of the choir and apse at S. Serf, Burntisland, N. B. ; for the re- 
storation of the chancel, and rebuilding of the north aisle, of S. Peter's, 
Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire ; for a new rectory-house at Brington ; 
and for a memorial window, representing the corporal works of mercy 
— from the cartoons of Mr. Clayton — ^to be placed at the west end of 
the north aisle of Blatherwyck church, Northamptonshire, in honour 
of the late Mr. Augustus O'Brien Stafford. 

Mr. Seddon met the committee, and consulted it as to some points 
in the works at Llandaff Cathedral, connected with a proposed fleche 
over the sanctuary arch, and the roofing of the Lady Chapel, llie 
committee advised the removal of the new east gable of this chapel, 
and the roofing the chapel with a high lead roof without gables. The 
committee also examined Messrs. Prichard and Seddon's designs for 
the restoration of the church at Kentchurch, Herefordshire ; for the re- 
building of the nave of Llangwm-Ucha, Monmouthshire ; and for a 
new schoolroom and master's house at Orcop, Herefordshire. 

Mr. Clarke met the committee, and exhibited his designs for re- 
building Famham church, Essex. He also urged the committee to 
found a prize for art workmen, in connection with the Architectural 
Museum. A prize for the coloured decoration of some architectural 
detail was suggested; but a sub -committee was nominated to confer 
with the committee of the Architectural Museum, and the final arrange- 
ment was postponed to another meeting. 

Mr. St. Aubyn met the committee, and exhibited his designs for 
some new schools at Hilton, Dorsetshire ; for the restoration of the 
chancel of Brandeston, Suffolk ; for a new church at Marazion, Corn- 
wall; and for the restoration and rearrangement of the church of 
Little Glemham, Suffol^. 

Mr. Burges met the committlee, and kindly engaged to have hia 
promised paper on Mediaeval Bijouterie ready for the anniversary meet- 
ing. He proposed to illustrate it with specimens both of ancient and 
modem workmanship. A paper by Mr. Beresford Hope, on the 
churches of Leyden and Amsterdam was also promised. 

Mr. Withers met the committee, and exhibited his designs for a 
town-hall, with markets and other public buildings, at Cardigan, for 
new schools at Pembryn, and for the restoration of the apsidal Roman- 
esque church of Oreat Amwell, Herts, and of Panfield, Essex. 

Mr. Truefitt met the committee, and explained to it his designs for 
a wooden temporary church, circular in plan, which he had built in 
about six weeks at Tufihell Park, Islington. 

Mr. Stevens exhibited to the committee numerous specimens of his 
mosaic process, which were much admired, although the use of trans- 
parent cubes of white glass with gold leaf at the bottom — ^giving in 
some lights the effect of a cellular arrangement — was considered open 
to objection. Mr. Burges informed the committee, that coarse opaque 
golden glass fit for such tesselation was still made and procurable at 
Venice ; and Mr. Stevens agreed that it would be desirable to import 
such glass, unless Messrs. Powell's experiments should be successful in 
producing it* 

Ecclmological Society. 185 

Mr. N. W. Layers met the committee, and exhibited some spirited 
cartoons, drawn by Mr. Marks, from inbich he had executed a large 
figure window in Booking church. He also showed cartoons for two 
lights, representing respectively the Good Shepherd, and our Lord 
knocking at the Door, the ideas being founded on the type? of certain 
well-known pictures, from which he was about to execute a window, 
to be presented at his own cost to the new church at Richmond. 

The committee next exaipiped ft pprtfo^o o^ designs by Mr. Street, 
including drawings for the restora|;ipn and rearrangement of Deeding- 
ton church, Oxfordshire ; for the rearrangement and enlargement of 
the fine Romanesque church of Twyning, Qloucestershire ; for the re- 
storation of West Keale church, lincolnsbire, and Peasemore church, 
Berkshire ; for new schpols. at ..^ucklan^, , Berks, a%d for tiie Ticarage 
house at Bloxham, Oxfordshire. " ^, ^ 

The committee also inspected Mr. S. S. Teuton's designs lor new 
churches at Wimbledon, Surrey, and Leckhampstead, Backs. 

The consent of the Architectural Museum, and of the Department of 
Science and Art» hav^pg been o])tained, it was agreed tp hold th6 nine- 
teenth anniversary meeting of the society on Tuesday evenmg, June 1st, 
in the theatre at the Architectural Museum, South Kensiagtpm 

It was agreed to commence a separate fund for the expenses of the 
musical department of the so9^ty'8 operations ; and it was ^resolved to 
send a deputation to the festival of Parochial. Choirs, arranged to take 
place in Southwell Minster; in order to report upon the performances. 

A letter was read from Mr. G. G. Scott, asking for information as 
to the best way of representing the modem episcopal habit in monu- 
mental brasses. 

The committee then adjourned till June 1st. 

A highly successful Meeting of the Ecclesiological Motett Choir, being 
the second for the present season, was held at S. Martin's Hall on 
7?nesday, April 20th, when the following pieces were admirably sung : 

Motett — " It is a good thing to give thanks unto the Lord " Vittoria. 
Canticlb — " Benedictus " , . . Ist Tone, 2nd ending. 

Motett — " give thanks unto the Lord " . . Giovanni Croce. 
Htmn — *• Veni, veni, Emmanuel.'* 

Melody from a French Missal in the National Library, lAsbon. 
Harmonized by the Rev, S. S. Greatheed, 

MissA Orlando di Lasso, 

" Kyrie," " Gloria in excelsis," " Credo," " Sanctus," « Benedictus," 

" Osanna," " Agnus Dei." 
From SeUctus novus Missarum Prastantissimorum superioris avi Auc- 

torum, a Carolo Proske. Pars. I., No. III. (Quin^ue Vocum.) 

[N.B.— The Editor's reading of doubtful accidentals will be accepted 

throughout in this evening's performance.] 

Hymn—" O filii et filise.'' . Melody from La FeiU^ and Cl6newt, 

Motett—" Behold, now, praise the Lord," Ps. cxzxiv. 1, 3. 

Giovanni Croce. 

186 Oxford ArcUUehsral Society. 

C AROL— ^ Let the merry Cburcli beiis ting.** 

No. ISJn Carols for C^riOmoi /md Eater-tide. 

Melody from Pia Cantiouei Eocktiastiem et Sehobutioa Veierum Epi$^ 

ci^^oruMt in Incfyto Regno Snedm patmm usurpatm. . « opera Theo- 

dorici Petri Nylandeneis, 1852. 

MoTBTT—" Behold, I bring you glad tidiDgSi" S. Luke xi. It), 11, 14. 

iSiovanni Croce. 

The finished style in which Orlando di Lasso's noble mass was ren- 
dered eiieited wann expressions of commendatioB. The two hymns 
also from the second part of the «* Hymnal Noted/' now sang for die 
first time, were listened to with evident pleasure. The andienoe was 
encouragingly nunverous, the room being all-bnt fal^. 

The next and final meeting of the season is fixed for Tuesday* 
July 20th. 


Thb Oxford Architectural Soci^ held its first Meeting for the present 
term at their rooms^ Holywell, on April 28th. 

The Rey. R. H. €odiington» M.A., Wadham College, presided on 
the occasion, on which the following members were elected : — R. P. 
Lightfoot, Esq., fialliol College ; John Oibbs, Esq., architect, Oxford ; 
G. E. C. Stiles, Esq., St. Edmund Hall. 

The secretary, at liie chairman's request, explained to the members 
present the nature of the proceedings which were contemplated in con- 
nection with a general meeting of architectural societies in Jtme next : 
he stated that the details were not yet settled, but that the days on 
which this meeting would be held, would be Wednesday, June 9th, 
and three successive days. The society anticipated the pleasure of 
several influential members of the architectural world, and had already 
received acceptations of their invitations from several societies. 

Mr. Gibbs then read bis paper : — *' Street architecture includes ^be 
architecture of all buildings that oome within the range of its tide— » 
such as ecclesiastical, collegiate, civic, mercantile, domestic, &c. The 
developement of high art in the mercantile and domestic buildings of 
Oxford is very insignificant. Oxford has the Gothic in glorious per- 
fection, and otherwise; bits from Greece and Italy; and medleys 
without character, style, or beauty. Oxford has passed a fiery ordeal, 
but there is cause for gratitude that, with all the incongruities in much 
of its architecture, it stands, beautiful in conception, and historically 
grand. I regret that any but ecclesiastical and collegiate buildings 
were ever erected within its circle. The great buildings of the Uni- 
versity should not be obscured. Students in colleges would be wiser 
and better without the City buildings. England was not a nation of 
shopkeepers in the middle ages. The architects of that time directed 
their attention to ecdesiastical architecture, mostly. The aspect of 
England has changed— her people are great in commerdal altitude, and 
celebrated in art and science. Look at her cities of mechanical action ! 

Mr. Gibbs en Street Archifeekire. 187 

Behdd Iter world of idealities ! Engtend ta fbt gold ; ftod this it her 
phHosophy. What will be tbe xenith of b»r glory ? There «re Bereral 
types of ajrchitecture. England it far from hoviog a aaAional style of 
arehiteclure. Meik have alwaya diffeied Id taake and opinion, as kumaa 
beings differ in aiae, ^ape, expression^ die, &e« Most of the great 
buildings in tbe capital, and other eitiea of Enrope and America, ave 
after the classic orders of architectnre. A reactioB is taking place ; the 
demands of the age require it. The Victoria tower has admirers^ so 
has the dome of S. Pfetors. Eminent men have said that the RadcKffe 
Library is the only truly noble building in Oxford. Credit is due to 
members of the University for the spirit and zeal they are showing to 
make Oxford gorgeoos in arehitectore. The Oxford Anshiteetural So- 
ciety has wonderfully advanced Christian art* The villas about Ox« 
ford are mostly meagre in design. The new Crescent does not harmo* 
nise with tbe locality. This is an age of progression in many important 
respects. If the architect is prepared to advance with it, we shall hav« 
great changes in the style and character of all kinds of buildings. 
Nature and art should be in harmony. Zeal in religion, politics, and 
commerce, give life to progression. A wider spread of knowledge 
osight to bring more unity of mind and feding. Architecture is a fine 
art ; but a nation could be rich and great without its magnificent aid*. 
The power of form is great upon the eye and mind. Sculptors and 
paintera point to their Madonnas, but who would declare that all their 
works, however glorious, rival in art and skill the imposing grandeur 
which architects have given to the pillared and vaulted temples ? Let 
tbe gigantic mind of the true architect roll on in its majesty of con- 
ception; and let sculptors and painters give their choicest gems of 
beauty to the brow of bis lofty genius. The constituent elements of 
art are form and colour. Art may be either pleasing and instructive, 
or offensive and debasing. What music is to the ear, art is to the eye. 
Scientific construction is of great importance in building. Unless the 
mixing of coloured courses of stone is judiciously and harmoniously 
arranged in a building, beauty may be sacrificed for novelty. Beauty 
and economy may be combined. Bricks are very useful, but should 
not be used out of place. When effect by contrast in colour is re* 
quired in stonework, it is unquestionably wrong to use cut-bricks; 
stone of almost any colour can be obtained. Iron will be extensively 
used for building purposes. Shall we have Gbeek, Roman, or Gothic 
architecture ? Before Christian art can prevail, there must be a change 
of soul, as well as taste. The architecture of our streets should be 
adorned with sculpture, devices, mottoes, texts, and symbols. A fre- 
quent use of encaustic tiles in string-courses, panels, and cornices, 
would give beauty to all kinds of buildings. I shall show that the 
semi-circular arch is necessary in working out new principles, in my 
next piq)er, which I shall illustrate by means of large drawings.*' 

On the conclusion of the paper, the chairman tendered the thanks of 
the society to Mr. Gibbs, lor tbe able way in which he had treated the 
subject of street architecture ; and felt sure that Mr. Gibbs' promise of 
further information and illustration by large drawings would be gladly 
accepted by the members of the society. 


188 Ossford Architectural Society. 

The secretary, Mr. Lowder, drew attention to a remark in the paper 
on the subject of cat and moulded bricks, and the assertion of Mr. 
Gibbs that cut bricks were more expensive than stone ; a remark which 
seemed to him not only true, but of great importance in our further 
practice in the use of bricks. A discussion ensued, both upon this 
subject and upon that of the propriety of timber buildings, in which 
the chairman and treasurer, Mr. Wayte, and Mr. BuckeridgCy took 

The meeting was adjourned till Wednesday, May 12th. 

A Meeting was held in the society's rooms, Holywell, on Wednesday, 
May 12, J. H. Parker, Esq., F.S.A., in the chair. The following gen- 
tlemen were elected members of the society : — G. Akers, Esq., Oriel 
College; B. Leighton, Esq., Christ Church; G. W. G.Leveson Gower» 
Esq., Christ Church ; and W. West. Esq., Christ Church. 

The chairman then called upon W. P. James, Esq., for his paper, 
**' The Influence of National Religion upon National Architecture," of 
which the following is an extract : — 

" In viewing the relations of architecture and religion, the first fact 
that is worthy of notice is that architecture as a fine art owes its origin 
to religion, the oldest buildings in Egypt, Greece, and India, being 
temples. Another important fact is the essential difference between 
non-Christian and Christian religious edifices ; the end of the first was 
always to build a house for the divinity to whom it was dedicated to 
dwell in ; the end of the second is congregational, to provide a place 
for the assembly of the faithful. Ancient temples were usually oblong 
halls, of no great size, adorned externally by splendid colonnades of 
pillars : the laity rarely entered them, and there were no services in a 
modem sense of the word. When Christianity was established, the 
congregational character of its worship determined its adherents upon 
taking the basilicas, rather than any of the small temples of heathen 
deities then in Rome. The arrangements of churches to the present 
day are substantially those of a basilica. Here, then, an essential dif- 
ference of creed has caused a radical change in the architecture. With 
regard to a new style, it may be remarked that Protestantism has not 
produced any style of its own. When it does extend Gothic architec- 
ture, it will have to modify features in the mediaeval churches, for 
which we have now no use, such as crypts, chantry- chapels, lady- 
chapels, sedilia, piscinas, tabernacles. As an accurate knowledge of 
Gothic architecture has been attained, and a strong feeling is prevalent 
of the need of a new style, in which the congregational element must 
be developed, we have every reason to hope that England may again 
stand at the head of the architectural art of Europe." 

The chairman tendered the thanks of the society to Mr. James for 
his paper, which contained, he remarked, very many subjects of great 
interest, but regretted that the lateness of the hour prevented any 
satisfactory inquiry into the topics touched upon in it. 

After a short discussion, in which several members joined, the meet- 
ing was adjourned to Wednesday, the 26th of May. 



A CoMMiTTSB Meeting was held at the Society^s Room on Monday, 
February the 8th. The Rev. Lord Alwyne Compton in the chair. 

There were presented, " Papers read at the Royal Institute of British 
Architects in 1856-56-57," by the Institute. Mr. Scott's and Mr. 
Denison's lectures on Doncaster church ; and carving of a roof boss 
in oak, by the artist, Mr. J. Heath, of Peterborough ; specimen 
of coloured stencilling on deal, by the artist, Mr. Lea, of Lutterworth ; 
the plans for the restoration, and almost entire rebuilding of GKlmorton 
church, Leicestershire, by the architect, Mr. W. Smith. The present 
condition of the church, which though of good date, retains hardly any 
of its original details, is most deplorable, and the architect has shown 
much judgment in retaining so much of its former character, at the 
same time that the area of the church has been considerably enlarged, 
and made fully adequate to the population. The internal arrange- 
ments show the now universally approved features of low open seats, 
stalled chancel, and opened tower-arch. Some suggestions were made 
respecting the preservation of the old windows, and on other points, 
for the architect's consideration. Mr. James exhibited several very 
pleasing specimens of stencilling on varnished deal for internal house 
decoration ; also stencilling on a painted ground, which was much ad- 
mired, and of no more cost than " graining," for which it is an excel- 
lent substitute ; the patterns were executed by Mr. Lea, of Lutterworth. 
Mr. Butlin exhibited drawings for the enlargement of S. Sepulchre's 
church, and the Committee promised any assistance in their power, 
when the urgent case of the church could be again brought before the 

A Committee Meeting was held on Monday, April the 12th. The 
Lord A. Compton in the chair. 

The Transactions of the Norfolk Arch»ological Society were pre- 
sented. " The Scudamore Organs,*' by Rev, J. Barrow, was ordered 
to be purchased. Plans for the improvement of Radstone Chancel, 
from the designs of Mr. Buckeridge, were sent for examination by 
the rector. Several suggestions were made with respect to the win- 
dows, roofs, and seats, and the plans generally approved. The design 
for a new altar-cloth for Peterborough Cathedral was exhibited and 
discussed. It is of most elaborate design, and is to be worked by 
ladies of the diocese, under the superintendence of Miss Blencowe. 
The works at the cathedral were reported to be in full progress, the 
scraping of the choir piers and arches being the first instalment. The 
south transept, which was in a very insecure state, is being made safe 
by the addition of large buttresses. A design for the tile pavement of 
Thedingworth church, by Lord A. Compton, which is about to be ex- 
ecuted by Messrs. Minton, was also shown. The Secretary has had no 

VOL. XIX. c c 

190 Leicestershire Architectural and Archaological Society. 

further notice of the Oxford Meeting, in June ; but the Society have 
had an invitation to join the Lincoln Society, on the Ist and 2nd of 
June, at Uomcaatle. The yolume of Reports for 1857» will soon be 
in the hands of members. 


The April Meeting of this Society was held at the Town Hall on the 
25th. W. P. Herrick. Esq.. in the chair. 

A letter was read from the Rev. L. Gregory, stating that three new 
faces for the church clock at Oadby had been completed previously to his 
receiving the opinion expressed by the Society upon the plan proposed 
for fixing them in the spire. It was still hoped by the Society that the 
threatened disfigurement of the structure might not be carried into 

Mr. Herrick exhibited two spear-heads, two celts, and an armlet, 
all of bronze, recently discovered by some workmen employed by him 
in cutting a drive through the encampment on Beacon Hill in Cham- 
wood Forest. The soil of a space measuring about six feet by three, 
where all the articles excepting the last were found, appeared to be 
different from the ground adjoining. Some of this had therefore been 
sent by Mr. Herrick to Dr. Beniays, of S. Mary's Hospital, Padding- 
ton, to be analyzed. Dr. Bemays discovered it to contain bone, 
pottery of well-burnt clay, and wood -charcoal. The spear-heads were 
nearly alike, of the shape which has been called " myrtle-leaf," with 
round sockets (without rings) for the wooden shafts to fit into, the 
sockets going some way into the blade of the head. One of the 
celts, about three inches long, was of an unusual description, being 
gouge-shaped, with a socket for receiving a handle. Tbis kind of celt 
is of more common occurrence in Ireland than in England. (Four 
Irish specimens are engraved in the Archaeological Journal. Vol. iv. 
p. 335.) The armlet, which is unornamented, was found perhaps fifty 
yards from the other articles, and outside the encampment. These 
articles, according to recent classification, would be assigned to the 
Celtic period, i.e., to the inhabitants of England previously to their 
subjugation by the Romans. The latter usually selected low and flat 
situations for their encampments, trusting to their own military skill for 
security, while the Britons availed themselves of naturally fortified 
positions — such as the Beacon Hill. 

It was observed respecting the brass of King Etheldred, at Wim- 
borne, Dorsetshire, of which a rubbing was exhibited at the last meet- 
ing, that the demi-figure of the saint is assigned, in Manning's List of 
Monumental Brasses, to about the year 1450, and in Simpson's List to 
about 1440, while the inscription was thought to be of the second half 
of the seventeenth century. During the restoration (so called) of 

Leicesterskire ArckUedwral and Archaotogical Society. 191 

Wimborne Minster, last year, another older inscription belonging to 
this fignre was somewhere discovered. It is not unlikely that this 
latter plate may have been removed when the Puritans were in power, 
during the Ghreat Rebellion; and not being forthcoming after the 
Restoration, the present inscription was substituted for it. Leland, in 
Henry VIII.'s time, thus speaks of this monument :— <« King Ethel- 
drede was buried by her, (S. Cuthburga, on the north side of the Pres- 
bjTtery,) whos Tumbe was lately repairid, and a Marble Stone their 
layid with an image of a King in a Plate of Brasse with the inscrip- 
tion — In hoc loco quiescit corpus S. Ethddredi, regis Westsaxomtm, mar- 
tyris, qvi Jo. Di, 827, IS^ die Apr. per mantie Danorum Payanomm 
occubuii "'-'Itinerary, Vol. III., foL 55. 

Mr. G. C. Bellairs exhibited an ancient stirrup, said to have been 
found near Leicester Abbey. 

Mr. T. Nevinson laid upon the table, as illustrative of Mr. Wing*s 
essay read at the February meeting, the large engravings of Hawton 
Church. Nottinghamshire, published by the Cambridge Camden Society. 
He also mentioned that during the recent repairs at Leicester Castle 
some remains of its ancient Norman Hall had been brought to light. 
Originally it was a large apartment, with aisles formed by two rows of 
oak pillars supporting the roof, five on each side, thirty feet high and 
twenty-two inches square, with carved capitals. Only one of these now 
remains entire. The halls of Oakham Castle (engraved in Turner's 
Domestic Architecture, Vol. 1.) and of Winchester were of similar 
formation, but with stone pillars. 

Mr. James Thompson read some observations on Roman Leicester, 
particularly with reference to the outline of its walls. He held that 
there was originally a western wall, parallel with the eastern wall ; 
and that a space was left between the Jewry wall and the river, in the 
same way as at York and Chester there was a wall on the river side of 
the encampment, under similar circumstances. In answer to an in- 
quiry from the chairman, Mr. Thompson stated it was his intention, on 
a future occasion, to follow out the consequences involved in the estab- 
lishment of this position. 

Mr. Gresley produced a copy of a rare tract witJi the following 
title-page. — '* A Sermon preached at Ashby-de-la-Zouch in the Countie 
of L^cester ; at the Funerall of the truly noble and vertoous Lady 
Elizabeth Stanley, one of the daughters and coheirs of the Right 
Honourable Ferdinand late £arle of Derby, and late wife to Henrie 
Earle of Huntingdon the fifth Earle of that Familie. The 9 of 
February, Anno Dom. 1633. By T. F. — London. Printed by W. I. 
and T. P., and are to be sold by Matthew Simmons at his shop, at the 
Golden Lyon in Duck-lane. 1685." Next to the title-page follows a 
portrait of the Countess in an oval» with two angels holding a coronet 
over the head ; the arms of Hastings impaling Stanley, and the crests 
of those families, — the bull's head, and bird-and- bantling, — being in- 
serted in the comers. She has a long face with aquiline nose, her hair 
falls back upon her shoulders; she wears a falling ruff and tight 
figured dress. This engraving is by John Payne, of whom Bryan 
eays, *' his portraits are the most esteemed of bis prints i they are exe- 

192 Surrey Arckaological Society. 

cuted entirely with the graver^ in a free, open style, and produce a very 
pleasing effect." After an epitaph by Lord Falkland foUows the text, 
S. John xi. 25. The present copy is bound in vellum with gilt tool- 
ing, and has the Stanley crest and coronet stamped upon the sides. 
On a fly-leaf is written in a hand of the period, — " Eliza Fowler her 
Booke given her by the Righte Hoble Henry Earle of Huntingdon.*' 
Her descendant, the Rev. C. Inge, of Benn Hill, now possesses it. 

The Rev. J. O. Picton, and H. J. Davis, Esq., were elected mem- 
bers of the Society ; and the Rev. W. B. Moore was added to the 

A vote of thanks was passed to Mr. Herrick ; and a hope was ex- 
pressed that he would some day favour the Society by driving to one 
of its meetings in the ancient chariot at Beaumanor, provided that he 
could do so without personal danger. 


A Mbbtiko of this Society, of unusual interest, was held on May 1^ 
at the S. 01ave*s Grammar School, Southwark. The chair was taken 
by William Prichard, Esq., High Bailiff of Southwark. * 

The Rev. Charles H. Griffith read the first Paper, which was written 
by his brother, W. Pettit Griffith, Esq., F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A., honorary 
member. It was an architectural notice of the nave of S. Saviour's 
church, Southwark, made during its demolition. The early history of 
this ancient Gothic church having been referred to, the paper proceeded 
to say : — " Notwithstanding the repeated entreaties on the part of anti- 
quarians and a portion of the public for the preservation of the nave 
(which has been stated to have been the oldest part of the structure), 
it was in 1839 at last doomed to be taken down within seven feet of 
the ground, and was sold by private contract to Messrs. Hall and At- 
kins for the sum of only 150 guineas, in the month of February, to 
make room for a new building to accommodate 2000 persons, from the 
designs of Mr. Henry Rose, architect, at the cost of £8000. In the 
year 1836 a deputation waited upon Lord Melbourne for the purpose of 
soliciting a grant of money towards repairing the nave, the expense of 
which was estimated at £12,000 ; but, I beUeve, on account of the re- 
peated demands upon government for money. Lord Melbourne was 
obliged to decline rendering any assistance. At different times sub- 
scriptions have been solicited, and various means suggested towards 
promoting its reparation, but without success. From its dilapidated 
appearance it would have required great ingenuity and care to have 
restored it to its original grandeur. The parts of S. Saviour's church 
devoted to Divine Service at the time of destroying the nave were the 
choir and transepts ; these are now given up wholly for the receptioa 
of monuments, and the congregation occupy the new building." A 
minute description of the interior of the nave followed^ in which it 

Mr. Griffith on 8. Savwur^t, Southwark. 193 

stated that its appearance, even when in ruins, was far from unpic- 
turesque. " The interior of the nave had been exposed to the ravages 
of the weather for about seven years prior to being removed, and, at 
the time of taking it down the walls were considerably out of an up- 
right, leaning outwards, with their stone faces peeling off, and, when 
viewed from the tower, appeared in great danger of falling. The tri« 
forinm and clerestory suffered most ; the arches and clustered columns 
dividing the nave from the aisles were not so much defaced. The 
roof of the nave was demolished by ' order of vestry' in consequence 
of its timbers being in parts so rotten, that, had it been permitted to 
remain, it would have fallen in. Upon removing the masonry, added 
hi the fifteenth century, on the inside of the west front of the nave 
and aisles (when the west doorway and window were inserted), arcades 
of an early period, with Pointed arches and attached columns, with 
sculptured capitals and bases, were discovered ; these are indicated in 
a sketch, by John Buckler, of the interior of the west end of the nave 
and south aisle, engraved in the ' Archaeologia.* vol. xz. plate 29/' 
As to the exterior of the nave, it was stated that repeated alterations 
and repairs had left very little of its original architecture. The article 
concluded as follows : — 

" Originally the nave was entirely constructed of stone, and several 
kinds were employed ; among others were distinguished Purbeck stone. 
Kentish rag, freestone, &c. The Purbeck stone was used in the 
columns and ornamental parts of the triforium ; the small columns. &c.. 
in the niche in the southern doorway were also of this stone : these 
bad suffered very slightly, the capitals and bases being only a little 
clipped. A variety of Purbeck stone, known as Purbeck marble, and 
procured from the Isle of Purbeck in Dorsetshire, was formerly much 
used for columns and ornaments in our cathedrals and old churches, 
and afterwards used for paving, but now is not much employed. The 
Kentish rag was employed in the walls, and freestone for facing them. 
The least affected and acted upon by the weather was the Purbeck 
stone. The demolition of the nave, which was commenced (as before 
stated) in February, was steadily continued during that month, and 
also through the months of March. April. May. and June. This may 
appear a long time, but the destruction of such edifices as the present 
one is not a common occurrence : having walls varying from three to five 
feet in thickness, these take a longer time to remove than our modem 
14-inch walls. The southern doorway was taisen down on the 10th 
of May. The whole fabric was pulled down a little below seven feet 
of the ground. On the north side of the nave the brick casing was 
entirely removed down to the foundations, and 14-inch brickwork upon 
a bed of concrete was built against the remains of the old walls, which 
were left as a foundation for the new building. The new buttresses 
were not built in the situation of the old ones ; this could be observed 
when they were removed. Bricks were laid in the second week in 
June, commencing on the north side ; the new brick casing and foun- 
dations of the new buttresses were in cement. For the safety of the 
tower, during the removal of the nave, the last arch on each side of the 
nave abutting against the tower, with a part of the clerestory, were 

194 Surrey Archaeological Society. 

left standing for some time after the demolition of the nave. The clus- 
tered columns separating the nave and aisles were entirely cleared 
away» and square brick piers in cement built in their place up to the 
underside of the new floor, which is between seven and eight feet above 
the old floor, and the space beneath the former has been devoted to the 
purpose of vaults. The old recesses, with their pointed arches and 
little columns in the walls around the old nave, have been filled with 
brickwork, and nothing that could be done to eradicate the remains 
of the once ancient nave of S. Saviour's church was omitted. The 
demolition of the nave serves to show and to prove the changeable 
nature of the ' public :' at one period they will spend thousands of 
pounds in restoring one-half of the church, and at another time use 
their exertions to the utmost to destroy the remaining half — ^namely, 
the nave. Sometimes these remarkable acts may be attributed to the 
parochial changes of men in office, the newly- instidled often considering 
that the first duty imposed upon them is to undo all that their prede- 
cessors may have done ; this must evidently have been the case, as in 
the year 1836 £12,000 would have restored the nave, while in 1830 
£8000 was expended in what was termed building a new chapel." 

The paper was illustrated by the following prints, which were hung 
round the walls of the room : a west view of the choir of S. Saviour's 
church, a southern prospect of the church taken in 1739, a view of the 
church taken in 1814. the interior of the church in 1814, and a print 
of the monument of John Gower in the church yard. 

George R. Corner, Esq., F.S.A., read a Paper on " The ancient inns 
of Southwark." 

John Wickham Flower, Esq., read a Paper intituled, ** Notices of 
Croydon Church." Mr. Flower observed, in commencement, that the 
recent restorations had brought to light some interesting features. 
They would probably never find out the architect of the building, but 
looking at the time of the prelates under whose auspices it had been 
begun and completed, they might find but little difficulty in arriving at 
a conclusion. The only authentic document that he had met with, was 
the will of one John Aldermaston, which was dated in the feast of S. 
Julian, 1403, who by that will bequeathed to the pastor and the clerks 
sundry head of sheep, and towards the rebuilding of the church he 
gives twenty bidentes. From this it is evident that the tower was not 
completed in Archbishop Courtenay's time, and also that the expense of 
rebuilding was in part defrayed by the parishioners. It was usually 
stated that the rebuilding was commenced by Archbishop Courtenay, 
wlio was consecrated in 1381 . lliis he thought very probable, as when 
Dr. Ducard's history was written, the arms of Courtenay were placed 
over the north entrance ; and begun by him it was finished by Chicheley, 
and it seemed probable that the designs were furnished by William of 
Wickham, Bishop of Winchester. Mr. Flower proceeded to give many 
reasons for forming this opinion. In its original design it must have 
been as perfect a parish church as New College chapel is perfect as a 
college chapel, and in one important feature it closely resembles that 
fine structure, viz., the arch opening from the nave into the tower, 
which, together with two of the arches on each side of the nave, have 

Mr. Flower on Croydon Church. 196 

been completely hidden for nearly a century. These have now been 
brought to light, and stand forth in all their pristine beauty. The 
principal end is very fine, the height of it is thirty-six feet ; width, 
ten feet ; depth of mouldings, which are extremely rich and deep, eight 
feet. The arches are terminated on one side by a very fine half-length 
figure of a man, and on the other by that of a woman. The roof of 
the tower into which this arch opens has a very fine groined roof of the 
period. After having alluded to the newly-discovered fresco paintings, 
he proceeded to speak of the corbels and finials with which the nave, 
aisles, and chancel are plentifully adorned. With one or two excep- 
tions, they were coeval with the buildings. They are usually con- 
sidered, with reason, to be very fine, but he was not aware of their 
having been closely examined or described — casts of several were about 
the room. The grotesques were exceedingly grotesque, and must have 
been executed by a Gothic Cruikshank or Phiz. He then took the 
heads and figures separately, observing that one with a short dagger 
and feet drawn up, which was in the chancel, might very likely have 
been the architect, who had chosen that mode of immortalizing his 
form and features. The one next to him might have been the master 
builder. He judged this because he was furnished with a curious im- 
plement on which a stone was very cleverly bound with thongs, ad- 
mirably adapted for carrying stone to a great height. The fine monu- 
mental brass of Silvester Gabriel was next alluded to. It did not 
appear that he was vicar of Croydon, but his epitaph gave him the 
credit of being a good man. He next touched on the improvement of 
Croydon from the visits of Queen Elizabeth, and then proceeded to 
consider the tombs of the Archbishops in the church, and read an ex- 
tract from a valuable paper by Mr. Matthew Bloxam, read before the 
society in 1856, on them, particularly alluding to the magnificent carv- 
ing of Archbishop Sheldon's tomb, Mr. Flower remarking that it was 
by Latham, in white marble, and what they might term a chef d'ceuvre 
of the worst style of tomb architecture. Mr. Flower concluded his 
paper with a few well- chosen remarks. He said it presented a striking 
illustration of that well-known truth, that while— -during the last five 
hundred years — our nation has made prodigious advances in arts, in 
science, in arms, in literature, and in all the luxuries and conveniences 
of life ; in church architecture it has not advanced in the least. Per- 
fection, so far as we can judge, had been previously reached, and all 
that we can do, and all that we ought to attempt to do, is to restore, 
by removing tiiose incongruities which have been allowed to dis- 
figure it. 

The meeting then adjourned to S. Saviour's church, over which they 
were conducted by Mr. W, P. Griflith. 



S, , Wimbledon, Surrey. — A new church is about to be built in 

this parish, from the designs of Mr. S. S. Teulon. The ground plan 
comprises a nave of five bays, 66 ft. by 20 ft. 6 in., two aisles, a chancel 
34 ft. by 20 ft., divided into three bays, the easternmost of which, form- 
ing the sanctuary, projects beyond two chancel aisles, which range 
uniformly on the ground plan with the aisles of the nave. The two 
western bays of the chaucel form the lower stage of a broad, low, 
massive tower, and the chancel aisles are roofed with two parallel 
transverse-gabled roofs. There is a north-western porch. The nave 
and aisles are embraced by one broad span of roof. The arrangements 
are very good ; the chancel space being well divided. Longitudinal 
benches with subsellse occupy the place of stalls ; the prayer-desk 
being the westernmost seat on the Decani side. Children's benches are 
placed in the south chancel aisle ; while the opposite aisle is divided into 
vestry and organ chamber. The pulpit is at the north side of the 
chancel arch, and the font stands in the middle of the cross-alley at 
the western end of the nave. The exterior is picturesque — from the 
position and solidity of the tower and the great expanse of roof. The 
tower has a belfry stage of three small lights, rather widely separated, 
and a square pyramidal roof, broken by a hipped dormer light on each 
slope. We should have liked a somewhat greater height to the belfry 
stage ; and a cross and cock at the top would have looked better than 
the somewhat cumbrous vane — like a stable- weathercock of the last 
century, — ^which now surmounts it. And the hipping the dormer 
gables is a feature more appropriate, perhaps, for secidar buildings. 
The style is a late free Pointed ; but this seems to have led to some 
eccentricity of detail in the tracery ; in which there is a sort of crop 
or finial growing from the base of almost every " figure " or aperture 
of tracery in the heads of the lights. The treatment of the piers of 
the internal arcade is also rather exceptional. A good effect is obtained 
by a band of variegated bricks over each arch. The chancel arch is 
subshafted ; but the sanctuary arch, which forms a good feature in 
a church of this plan, is without architectural impost, the arch-moulds 
dying off on the vertical jamb. 

S, Mary, Leckhamstead, Bucks. — Mr. S. S. Teulon has the task of 
re-building this church. The plan proposed by him shows a nave 
66 ft. 6 in. by 21 ft. 6 in., forming four bays, with a south aisle, and a 
sanctuary 10 ft. 6 in. in length, by 16 ft. in breadth. The eastern 
portion of the nave, cut off by a low screen, is used as a chancel. 
There is a small sacristy at the northern side of the chorus cantomm. 
Add to these an open wooden porch at the western end of the south 
aisle. There can be no doubt that internally, with such good arrange- 
ment as is intended here, this plan is highly convenient; but we 
scafcely see the advantage of departing, in a new design, from the 
typal constructional division into nave and chancel rather than into 

New Churches. 197 

nave and sanctuary. It is true that Mr. Teulon distinguishes the 
chorus from the nave externally by a transverse gable at the east end 
of the nave, from the intersection of which with the main axis of the 
roof rises a small square open timber belfry cote, surmounted by a 
low square pyramidal capping. But the outline thus formed, though 
novel and ingenious, is scarcely to be preferred to the older fashion. 
The church i& to be built of brick, used with much boldness and free- 
dom. The low screen marking off the chorus is of brick, with pat- 
terns in another colour ; and the interior walls are all faced with brick, 
with diagonals of black, llie arches also are turned in brick, and 
their spandrels relieved by devices, formed by the contrast of colours. 
We are truly glad to see this solid and — for cheap churches — satisfac- 
tory system of constructional polychrome coming into general favour. 

S, Mary, Famhatn, Essex, — This church is about to be thoroughly 
rebuilt from the designs of Mr. Clarke. In the ground plan we have a 
nave, 50 ft. by 20 ft., opening by an arcade of four arches into a north 
aisle 14 ft. broad, a chancel 30 ft. by 17 ft. 6 in., with a spacious sa- 
cristy, in the angle between the chancel and the north aisle, a western 
tower and south-western porch. The style is a somewhat early 
Middle-Pointed, the piers being cylindrical, or clustered, with good 
bases and flowered capitals. The tower is fenced from the nave by 
a high screen, while the chancel-arch has only lew stone walls. The 
sacristy, which is in design more like a chapel, has screens south and 
west. The exterior is uniform, but of good character. The tower, 
affecting a rather earlier type of Pointed in its lower part, has a plain 
belfry stage with embattled parapet, within which is a low pyramidal 
roof. There is a priest's door in the chancel, reached by external 
steps, as the level of the ground slopes considerably from the west to 
the east. 

S. Patrick, New Quay» 8, Colutnb Minor, Cornwall. — A small new 
chapel, by Mr. White. It has a nave, south aisle, chancel, vestry, 
with a lean-to roof— south of the chancel, and a north porch — in the 
middle of the north side of the nave. The arrangements are good, 
save perhaps that the font is in the very middle of the nave, opposite to 
the somewhat inconveniently-situated door. The chancel has staUs 
and subsellse, the prayers being read within the chancel : a pulpit — 
approached from the stalls — occupying the north-east angle of the 
nave. The detail is very simple, — the tracery of rather peculiar, but 
effective. Geometrical tracery. A double bell-cote, of some solidity, 
dominates over the west gable. The pillars of the nave are of polished 
Plymouth marble. 

5. , Marazion, Cornwall. — This picturesque village, near the 

Land's End, must be known to all visitors to Penzance, as having one 
of the most mean and unworthy churches in existence : a rectangular 
apartment, divided, Cornish- wise, into two parallel aisles, choked up 
with square pews, and sunk below the level of the neighbouring street. 
Mr. St. Aubyn is about to substitute for this a well-designed Pointed 
church, on an enlarged site. The new plan contains a nave and broad 
south aisle, chancel ending in a bold three-sided apse, a porch at the 
western extremity of the north side of the nave, and a vestry in the 


198 New Parsonages* 

angle between the chancel and the south ai^le. It is generally well 
planned and arranged ; though the altar is set against the east wall, 
instead of standing forward in the apse ; and the vestry is not very 
harmoniously inserted in its nook. The style is Middle- Pointed. The 
piers of the chancel arch are treated in an unusual way : being bent in 
towards the impost, so as to give a wider opening below. We do not 
think the effect agreeable; and a corbelled impost would have ac- 
complished the same end with less eccentricity. There is no tower, 
but a single bell-cote. The external effect, with the apse, is picturesque 
and satisfactory. 

S, Michael^ Bradden, Northamptonshire, — This church has received 
some repairs and a new roof to the nave, from the designs of Mr. 
White. To suit the style, the roof is a low-pitched one, of late Third- 
Pointed date; but massively framed, with traceried spandrels, and 
covered externally with lead. 

S, George, Tuffnell Park, Holloway, — Mr. Tniefitt has, with much 
boldness and ingenuity, accomplished a feat upon which we can 
scarcely congratulate him. Called upon to design a temporary church 
in a district of Islington, to be built for a small sum, in an incredibly 
short space of time, and instructed to make its plan circular, he baa 
complied with these unfavourable conditions, and has caused to be 
built a wooden " preaching- house,*' calculated to hold nine hundred 
persons, seated as in an amphitheatre, — the stage being occupied by an 
altar-table placed between, but in front of, two rostra of unequal 
height, which are reading-desk and pulpit. The utter unfitness of 
this plan for its purpose, and the bold violation of all ecclesiastical pre- 
cedent, need not be here insisted on. But there is no reason that 
we should deny to the architect the credit of having contrived a singu- 
lar and picturesque structure, which would be thoroughly suitable for 
Cushing's American Circus. It is like an immense tent, with one 
excrescence for the altar and entrances. The internal diameter of the 
building is 83 ft. 3 in., and the span of the roof 64 ft.,— only 2 ft. lesa 
than that of Westminster Hall. The total height is 72 ft. It was 
completed in six weeks, and cost £700. There are no windows : but 
the top of the conical roof is of thick glass. The timber construction 
seems to be simple but effective, and there is a little colour introduced. 
Is Mr. Truefitt a candidate for the future erection of Mr. Spurgeon's 
tabernacle ? As to the ecclesiastical circumstances under which this 
building has been erected and opened for worship, we offer no opinion, 
having no data before us on which to form one. 


Mr. White has designed for Hooe» in the parish of Plymstock, a par- 
sonage of average size, oommodiously and judiciously arranged, and of 
very modest but picturesque cottage-like style, with little or no cha- 
racteristic Pointed character ; but ^e details have evidently been care- 

New Schools. 199 

folly studied, and though simple, are quite in keeping. The material 
is the local limestone, parts being coyered with upright slating, and 
parts with rough-cast, to keep out the drift of the rains. 

Little Baddmo. — A new vicarage-house has been built here by Mr. 
White. The proportions are good for most of the rooms, but the 
•• study "—11 ft. by 9 ft. 8 in.— is far too small. The material is red 
brick, with reddish tiles ; the window frames, &c., being all of wood. 
As a whole, the design is remarkably modest and unpretending in its 
character : if, indeed, simplicity and cottage-like effect are not carried 
almost to an extreme. But Mr. White is thoroughly at home in much 
of the peculiar character of the plainer sort of mediaeval domestic 

Bloxham Vicarage, Oxon. — Mr. Street has succeeded in fusing two 
modem houses into a good parsonage in the Pointed style. The re- 
sult is of course more picturesque than if the design had been alto- 
gether original. The whole cost, with the additional buildings, has 
not exceeded £800. We are greatly pleased with this work, and ad- 
mire especially the chimneys, which have some good carving at the top. 

Hartington Vicarage, Derbyshire, — Mr. Kerr has built a vicarage 
here in the villa style, with low roofs and overhanging eaves, singularly 
unfit for the climate and scenery of the Derbyshire Peak. It is a great 
eyesore in a picturesque landscape. 


Orcop, Herefordshire. — For this place, Messrs. Prichard and Seddon 
have designed a single schoolroom, with a teacher's house attached. 
The style scarcely affects Pointed, were it not for arches of alternately 
red and white brick over the door and window openings, and an almost 
too important window — of three h'ghts, with a sexfoSed circle in the 
head — in one end of the schoolroom. 

Hilton, Dorsetshire, — Schoolrooms for boys and girls, with a teacher's 
residence attached, have been designed by Mr. St. Aubyn. The plan 
of the schoolrooms reproduces the shape of a T cross. Each school 
has a separate entrance ; but we observe neither class-room nor cloak- 
room. The detail is good and unaffected ; and there is a simple bell- 
cote of wood, with a tapering pyramidal square capping. The brick 
work is variegated with coloured bands ; the windows have wooden 
frames and monials. 

Buckland, Berks, — Here Mr. Street has lately built a schoolroom for 
a mixed school, with a class-room, separate entrances and o£5ces, and 
a master's house attached. The style is good but unpretending 
Pointed, and there is a simplicity about the whole which, in these days 
of over-ornate school buildings, is quite refreshing. 

Pembryn, Cardiganshire, — Mr. Withers has built a school here with 
a master's residence of good and unpretending character, using red 
brick for the arch-heads and wood for the monials and window-frames. 



8. Mary Magdalene, J\infning, Gloucestershire. — Thifi interesting 
church, which is remarkable for its magnificent Romanesque nave, is 
about to be restored and enlarged under the care of Mr. Street. The 
architect has judged wisely in leaving the nave almost intact, and — as 
enlargement was necessary — making the addition of an aisle to the 
north side of the chancel. All the original windows of the nave of 
which traces remain will be carefully restored and opened ; and the 
insertions of larger windows, which must be retained for the sake of 
light, are properly treated as insertions in a later style. The new 
chancel ai»le opens from the chancel by an arcade of two, and the 
sacristy, — with an organ chamber above, reached by an internal spiral 
staircase, —occupies its east end. The arrangements are excellent, 
the prayers being said in the chancel. The pulpit is on the south 
side of the chancel -arch, which is desirable for the sake of the new 
aisle : and the eastern end of the nave is fitted with moveable chairs. 
Some such arrangement as this is absolutely necessary for the proper 
performance of funerals, marriages, or the commination service. We 
are particularly pleased with the design of the new aisle. It is in 
Early-Pointed, and harmonizes with the dignified simplicity of the 
nave. The tracery of its windows is of early character, of the 
plate sort i its west window is a circle pierced in geometrical figures, 
and there is a trefoil- headed door below. The arcade is borne by a 
massive cyliadrical shaft, with flowered capital: and the stalls are 
backed by a dwarf wall. The east window of the chancel receives 
new geometrical tracery, founded on remains discovered in one of the 
side windows, the original arch being judiciously retained. This is 
a restoration conducted altogether in the right spirit. 

S. Helen, West Real, Lincolnshire, — Mr. Street has in hand the res- 
toration and re-arrangement of this fine church, including the rebuilding 
of the chancel, which has no feature of any architectural interest except a 
good early Third-Pointed screen, which of course will be preserved. We 
may mention that the porch of this church, on the south side, is a good 
example of a stone roof supported on arched ribs. The new chancel, 
which has an ample sacristy, under a lean-to roof, at its north-western 
side, is of ashlar internally as well as externally. The arrangement is per- 
fect, the levels being well disposed, and the stalls and subsellse well man- 
aged. The old screen remains : the pulpit is placed against the north pier 
of the chancel-arch. The style of the new chancel and vestry is a severe 
early Middle-Pointed, with much force and character. The south- 
eastern window has its sill lowered for sedilia, and its hood is shafted. 
The internal ashlar walls are furnished with string-courses, ably 
treated. The east window is of three trefoil- headed lights, the middle 
being lower than the sides : the head contains a large sexfoiled circle, 
the outer spandrels being pierced with small trefoils. We have seen 
more elegant designs than this. But the whole is highly satisfactory. 

Church Restorations. 201 

S. Andrew, Little Glemham, — This church, consisting of chancel, nave« 
western tower, south-western porch, and a mortuary chapel, belonging 
to Lord Guildford, projecting like a transept from the north side of the 
chancel, is about to be restored and rearranged hj Mr. St. Aubyn. 
The pews give way to open seats and chairs }. and the chancel is fur- 
nished with two lonjgitvidinal benches on each side. One seat in the 
front bench on the north side is spt apart as .the readings- pew, and an 
harmonium is placed next i^. W« regret that there is to be more than 
one bench with subsellss on each side of the chancel ; and that the 
harmonium was not placed eastward of the quasi-stalls. The restora- 
tion of the architectural features is judicious, and the Vfopd work is 
satisfactory and without pretence. A west gallery in the tower, being 
supposed to be necessary for the' accommodatioa of the oongregation^ 
is retained, but its offensiveness is lainimized by its open front* 

All Saints, Bran4e8ton, Suffhik,—^Mr, St. Aubyn has i|^ ha^id the re- 
arrangement of the chancel of this church. ^ }t is very .small, and the 
floor is encumbered with memorial slabs pf. late date, which must be 
retained. Moreover, a priest's door most inconveniently occupies the 
middle of the south side. Under these circumstances, the. architect 
proposes to place on each side one longitudinal bench, with subselise, 
having metal desks, and to place returned benches at the west end. 
We doubt whether the last arrangement, especially in so small a 
church, is judicious. A bracketed organ is to be placed against the 
north wall, with its key-board in a line with the benqb-desk. The 
architectural details present an interesting specimen, of plain Early- 
Pointed ; a triplet of lancets as the eastern window Of the south side 
being an unusual feature. 

5. Mary, Tanworth, Warwiekshire. — This fine church, a relic of the 
fourteenth century, has been most cruelly gutted and destroyed. 
Columns and arches have disappeared, and the window traceries have 
been demolished. The perplexing task of restoring it has fallen into 
the good hands of Mr. Street. He has most properly founded all his 
new work on existing fragments and details, guiding himself by the 
chancel windows, which alone remain together with the chancel arch. 
The arrangement is admirable; the chancel being well divided into 
levels, with six stalls on each side, subsellse, and a bracketed organ on 
the north side. Space is abounding in the nave, a considerable space 
at the west end being quite unoccupied. Pulpit, litany-desk, and 
lettem, stand on a low platform, like a * solea/ at the east end of the 
nave. The east angle of the north aisle is screened off for a vestry, 
and north and south porches are rebuilt. The proportions of this 
building are excellent, and the western broach- spire is a study. 

iS. Mary, Peasemore, Berks, a small poor modern church with nothing 
but a " budding'* chancel, is about to be enlarged and re-arranged on 
better principles by Mr. Street. The nature of the site prevents any 
extension of the chancel eastward. Mr. Street therefore judiciously 
uses the present small chancel as sanctuary, adding a chorus cantorum — 
properly arranged — in the eastern part of the nave. He adds a 
broad aisle to the south side of the nave, towards its eastern 
part, to make up for the loss of seats occasioned by this re-arrange- 

202 Church Restorations, 

ment and by the removal of the gallery. The new aisle has a western 
door, and a sexfoiled circular window in the gable. It communicates 
with the nave by two arches, the intermediate pier being cylindrical 
with flowered capital and somewhat stilted base. The original low 
pitch of the roofs, and the base architecture of the existing part, are, 
of course, scarcely mended externally by the better character of the 
additional aisle, llie woodwork is good and simple, though the 
circular arch used in the panelling of the chancel- stalls is a somewhat 
unusual form. 

5. John Baptist, Great Amwell, Herts, — This church, remarkable 
for its original round-ended apsidal chancel, is restored and re-arranged, 
with the addition of a north aisle, by Mr. Withers. It has been un- 
avoidably necessary to remove the original ugly and narrow Roma- 
nesque chancel-arch, which wholly blocked sight and hearing. A 
Pointed arch with its mouldings dying off on the pier-jambs — ^neither a 
usual nor very allowable arrangement for this situation — is substituted. 
The internal arrangements are good, the chancel being stalled, and 
the prayers read from the westernmost stall on the south side. The 
windows are restored and renewed in good style, and the low tower 
with embattled parapet receives a light tapering banded spire. The 
tower-arch is furnished with a high open screen, while there are only 
low screens, without gates, for the chancel. A First-Pointed unequcd 
triplet had been unfortunately introduced before Mr. Withers was con- 
sulted. The altar stands, we observe, against the east wall instead of 
near the chord of the apse. The details are careful, the woodwork 
being copied as far as may be from the existing remains. The resto- 
ration of this curious church is very judiciously treated. The new 
north aisle is of good Middle- Pointed, and its side windows are square- 
headed, their tracery being perhaps rather too formal. 

8S, Peter and Paul, Deddington, Oxfordshire, possesses a fine early 
Middle-Pointed chancel, but the nave, arcades, and tower are post- 
Reformational of the Caroline revival, built in an imitation of Pointed, 
which is so good as to deceive all but practised judges of the style. 
Mr. Street has in hand the restoration and re -arrangement of the inte- 
rior, and he adds a vestry on the middle of the north side of the 
long chancel and a south porch on the middle of the south aisle. The 
chancel is properly stplled. with a bracketed organ on the south side. 
There is an ancient crypt under the east end of the south aisle : above 
this are placed the benches for the children, facing east. The new 
woodwork and the details generally we like much. 

SiS. Mary and Christopher, Panfield, Essex. — This small church, 
containing merely nave and chancel, and holding about one hundred 
people, with a modern east end without any windows in it, is about 
to be repaired and rearranged by Mr. Withers. A new aisle is added 
to the north of the chancel, with a square -headed window of three 
lights and tracery in the head, and a Perpendicular window of five 
cinq-foiled lights, superfoliated, is inserted in the east end, with a 
reredos of five panels (of which the middle one has a floriated cross 
in relief,) below it. The arrangements are good, and the woodwork 
simple but satisfactory. The chancel-arch receives a low screen and 

Church Restorations. 203 

gates, and we are only sorry that the " reader*8 stall/' on the south 
side, is so much larger and deeper than the reet that it interrupts the 
subselke. But, perhaps, this arrangement may be unavoidable in the 
present case. 

5. Hierome, Liangwm-Ucha, Pembrokeshire. — This small church, 
comprising chancel » with a tower on its north-west side, and nave, is 
about to be rearranged by Messrs. Pricbard and Seddon, and the nave 
will be rebuilt from the foundations. The original Third- Pointed 
details will be preserved in this process, and even tbe roof timbers 
will be repaired and replaced. 

jS. Mary, KetUchwch, Herefordshire, is about to be nearly rebuilt by 
Messrs. Prichard and Seddon. The plan has a long chancel, — to 
which the architects are adding on the north side a chapel, a vestry, 
and an apartment for the heating apparatus, alt under a lean-to rocMf, 
like an aisle — a nave, scarcely longer than the chancel, with a porch at 
the middle of its south side, and a western tower. The rearrange- 
ment is designed on right principles : there is a low screen across the 
chancel arch, the north side of which projects westward ambon-wise 
into the nave, and contains the pulpit. The external detail is good 
and unpretending. The low tower is capped with a low open belfry- 
stage of timber framing, surmounted by a dwarf square pyramidal 
capping. The least piecing feature is the added north chancel aisle ; 
and tht chimney of the heating apparatus is a little too ornate for con* 
siatency with the rest of the ehurch. 

Notre Dame, Paris, — Since the death of Lassus, the works of Notre 
Dame have been exclusively entrusted to M. VioUet le Due. He has 
just imdertaken a very important branch of the undertaking, the 
internal restoration of the apse, which it will be recollected had been 
travestied into Italian, the arches rounded, &c., during the unfortu^ 
nate mutilations of a former generation. The Renaissanee stalls will 
for the present, we understand, be left. The fleche is also to be re- 
placed upon the crossing, to the great improvement of the Parisian 
landscape. In the excavations necessary for the work, several of the 
episcopal tombs were opened, and some interesting discoveries made, 
such as fragments of vestments, a splendid pastoral staff of the thir- 
teenth century, enamelled ; two others in wood, of the fourteenth ; a 
silver Agnus Dei, of the fourteenth century ; a noble silver seal, of the 
commencement of the thirteenth century, bearing the inscription, 
« Francorum Regina Elizabeth Dei Gratia,'' (no doubt, Isabel of Hain- 
ault, wife of Philip Augustus ;) besides an episcopal, and other rings. 
Several leaden coffins of a later date were found in a state of preser- 
vation, and were not opened. M. Gerente is charged with the resto- 
ration of the painted glass in the large rose of the south tratisept, and 
with the filling of the windows of the gallery under it. He proposes 
to insert there figures of the prophets, following the type of the rose. 



LsT no one be seduced by the title or the attractiye exterior of 
a book called The Bayeux Tapestry (Brighton, Treacher; London, 
Hamilton,) into thinking that he has hold of an archaeological pub- 
lication. It is true that there is a facsimile of the famous embroidery 
of Queen Matilda (copied from the Atlas of Thierry's History of the 
Conquest of England) ; but the letter-press is an incredibly foolish tale, 
translated from the French, in which a sort of violently improbable 
romance is fitted as a kind of running commentary to the several 
scenes of the tapestry. We have seldom seen a more ludicrous 

We desire to call attention to a very valuable paper on the Position 
of the Priest at the Altar, which appeared in the last number of our 
contemporary the Ecclesiastic, and which has since been published 
separately. The writer goes very thoroughly into the subject, and 
proves very satisfactorily, we think, the views we have always held and 
advocated in these pages as to the position of the celebrant. 

The last number of the Church of the People contains not only an 
account of the late proceedings of the General Committee on the Pew 
System — the Manchester organization of which we have already spoken 
— but a vigorous address from the Rev. J. W. H. Molyneux, of Sud- 
bury, entitled, ** Preaching the Gospel to the Working Classes impos. 
sible under the Pew System." We commend this brochure to our 
readers' sympathy and support. Mr. Molyneux does not omit to cite 
the late admissions of Lord Shaftesbury and others as to the evil effects 
of pews ; and we observe the following note, which is worth quota- 
tion : *' The committee are glad to be able to state that, since the 
above was penned. Lord Shaftesbury has written to one of the secre- 
taries as follows: 'This pew question, now that it has been raised, 
must not be allowed to drop. I shall be happy to make an alliance 
with you for this cause.' " 

We notice with satisfaction that Mr. Withers has erected at Cardi- 
gan some good Pointed buildings for public purposes, such as mar- 
kets, corn-exchange, school, town-hall, &c. The group is bold and 
picturesque in brick, very ably treated, and much variety is afforded 
by the levels, there being three stories of markets, the two undermost 
being covered in by arches turned in brick, from mass-piers. The gables 
are stepped, and the roofs steep, banded in coloured tiles, and with a 
good louvre on the ridge. There are many more important towns 
which have inferior public buildings to these. 

A review of Mr. Gibson's Lectures and Essays must stand over. 

Received — Alphonse de S. Evereux. 



*' Surge igitnr ct tut: et erit Sominim ttatnu*' 

No. CXXVIL— AUGUST, 1858. 
(new series^ no. xci.) 


(Continued Jrom p. 149. J 

ArrsB spending a day and a half among the ruins of Wisby. we left 
the town by its northern gate, and drove right round the island, visiting 
every church that was not too difficult of access ; altogether we saw 
about fifty. They were built, if we may trust the statements of the 
chronicle, between 1060 a.d. and 1250 a.d. From these dates we 
should expect to meet with Romanesque, or Early- Pointed architecture ; 
and such is chiefly the case, except that the former predominates, 
which may perhaps be accounted for by the insular situation of the 
country, which would render change less rapid. The material em- 
ployed, both for the walls and vaulting, is native limestone. 

There id great uniformity in the plan, which almost invariably con- 
sists of a nave without aisles, and a chancel, terminating sometimes in a 
rectangle, sometimes in a semicircular apse. In only two instances does 
the usud division into nave and aisles occur. There is a general 
absence of windows on the north side, nor are they very numerous on 
the south, so that the interiors are rather gloomy. The chancels are 
lighted by one or more narrow slits in the eastern wall, and perhaps one 
in the southern. While, however, such a sameness of plan prevails, 
the imagination of the architects has taxed itself to the utmost to in- 
Tent variety in ornament. No two churches are alike in this respect, 
whereas in other countries where the Romanesque style prevails, the 
same designs occur over and over again. Here the classical type has 
been more considerably deviated from, and one observes rather a 
Byzantine grotesqueness in the ever-varying forms of the capitals and 
corbels; in the strange beasts, and birds, and monsters, that are 
dimbing round the columnSi and the fonts ; in the arabesques of the 

VOL, XIX. » » 

206 On the Churches in the Island of Gottland. 

doorways, and the deeply-cut mouldings, which recal the richness of 
our own Barly-Poiated work. 

The nave-roof is always of a high pitch ; and above that rises the 
tower, in some instances full forty feet ; but such splendid examples 
are, of course, rare, though the tower is always a conspicuous feature 
in the church, pierced with two or three tiers of windows on each 
side, and gabled so as to give lightness and elegance to it, and termi- 
nating in a spire, generally of wood. At Larbro, the west tower is 
octagonal, three sides are engaged^ but the remnining five rise from a 
bold plinth, with a small buttress at each angle, terminating at about 
half the distance from the ground to the commencement of the spire, in 
a pinnacle. At this level each side is gabled, and pierced with two 
small Romanesque windows* The tower is thence continued on a 
plane about two feet behind its former one, its sides separated 
by buttresses as before, until it terminates in a spire. On the 
westernmost side is a deeply recessed round-headed door. While 
describing the tower, I will notice a clever device respecting the inter- 
nal arrangement. It is this : the space under the tower is of the same 
width as the nave of the church, and its length from east to west equal 
to that of one of the bays into which the vaulting is divided. By this 
contrivance a church, which outside appears small and inadequate, 
is increased one-third ; for, as regards the accommodation of worship- 
pers, the chancel may be left out of the question. In the larger ones 
there is no difference perceptible between the space under the tower, 
and the rest of the nave, the side walls being strong enough to sup« 
port the tower without extraneous aid : in others, it is entered by a 
large Pointed arch, if the church be a late one ; or by a double round- 
headed one. If it be of early date. Then, in order to strengthen the 
walls, a mass of masonry is raised on each of the tower's three sides 
to about one-third of its whole height, pierced towards the top with a 
gallery, on which more or less ornament is lavished, and ending in a 
lean-to roof of red tiles. 

The massive efiect which the exterior of the churches, despite their 
plainness, presents, is in a great measure due to the plinths on which 
they are built. Their mouldings are bold, and coarsely executed, as 
befits their position ; but projecting as they do, at least a foot and a half 
at the ground beyond the wall of the church, they give an appearance 
of stability to the structure which would otherwise be wanting.^ 

But far above everything else in beauty are the doorways : while 
they are all after the same type, they display a fertility of invention, 
and a skill in the disposition and execution of ornament, which ia 
truly admirable. They usually project some distance beyond the wall 
of the church, and have a penthouse of stone over them to keep oat 
the weather ; they are also deeply recessed, so that the walls being 
from three to four feet in thickness, great space is given for the 
insertion of shafts and mouldings in the jamb and arch above, llie 

Mt IB worthy of notice that that moulding, formed of two aegmanta of a oirde, 
the unper one overlapping the lower one, and which in tma country ia coA- 
aiderea characteristic of Second- Pointed work, occttra in Gottland in Romaneaqne 

On the Churches in the Island of Gottland. 207 

eapitab of theee shafts are freqaently all carved out of the same block 
of atone, and contain subjects from Holy Scripture, inTeated with the 
«haracteriatic8 of the time when they were executed. Thus at Lye 
the Hc^y Innocents are being murdered by knights in full armour. 
The subjects generally refer to the earlier events in the Oospel His- 
tory, as the Salutation of SS. Mary and Elisabeth, the Nativity, and 
the Adoration of the Magi. Sometimes they are grotesque, as at 
Dalhem, where the groups were a monk blowing a trumpet, a winged 
bull with a woman's face, and a dragon swallowing a man. The ac- 
tual doorway does not commence where the jamb terminates, but is 
narrowed by the addition of stonework, which sometimes is left plain ; 
but generally its flat surface is covered with ornament, in the form of 
arabesque, or subjects in medallion. These are sometimes thus ar- 
ranged : at the top, the First Person of the TaiiriTT crowning the 
Blessed Virgin ; on the left S. John, and S. Peter benesth ; to the 
right two other figures, one of whom carries a tablet, on which is the 
device of the Lamb and Banner. This, besides its religious meaning, is 
the standard of Gottland. On this door the remaining spaces, down to 
the ground, were filled with patterns. The bead of such doorway is a 
trefoil, quatrefoil, or cinquefoil, in proportion to its size and elabora« 
tions ; and the cusps are carved or left plain on the same principle. 
The door is hung behind this opening, and opens inwards ; and where 
the original wood- work remains is covered with bands of iron disposed 
in a pattern. The great size of these porches — as one might almost call 
them, for they are generally some 10 ft. high, and 4 or 5 ft. wide — makes 
them the most conspicuous objects on the exterior. The earlier ones 
have round arches, the latter Pointed ; and in such cases the space be- 
tween the crown of the arch and the point of the gable over it is used 
for the display of sculpture. In the door I was just describing* in this 
apace is seated our Loan in majesty ; a glory surrounds His h^d : Hie 
right hand is raised to bless. His left bears a shield with the device of 
a cross upon it. Beneath His feet lie three figures in mail, with 
shields in their hands. A very extraordinary continuation of the 
sculpture of the doorway along the wall on either side exists at 
St£nga. Groups of figures, life-size, if not larger, project from the 
wall ; indeed they are but slightly attached to it at any point, being 
supported upon massive brackets of stone. They cover a great part 
of the south wall, and we heard there had originally been many more, 
llie lowest group represents the three kings making their offerings ; 
eastward of them, on the same level, is the Blessed Virgin, crowned, 
with our Loan in her arms, seated under a canopy. I'he next group 
above, consists of a central figure with a glory, seemingly our Loan ; 
and on each side of Him, human figures in mocking attitudes. The 
third in order from the ground, which extends to the eaves, is the 
most incomprehensible. To the left are two figures asleep, with a 
smaller one beneath ; to the right of them a standing figure, and be- 
yond him a mailed knight. 

On entering moet of the churches, you find that the nave is 
nearly a square, which, by the addition of the space under the tower, 
becomes a parallelogram. The tower is supported by the pie» 

208 On the Churches in the Island of Gottland. 

on either side : in the centre of the square portion is a cylindrical 
pillar, supporting the four vaults into which the roof is subdivided. 
From the pillar, four cross-springers, plain bands of stone, bend 
over to the walls, where they rest on corbels of various design. The 
ornaments of the pillars are Romanesque : the capital has a classical 
abacus, with frequently a bird at each comer, clinging with his talons 
to the upper portion, and clasping the lowest moulding with his beak. 
At Tingstade, one of the most noticeable churches in the island, the 
four figures are all different. One b the bird I have described ; an- 
other ia a demon, protruding his tongue ; a third a human figure, with 
his right foot resting on his left knee ; a fourth is another devil. The 
bases are formed of a series of rounds and hollows, and are generally 
placed upon a massive square block of masonry, which also serves as 
a seat. 

The chancels are nearly all small and dark. Occasionally their 
roofs are higher than those of the nave, an innovation which certainly 
has not beauty to recommend it. The original altar, raised several 
feet above the nave floor, and detached about a yard from the east 
wall, still exists in most places. Besides this, two smaller altars, one 
on each side of the chancel arch, in the nave, were generally to be 
seen. They are all slabs of marble, raised on masses of solid masonry. 
The chancel arches are very rude, they have nothing worthy the 
name of moulding, and in ftict are little more than openings in the 
wall. The roof is generally a single quadripartite vault : in the older 
examples a barrel roof occurs. 

I had fully expected to find some woodwork of great antiquity and 
interest in Gottland ; but no : once I found 9ome stalls, and fragments of 
a screen, but they were of rude 17th century work, lliere is some fine 
stone carving here and there, sometimes in the shape of a tabemade 
for the sacrament. The roods too are very curious. There is one in 
nearly every church, generally fastened up in some conspicuous place. 
They are of one design. The three upper arms of the cross ere of the 
same length^ the lower one rather longer ; each is terminated by a 
square panel, containing the Evangelistic symbols in relief. A circular 
glory of wood, painted yellow, whose diameter is equal to the joint 
length of the shorter arms of the cross, is added to each. The edges 
of the cross and the glory are cusped. The figure is of life size ; the 
expression of the Loan's face is majestic, and His head is bent towards 
His right ; His arms are extended straight, and a cloth which girds 
His loins hangs in folds nearly to His knees. The figure is painted. 
At Christ's feet is a female figure, kneeling. In most churches may 
be seen an old font, which Lutheran innovations have moved from its 
original position beneath the western tower. In form they are gene* 
rally circular, and covered with grotesque carvings, which have once 
been painted ; and some possess their old wooden covers. 

There is generally an ancient reredos. which bespeaks its Oerman 
origin by the character of the design, and the language in which the 
names and legends of the saints are written. It will be sufficient to 
describe one, that at Linde. In the centre portion is Ood the Fatubr* 
crowned, supporting the Sok, Who stands bleeding before Him. He is 

On the Churches in the Island of Gottkmd. 309 

vested in a gold robe with flowers on it, and a pattern round the bottom. 
In the glory round the Fathbr's head, are the words, " Sancta Trioi- 
tas ;" but no representation of the Holt SriaiT is now to be seen. 
Four angels surround the central group. On the right of these figures^ 
under a canopy, is S. Olaf, with batUe-axe in his right hand, and a 
cup in his left, crowned, standing on the dragon of heathendom. On 
their left is S. Egidius, vested as a bishop, with a mitre. 

In the left wing, on the upper row, are SS. Bartholomew, Paul, 
Peter, and a female saint ; beneath, SS. James, John, Matthew, and 
another, whose name is illegible. 

In the right wing, SS. George, Andrew, , Thomas ; beneath, 

SS. Eric. Simon, Jude, Philip. 

It was repaired in 17^3 ; beneath the reredos, on the flat board be- 
tween it and the super-altar is painted a tablet, supported by two 
angels, with the date of its first construction. In dem jahr nach 
Charisti gehmi, 15^1. At Lye I saw an ancient processional cross of 
metal, tied by a string to the reredos. The work was Byzantine, the 
material wood, covered with plates of metal, and jewelled. Our Loan 
is crowned. At the ends of die four arms are figures of the Evangelists. 
Their robes are bordered with blue enamel, a material which is also 
used for the letters I.H.S. over Christ's head. 

But what most strikes a stranger on entering some out-of-the-way 
church in the island, is the quantity and beauty of the stained glass. 
It was probably made in Germany, whence we have seen that the Gott- 
landers derived much of their art. The drawing is excellent, the colours 
brilliant, and the jewelled lustre still remains, flashing forth in the neg- 
lected darkness of these ancient piles, a solitary witness to the glories 
of the past. 

The glass that remains generally fills the eastern triplets. At the 
top of the centre light, in every example, our Loan is seated in ma- 
jesty. His right hand is raised to bless, while His left holds either a 
crossleted banner or a book. The remaining subjects are arranged in 
medallions, on a blue ground generally, with a pattern worked on it in 
black. To take the arrangement of a single churchy Lojska. There 
was the usual figure at the top of the centre light ; beneath the Resur- 
rection, then the Crucifixion ; while the lowest group of all is wanting. 
In the north light, the Adoration of the Magi, the Nativity, the Annun- 
ciation. In the south, the Baptism of Christ, Simeon bearing Christ 
in his Arms, the Flight into Egypt. The ground is red in this 
instance. Round the groups runs a border of white, then one of yel- 
low, or some other colour, and white again invariably next to the 

Such are some of the leading features of a Gottland church ; would 
that I could describe them more vividly ; but if these remarks shall in- 
duce any experienced ecclesiologbt to visit the island, and give the 
results of his study to the world, their object will have been amply 
attained. In conclusion, I must apologise for the absence of the de- 
tailed notes I promised ; great press of work has made it impossible to 
prepare them ; and for the*same reason I must defer the publication of 
the Inventory of S. Mary's, Wisby, until a future opportunity. 

210 The Sarum Servitiwn Indudendarum. 

I append, for the gaidance of any visitor whose time is limited, A 
list of some few of the chnrches I saw, which seemed to me most re- 
markable. G. denotes their excellence in stained glass ; R. the exist* 
enee of a fine reredos. 


R. Larbro. 
G. Dalhem. 

G. Lojska. 
G. Ekeby. 

G. Endre. 


G. Horsne. 

G. Lye. 

R. TJnde. 



J. w. a 


As the Salisbury office for the inclusion of an anchorite may have some 
bearing, in other places besides those I have quoted in my last letter* 
on the question of anker- windows, and as, at any rate, its perusal may 
interest your readers, I append it extracted from the Manual (Lond. 
1654) to which I have before referred. And I have carefully collated 
it with the same office in the Pontifical^ of Edmund Lacy, Bishop 
(1410 — 1465) of Exeter; which, it will be seen, differs in some im* 
portant particulars from the Servitium includendorttm of the Manual. 

W. H. C. 

QualUer hi qui ad ordinem amaehorHarum actedunt aeeedere m>e Me 
habere deheant^ eequentia eeeundum umm SarUburiensem declarabuni? 
Nan oporiet qaemquam incluewn fieri sine Epiecopi eaneultu .- sed ah 
€pi$copo out alxquo alio presbitero erudiatur ae numeatur quatettme 
ipee devoius eanseieniiam euam scrutetur : ae videlicet utrum bona iMtet^ 
tione out mala eafictitaiem appetit : si Deo plaeere aui lucrum wte 
laudem humanam aequirere affeetat : denique an viree ei et eonetaniia 

^ I cannot quote from this important ritual document of the English Church with- 
out repeating in very strong tenns the warning given by Mr. Maskell (Men. Rit. fal. 
869) to the student ** against relying upon the accuracy of the [printed] text." It 
has been most carelessly edited. Some patent errors {ex. gr. **faeit in medio 
chori " for^* Jaeei,*' in the opening rubric) I have corrected without any remark ; 
in many cases, it will be seen, I haye suggested the probably correct readings in a 
note : while in some places the meaning is hopelessly obscured to those who have 
act access to the original MS. The rabrioation throughout is extremely inoorreot 
and confused ; and, in fact, the printed edition is a seakd book to any one not eon- 
Tersant in ritual books of the period. 

* The Pontifical of Bishop Lacy prefixes the office with this rubric : — Ad melu' 
dendum atwhoritam. Si mateuhtf et elerieui Jnerit Jacet in medio chori, prot' 
iratni toto corporttptditut mtdii, in erationtt 9i lmcui,JtiC€i extra koitium ekeris 
eifenrinnf jacet m occidentali parte eccUeim, ubi woe eetjemmie orare, Bpiecopuif 
vel aiine <nti eommittetur q^cttim, induttu eacrie veetibue prtrter caeulam, aim mi' 
nietrii saerie indutie eedet in preebiterio vel veetieriOf donee Cantor incipiat Reeponm 
eonum Emendemus. 

Tk0 Sarum Servitium Includendarum. 211 

menHa mtpjmlani contra maligni hoHU nenuHoB : ei contra kujus 
mundi mnumerabUcs molectias. Qua cum 9c pro regno Dei tciera* 
iurum ct in Deo colo spem potUurum promuerit^ ineludat cum EpU' 
eopu9 aiut preehyterjuMu EpUcopi. Ipee vero inehum diseat non superbe 
eapere quam meruit freguentia hominum separari : eed infirmitati eua 
poiiue credat esse provisum aut eonstUtum qmdeUmgatus est a consortia 
proximorum : ne erebrius peceando ae se perditioni maneipando eoko' 
bitantes eontaminaret et ob hoc in damnationem graviorem ineideret. 
Reputet ergo se inelusus quasi peecatis damnatum ct eelUs solitaria 
velut earceri traditum : et propter infirmitatem propriam honUnum con^ 
sortio indignum. Hcbc regula in utroque sexu scrvetur, % Ineipit 
ordofamulos vel famulas Dei ineludendi. Hie provideat sibi ineluden-" 
dus ct quod de omnibus peecatis suis qua memoria sua occurrcrc 
possint sit confessus : ct quod in die diem inclusionis preccdente pane 
ct aqua tantum rcficiatur. In nocte vero sequcnte in monasterio inelU' 
sorio suo vieino cum cereo suo aeeenso devote in orationibus vigUarc 
tenctur. In crastino facta exhortatione ad populum ct ad cum qui 
includetuhts est, Episeopus vel saccrdos incipiat hoc Rcsponsorium. 

lEmendemas Chorus proscquatur in melius que ignoranter peoea* 
^mus ne snbito preoccujpati die mortis quteramus spatiom penitentisD 
et invenire non possimus. Attende Domine et miserere quia pecca- 
▼imus tibi. Y, Adjuva nos Deus Salutaris noster : et propter gloriam 
nominia tui Domine libera nos. B. Attende, Domine. 

% Postca prostcmcns se Episeopus vet saccrdos super tapctum ante 
altare cum clericis incipiat hos psalmos, 

Domine ne in furore.' Domine Dominns noater^ cum Gloria Patri. 
Psaimus. Bxandiat te Dominua in die tribulationis ;^ etc. Psalmms. 
Beati quorum.^ Psalmus, Judica Domine nocentes me: expugna» 
etc.^ Psalmus, Domine ne in furore, ii.7 Psalmus, Beatus qui intel- 
ligit.^ Psalmus. Judica me Deus et discerne.' Psalmus. Miserere 
mei Deua secondum.^^ Psalmus, Domine exaudi orationem meam. i.^^ 

Benedic aniroa mea Domino : et omnia qute intra me sunt nomini 
aancto ejus. 

Benedic anima mea Domino : et noli oblivisd omnes retributiones 

Qui propitiatur omnibus iniquitatibus tuis : qui sanat omnes infirmi- 
tates tuas. 

Qui redimit de interitu vitam tuam : qui coronat te in miserioordia 
et miserationibus. 

Qui replet in bonis desiderium tuum : renovabitur ut aquilae juventus 
tua. Non dicitur ulterius. 

Psalmms. De profundisJ^ Psalmus. Domine non est exaltatum.^^ 
Psabnus. Domine exaudi. ii.^^ His dietis sequatur^^ Kyrie Bleison. 

^ This response and vene have tbe mnsical notation in the MannaL 

• Pa. Ti. Anglican yersion. ■ Ps. viii. * Pa. xx. 

• Pa. mii. • Ps. xxxT. 7 Ps. zzxviii. 

• Pi. xlL • Pa. xliii. » Pa. li 

" Pa. di. » Pa. ciu. 1—6. » Pa. cxxx, 

" Pa. cxxxi. « Pa. ezHu. 

^ The Pontifical hen has a oonaiderable Tariatioo. Postea duo elerici stcnies 

212 The Samm Senritium Incbtdendorum^ 

Ghmte Eleison. Kyrie Eleison. Pater noater. Bt ae noe. Sed 

Salvum fac servam taom vel anctllam tuam ; 

Deos meus sperantem in te. 
Nihil proficiat inimicus in eo ; 

Et filius ioiqaitatis non appropinqiiat nocere ei. 
Esto ei, Domine, tarria fortitadinit ; 

A facie inimici. 
Mitte ei, Domine, auxilium de sancto ; 

Et de SyoQ tuere eum. 
Domine exaudi orationem meam ; 

Et clamor mens ad te veniat. 
Dominus vobitcam. Oremus. 

Parce, Domine, parce famalo tuo N. quern redemisti Ghriste aan^ 
gnine too : et ne in eternum irascaris ei : qui vivb, etc. 

Alia oratio cum Oremus. Oratio* 

Deu8 infinitse misericordiee et bonitatis immenss, propitiare iniqui* 
tatibua ejus et omnibus animse ejus medere languoribus : ut pecoatorum 
suorum remissione percepta semper in tua benedictione Istetur. Per 

Oremus. Oratio. 

Omnipotens sempiteme Deus miserere famuli tui N. et dirige eum. 
secundum clementiam tuam in yiam salutis Ktemse : ut te donante 
tibi placita cupiat et tota virtute proficiat. 

. Actiones nostras qusasumus Domine aspirando preveni et adjuvando 
proaequere : ut euncta nostra operatio It te aemper ineipiat, et per te 
aemper finiatur. Per Dominum.^ 

ante gradum deeaniant litaniam alia voce, ehoro per Hngula retpondtnte, on pro eo 
vel ea, ri femma fiterit. Cfum antiphonam prommtiaverit ip9um maneni eapiHbu» 
ineUiuttis.* In fliM vero lUamm veniat EpUeopue cum immetrie mi proetraium 
cum cruce et thuribuh et aqud benedictd et proposita cruce ante eum, ter eum per* 
hutret hupergendo cum aqud benedictd, et ineentum eimiUter adhibendo : addenm 
Pater noster. Et ne noB. Salvum fac seimm. Domine Dens ▼irtatam.f Do* 
mine ezaudi. Dominos Tobiscnm. Oremus. 

Dens, qui jnsttficas. See p. 213. 

Omnipotens sempiteme Deus, miserere (as in text aboTe.) 

Rege quKsumus famulnm tuum. With the exception of this commencement^ the 
same prayer as " Protege qocsumus Domine famulum tuum," p. 218. 

Dens qui oorda. 

Actiones nostras qnaesumus Domine, etc. 

1 After this collect (see note^ p. 211) the Pontifical continues : Deinde Bpieeapua 
velofficium agene, cum alia pereona venerabiH sublevet proiiratum, done ei in mamtua 
duoe cereoe ardentee, monene ut deincepe firventer permaneat in amore Dei ei 
proximii quoeeinguHe manibue tenendo devote auecuUet Subdiaconum kane lectionem 
Clara voce legeniem. 

Lectio Isaise propheta. Hsec didt Dominus. Yade popule mens. [Isaiah xxri. 
20, to zzTii. 4.] Indignatio non est mihi. 

Qua perlecta eubeequatur Diaeonui legendo Evangelium eecundum Lucam. In- 
travit Jesus in quoddam castellum [S. Luke x. 38 to end] ut infeeto Aeeun^^tkmia 
beata Maria, 

* Quare, Pronuntiayerint, ipsi manent ? 
t Apparently, with the R. Ft. Ixzxlr* 8. 

The Sarum Servitium Includendarum. 218 

His itaque peracHs, induct se casula Episcopus vel Sacerdos et statim 
missa de quocungue voluerit^ incipiatur, Ita quod hac sequens oratio 
dicatur pro includendo et diccUur sub uno Per Dominum, et sub uno 
Oremas. Oratio. 

DeuB quij ustificas impium, et non vis mortem peccatoris ;^ majes- 
tatem tuam sappliciter' deprecamur at famulum tuom N. de tua 
pietate^ confidentem, celesti protegas benignus auxilio : et assidaa pro- 
tectione conserves, ut tibi jugiter famoletur : et nullis tentationibus ii 
te separetur. Per Dominum. 

Post evangelium offerat includendus cereutn suum qui super altare ad 
missam semper ardeat, Et stet includendus ante gradum altaris et 
leffat aperta voce professianem suam. Si laicus fuerit legat aliquis 
puer pro eo. Professio vero talis erit. 

Ego frater vel soror N. oflPerens trado meipsum divinse pietati in 
ordine anachoritano servituroov^* et secundum regulam ordinis illius 
in servitio Dei amodo per gratiam divinam et consilium ecclesise pro- 
mitto me permansurum : et patribus meis spiritualibus obedientiam 
canonicam ezbibiturum. 

Etfaeiat includendus signum erucis cum penna super schedulam pro- 
/essionis sua : et ponens earn super altare fiexis genibus oret : epis- 
copo vel sacerdote ante incipient e hoc tnodo Antipkonam 

Confirma hoc Deus quod operatus es in nobis It templo sancto tuo 
quod est in Hierusalem. Alleluya. Alleluya. Ezurgat.^ 

Postea Episcopus vel Sacerdos dicat Oremus. Oratio. 

Deus qui famulum tuum It saeculi vanitate conversum ad supenue 
vocationis amorem accendis : pectori illius purificaodo illabere, et 
gratiam quam in te perseveret infunde : ut protectionis tun munitus 
pmsidio quse te donante promisit impleat : et sute professionis executor 
efPectus, ad ea quee perseverantibus ia te dignatus es promittere pertin- 
gat. Per Christum. 

Post hac Episcopus vel sacerdos benedieat eum hoe oratione kMtum 
professo congruum.^ 

Signum Domini nostri Jesu Christi damns super banc vestem ad 

^ That h, the maes of the day, or week, or of the Blessed Virgin, or of the Holy 
Gbost, or in fact any the Priest might choose. The Pontifical, we shall see pre- 
sently, restricts the officiant to the Holy Ghost mass. The special collect in the 
text was to be added, under one Oremus, to the collect of the mass selected, as no 
doubt the special secret ako was* 

> Peccatomm. Pontif, ' Snpplices. Pontif. 

* Misericordia. Ptmtif. 

* I.e., to sing the 68th Psalm (which is noted to the 8th Tone, 2), of which Con- 
firma is the antiphon, also noted in the Manual. 

* The Pontifical postpones the profession till after the blessing of the habit, which 
is effected in the following form, immediately after the licction from S. Luke, 
p. 212. 

Qko perlecio benedieantw vutn per hune modum. 
Dominus vobiscum. 

Deus qui vestimentum salntaris, et indumentum etemae jucunditatis tnis fidelibns 
promisisti ; clementiam tuam suppliciter exoramus, ut htec indumenta humilitatem 
cordis et contemptum mnndi lignificantia, quibus famulus tuua sancto Tisibiliter est 

» VOL. XIZ. F F 

214 The Sarum Servitium Includendomm. 

cuatodiendam propositum : et ut Spiritus Sanctus regnet in corde et 
ill corpore ^t in omnibus operibus suscipientis. Per eundem Christnoi 
Dominum nostrum. Amen. Postea aspergat et suscipientem et kabitum 
aqua benedicta et cum dederit habitum induendo dicat : Exuat te Deua 
▼eterem bominem cum actibus suis : et induat te Deus novum bominem 
qui secundum Deum creatus est in justitia et sanctitate veritatis. St 
re0pondeant omnes Amen. 

Indutm cum habitu includendua et etatim proetemat te ante gradvm 
altarie : et sic in aratione prostratus permaneat donee ab Episcopo vel 
eacerdote ad communionem vocetur. Hie itaque peraetie^ Episa^fme pel 
eaeerdos super proetratum cantando incipiat hunc ht^mnum. 

Veni Creator Spiritus, etc.^ 

y. Emitte Spiritum tuum et creabuntur. 

B. Et renovabis faciem terrse.^ 

Dominus vobiscum. Et cum spiritu tuo. Oremus. Oratio, Deus 
qui non vis mortem peccatoris, sed penitentiam et emendationem semper 
desideras, misericordise tuse clementiam suppliciter imploramus : ut huic 
famulo tuo secularibus actibas reuuncianti large tuse pietatis gratiam 
infundere digneris: quatenus castris tuis insertus ita tibi miUtando 
stadium vitse presentis percurrere valeat : ut bravium etemse remunera- 
tionis te donante percipiat. Per Christum. 

infirmandoB propoeito, propitios benedicas, et beatse castitatis qoam, te inspirante, 
fusoepit, te prot^;eiite costodiat. Per Christum Dominum. 

Deus qui es bonanim yirtutum et omnium beuedictionum largua inftuor, exandi 
preces nostras et banc yestem* quam fiimnlns tuus N. pro oonsemmdn castitBtia 
rigno, se ad operiendum ezposdt, benedicere tj^ et sanctificare i{i digneris. Per 
Christum Dominum nostram. 

FkUta benedietUme, et aapertU vuHbtu aqui benedicid, legai tnehtdendut prt^' 
steam siMfR ant* gradum altaris, et deferat ad altare, gvd ibi dinUma, et altari 
oteuUUo, redeat ad gradum, 0t ibidem Jlectent genua ter dieat htme veremm. 
Susdpe me Domine secundum eloquium tuum, etc. Quo ter dieto et ehoro totiee 
tdem reepondente, etatim eereoi ojferat, et euper candelabra ponat, et tie redeai ante 
gradumi ibidem genua fleetena donee BpUcoput amotia efue veatibue antiquie ipeum 
veatibui nopiajam benedictia induat, dieena, 

Ezuat te Dominus yeterem hominem cum actibus suis. Amen. 

Induat te Dominus novum hominem qui secundum Deum factus est in justitia et 
sanctitate veritatis. Quo dieto incipiat Epiacopua, Veni Creator Spiritus. 

1 Printed at length in the Manual ; the first Terse with the musical notation. 

' The TersiGle and response is not in the Pontifical, (though probably always 
added in choir to the hymn,) but it proceeds immediately (in place of the prayer in 
the text). 

Pster noster. Et ne nos. 

Salvum fac serrum tuum. 

Mitte ei Domine auziMum de sancto. 

Nihil profidat 

Esto d Domine. 

Domine ezaudi. 

Dominus vobiscum. Oremus. Dens qui corda.* Oremus. 

Pretende Domine ftimulo tuo dezteram oelestis auzilii ut te toto corde perquirati 
et que digne postukt consequatur. Per Christum. 

Adesto qussumus omnipotens Deus famulo tuo de tna miserioordia oonfidenti, 
euipque tua protectione custodi ; ut k cunctis adTersitatlbus Uberatns, bcmedicCioiie 
etema dignus inyeniatnr. Per Dominum. 

* Collect for Whitsun>Day. 

The Saturn Servitium Includendaruin. 2l6 

Poiihffc^ Episcapus vel sdeerdos pergeM dd altate miaHil/i confinU^i 
pro includendo. Seereta, 

Hujus qusesumas Domine virtute mydterii e€ k propriis nos mnlidli 
delictis : et famulum tuum N. ab otoiiibua^ absolve peccatis. Per Do- 
minum nostram. Posicommunio, Purificent nos Domioe sacramenta 
que sumpsimus et famulum tuum N. ab omni culpa liberum esse con- 
cede : ut qui conscientise reatu constring^tur, celestis remedii pleni- 
tudine glorietur. Per Dominum. 

^ Poatquam ipse Epiecopus vel sacerdoe eommunicatue fuerity novum 
ineludendum communicet. Missa finita^ tradatur eerevs prefatue t»- 
cludendo : et ordinata proeessione Episcopua vel sacerdos casulatue 
incedat : et ineludendum portantem cereum euum per manum accipiat 
et koneete eecum ad habitaeulum euum deducat, Clerici interim letO' 
niam solemniter preeedentes content. Cum autem ad habitaculum 
perventum fuerit : finita litania Episeopus vel sacerdos ineludendum. 
extra habitaculum dimittat, et solus in habitaculum inducat incipiendo 
cum aqua benedicta antiphonam Asperges me vel Vidi aquam prout 
tempos exegerit, Postea sanctificet et benedicat habitaculum per oro" 
tiones sequentes. Hac oratio dicatur super altare cum Oremus. Oratio. 
Domine Sancte Pater et clemens, cujos nee initium nee finis advertitur : 
qui tantus es quantus esse voluisti scilicet' sanctus atque mirabilis : 
Deus cujus majestatem elementa non capiunt : te benedicimns, te snp- 
plices^ deprecamur ut sit^ altare hoc sictit illud quod Abel salutaribu* 
mysteriis in passione precursor jugulatns ^ fratre novo sanguine imbaife 
et sacravit. Sit tibi Domine altare hoc siout illud quod Abraham patetf 
noster qui te videre meruit fabricavit ; in quo summus saoerdos Mel* 
chisedech sacrificii nomen^ triumphalis expressit. Sit tibi^ altare hoo 
sient illud quod Moyses septem dierom porificatione mnndavit, et eelesti 

> The Pontifioal here prescribes the sermon md the mats to be laid : Hisflnitis 
faeiat sermonem ad popuittm, exponendo moditm etformam vivendi mehtdindo, §t 
eommendet mcludendum populo ut orent pro to. Quo fimto dieat ineludendus, n 
sacerdos Jueriti missem de Saneto Spiniu: si non Juerii sacerdos, dicat JBpiscogms si 
voiuerit, vel alius sacerdos, illam missam. 

^ The Pontifical does not notice the commonion of the candidate , but continuee, 
after the last note — Missa dicta ducat Episeopus permamim recludendum* ad reclu» 
sorimn. Si incipiat cantor antiphonam, Ingrediar locum tabernacoli admirabilia. 
Ffo/flittf zli, Quemadmodnm.t Qiiem dum caniaverit,personaliter incedatXusqus 
ad ostium reclusorii ; fuo cumpervenerii,i introeat Episeopus cum ministris, ceteris 
cum inchidendojbris interim egpectantibus, mosque Episeopus aspergens domum aqud 
kenedictd incipiens antiphonam, Asperges me, etc. Et dicat, Ostende nobis Do- 
mine, etc. Dominos Tobiscnm. Oremus. Ex audi nos Domine Sancte Pater om- 
nipotens, eteme Deus, et mittere digneris. || Et tunc incensatur altare et tola domus 
et cantetur antiphona, Domine ad te dirigatur oratio mea, etc. Pealmus cxl. Do- 
mine, ad te damavi.** Ant^hona, Ecce odor filii mei sicut odor agri pleni, cui bene- 
dixit Dominus. Pealmus cxlvii. Lauda Jerusalem. Hoc oratio dicatur super 
altare. Domine Sancte Pater clemens, etc. 

' Sanctus scilicet atque. Pontif. * Et supplioes. Pont\f. 

* TIbi. Pontiff * Normam expressit. Pont\f, 
1 Tibi Domine. Pont\f* 

* I.e.. includendmn. f Ps. zlii. Angliean version.^ 
X Quaere, cantarerint processlenaliter incedant. 

$ Quere, pervenerint. 

n This prayer occurs in the form of blessing a new house in the Pontifical. 

•• Ps. cxlL 

216 The Sarum Serviikm Ineludendorum. 

tertio^ alloquio sanctum vocavit. Sicut locutus es ad earn dicens. Si 
quis tetigerit altare hoc sanctificatus habeatur. In hoc ergo^ altah 
juguletur luxuiria : onmisque libido feriatur. Offeratur^ pro turturibus 
sacrificium castitatis: pro pullia columbanim innocentie sacrificiom. 
Per Dominum nostrum, etc. 

Benedietio super domum^ Oremus. 
'Adesto Domine supplicationibus nostris, et banc domum serenis 
oculis tuse pietatis illustra. Descendat super habitantes in ea gratia 
tuse pietatis larga benedietio : ut in his manu factis habitaculis cum so- 
brietate manentes ipei tuum semper sint habitaculum. Per Christum 
Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

% Alia oratio cum Oremus. Oratto. 

'Exaudi Domine sancte Pater omnipotens eteme Deus, ut si qua 
sint adrersa, si qua contraria in hac domo famuli tui N. auctoritate 
majestatis tuae pellantur. Per Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum 
filium tuum» qui tecum viWt et regnat in unitate. 

Alia cum Oremus. Oratio, 

'Bene)i*dic Domine domum istam et locum istum ut sit in ea sanitas, 
sanctitas, castitas, virtus, victoria, sanctimonia* humilitas, lenitas. 
mansuetudo, plenitude legis et obedientia Deo Patri et Filio et Spiritoi 
Sancto, et sit super locum istum et super omnes habitantes in eo tua 
larga bene*I^ictio, ut in his manu factis habitaculis cum sobrietate ma- 
nentes, ipsi tuum sint semper habitaculum. Per Dominum nostrum 
Jesum Christum filium tuum qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spi- 
ritus Saaeti Deus. 

JHispredieiit exeat Epiacopuf vel tacerdoa et introducat ineludendutm 
portantem cereum suum indpiendo Hoc responsorium. 

Regnum mundi^ ehorui proseqwUwr et omnem omatum sseculi cod- 
tempsi propter amorem Domini mei Jesu Christi, quern vidi, quern 

^ Too alloquio. Pmdif. < Ergo, omitted. Pomttf. 

■ Offeretur. omitted. Pont\f, 

* Benedietio domue. 

Deii8| qui in ssncto habitans supemo moderamine pietetia terram mundns mandaa 
formaati, quam etiam primi preraricatoria de saperniB ejecti aedibos nigge8tion« 
maculatam priscia misertua paradisi qnoa creaati accolia, pia effaaione cmoria proprii, 
ab omni antiqnn praTaricationia contagio abstergere dignatua ea ; qoaesimiua im* 
menaam pietatem tnam, nt banc domum tna celeati benedictione aanctificea 1J4 at 
qui sab timore et amore tni nominia habitoTerit, ae in perpetoom omnium veniana 
peocatonim impetrare gaudeat, et aempiteraa gaudia poaaideat. Per Dominum. 

Benedietio in domo. 

Benedietio Patria ingeniti, ejnaque Unigeniti, et Spiritua Sancti Psnditl, ab 
utroque procedentis, maneat jugiter super domum istam in aecula aeculoram. 
Amen. Pontifieai, 

' None of these prayers occur in the PontificaL 

* None of these prayera occur in the Pontifical. 

7 Hie perttetii exeat Epieeoput cum eeterity et alloquatur ineludendum et diemi m 
▼ult intrare intret : dum autem intraverit thvriJSeetur et eupergatur mfmi kenedietd, 
Bt ineynat Epieeoptu antiphonam. In Paradisum deducant te ang^ ; in tuo ad- 
ventu auscipiant te marWres, et perdocant te in civitatem sanctam Jerusalem. 
Peainnu cxiii. In exitu IsraeL Reeponeio, Regnum mundi (as in text). Paa* 

* This response and verae is noted in the Manual. 

The Sarum Serviiium Includendorwn. 217 

atnavi, quern credidi. quem dilezi. Xs. Eructavit cor meum Terbun 
bonum : dico ego opera mea regi. Quem vidi. 

Quo eaniato^ cum versu Episcopus vel sacerdo9 dieat Dominus Tobia* 
cum; et OremuB. Oratio^ 

Rogamua te Dombe Sancte Pater omnipotenfi eteme Deus, at super 
hunc famulum tuum apiritum benedictionis ta» iafundere dignerb ; ut 
oelesti munere ditatua et tuae majeatatia dona poaait acquirere et bene 
▼iTendi aliia exempla praebere.^ E. Amen. 

^ Item alia benedietio super eum. 

3 Dominus Jeaua Chriatus apud te ait : ut te defendat. Amen. Intra 
te ait ut te reficiat. Amen. Circa te sit ut te conaenret. Amen. 
Ante te ait ut te deducat. Amen. Super te ait ut te benedicat. 
Amen. Qui cum Deo Patre et Spiritu Sancto vivit et regnat in uni* 
tate, etc. 

^ Jlia benedietio, 

^ Benedicat te Deua Pater. Amen. Conaerret te Dei Filiua. 
Amen. Illuminet te Spiritua Sanctua. Amen. Corpua tuum cua- 
todiat. Amen. Animam tuam aalvet. Amen. Corpua tuum irra- 
diet. Amen. Scnaum tuum dirigat. Amen. Et ad aupemam vitam 
te per ducat. Amen. Qui in Trinitate perfecte yiyit et regnat Deua 
per omnia [aecula] aeculorum. Amen. 

Fo^hae JEpiseapus vel sacerdoe de domo exeat .*^ imelueue solus re- 

' After the response and yersicle, the Pontifical continues, without any rubric : 
Sfllrum ftua serrum tuum, etc. Mitte ei Domine anxiliam de sancto. Esto ei turrii 
fortitadinis. Domine exandi. Dominos yobiscum. Oremxw. 

Ezaodi Domiae preoes nostras et super hunc fiunulma tuani N« Spiritvm (u In 

* Et aliis ezempla pnebere. P(mt\f, 

' These benedictions are not in the Pontifical. 

^ This benediction is not in the Pontifical. 

' The Pontifical here soppties a very touching ceremony. TSme BpiieopH9 a9per- 
gat totam domum, eipoitea incemat; 9t tunc peragat ojflcium extreme unctUmit^ 
incipiens oraHone§ et aniiphonam ; et ehortts dejbrii pott enm eiidtm* : Antiphona 
deamteta dieatur tuper eum proHratum commendationes animn ^fu$ utqne ad imm 
potUionem defmncH tuper Jt retnoHf nt forte prevetUut mertt eattai Aoe taneto 
tervitio : guiiut peractit aperiatur tepulchrum, quod ingredient, ^te inebttut vel 
aHut nomine tuo eantei, Hec requies mea in secnlnm seculif cAoro d^brit eantmUt 
mUrphonam^ et Ptahnum czzxi. Memento Domine : eum eadem antiphona. Tune 
Spiteoputf atpergent parum pulverit tuper tftttn, ineipiat aniiphonam, De terra 
plasmasti me, ehoro decantante Ptalmum ut tupra :% et tic decantando omnet extant ; 
Bpiteopo parum remantnit et prtcipientt inchtto, per obedientiam, ut turgat, et in 
obedientia quod tuperett vitti perfieiat. St Bpiteopo egretto obttruant ottium 
domut, ftmtoque Ptalmo eum antiphona et orationibut^ teilieet Temeritatis qaidem 
et Dens Yit» dator omnet diteedant in pace. 

* Q^are, Post eum. Something here seems omitted in the printed copy of the 

t This antiphon, with the Ps. czizii. from which it is taken, form a part of the 
Jnkumatio deftmeti in the Salisbury office. 

X Sic in origin. But the antiphon J>e terra platmatti me aocompanies the ISSKh 
Psalm, Domine probatti me, in the Bu^al Office, according to Salisbury use { and 
doubtless that Psalm is meant to be used here. 

§ Those two prayers, Temeritaiit quidem ett Demint ut homo, and Deut vUm 
dator et humanorum eorporum reparator, follow the committal of the body to the 
ground, immediately after the second rtpetitisn of the antiphoB, De terrm platetatti 
AM in the InkmmaHo deftmeti. 

218 lie Sarum Sennthm Includetidortm. 

maiMatper taiumy wmmim et eontinuum ob^ertfons iUemihm: ei iie de 
/oris Jirmiter elaudatur : et mt&rim voce mmora ineipiat EpUe^fme tel 
eaeerdoe antiphanam hoe mode. 

Su8cepimu8 Deas misericordiam tuam : in medio templi tni. 

Peakmu* Magnuti Dominus.^ Psalmua, Laudate Dominom omiies 
gCDtea.' Peainme. Lauda Hienisalem.' P$almu$. Lavdate Dombran 
in Sanctis ejus :^ ewm Gloria Patri. RepettUnr tuUxphma. Smcepioinis 
Deus. Finita antiphonafadat Episeopue vel eaeerdos amnee pro eo orare 
quatentu omtUpotene Deus pro eujue amore Ule mundvm reltquit, et in iilo 
etrieiiesimo earcere ineludi eeee fecii, ita ipeum in eervitio suo coneervei 
et eoi^rmet yt poet mortem cum eo in etemum vivere vaieat. 

Pater noster. £t ne nos. Sed libera. 

Ostende nobis Domine misericordiam tuam. 
Flat pax in virtute tua. 

Dominos Tobiscum. Oremus. Oratio. 

Protege qnttsnmus Domine famnlnm tnum : et intercedente glorioas 
Virgine Maria cum omnibus Sanctis tuis gratite tuae in eo dowi multi- 
plica : nt ab omnibus liber offensis. et temporalibue non destituatur 
auziliis : et sempiternis gaudeat institutis. Per Christum. Oremus. 

Deus cui omne cor patet, et omnis voluntas loquitur, et quen nuDum 
latet secretum ; purifies per infusionem Sancti Spiritus cog^tationes 
cordis nostri ut te perfecte diligere et digne laudare mereamur. Per 
Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. Oremus. 

Omnipotens sempiteme Deus dirige actus nostros in beneplacito too : 
ut in nomine dilecti Filii tui mereamur bonis operibus abundare : qui 
tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus Sancti Deus. Per omnia 

^ Detnde recedawt omnee pergentee in eccleeiam chcro eanente aUquod 
Responsorium cum euo vereiculo de Saneto in eujue nomine et hanore 
Jundata est ecelesia : et finiatur ad gradum ehori dicente eacerdote 
eereum et oraHonem de eodem* Et ei Juerit eecleeia de Sancta Mmrim 
tmte dieatur hoe Reeponeoriwn* 

Felix namque es sacra Virgo Maria et omni laude dignissima : quia 
ex te ortus est sol justitise, Christus Deus noster. Tempore PasckaU, 

ys. Ora pro populo, interveni pro clero, intercede pro devoto femineo 
sexu : sentiunt omnes tnum levamen quicunque celebrant tuam comme* 
morationem :^ quia ex te ortus. 

» Ps. xlTiii. « Pa. ciTu. » P«. cxlvu. 12. < Ps. cL 

* This Response hu tlie musical notation in the Manual. The Pontifical does 
not prescribe this (a famoos response in the Office of the Blessed Virgin), bvt adds 
this final rabric after the last note: Muiti itmtenprtleii dicunt Ume lyfiehm mt- 
IreuMP WiCiionU; et eornmendatienei* etffmta oratiime, Ezaodi Domine pieces 
nostras obttrwmt oitium domus et intrant EecUtiam deeantmUes mU^hmutm de 
Beeta MorUt, vel de Sancte leei, cum oretUme, et eieJbUumt qffMum. 

* I.e., say them immediately after the response Repnum mundit and before Hm 
prayer Esaudi, omitting all that follows in the last note. 

Another New Organ. 219 

y. Sancta Dei genetriz virgo semper Maria. Oratio, 
Concede quaesumus misericon Deus fragilitati nostrsB prseBidiam : ut 
qui sanctse Dei genetricis et Virginis Maris commemoratioDem agimus^ 
intercessionis ejus auzilio It nostris iaiquitatibua resurgamus. Per eun- 
dem Christttm Dominum nostrum. 


Iir the parish church of S. Mildred, Preston near Wingham, Kent, there 
has been erected, since the publication of our last number, a new Organ 
of two Manuals, which appears to deserve a detailed description in these 
pages. This instrument is designed and built by the same persons as 
the small organ at Hay ward*8 Heath, noticed in our February number ; 
the drawings for the case however being supplied by a different archi- 
tect, Mr. William White. The stops and other appliances are as 
follows : 

Great Manual ; five stops ; Compass CC to g', 66 notes : 

1. Open Diapason, spotted metal .... 8 fe0t> 

2. Clarinet Flute, wood, the lowest twelve pipes 

being Stopt Dispason of large scale . . 8 feet tone. 

3. Principa], meul 4 feet. 

4. Twelfth, do 2f „ 

6. Fifteenth, do 2 „ 

Choir Manual ; three Stops; Compass CC to g*, 56 notes : 

6. Stopt Diapason, wood . , • • • 8 feet tone. 

7. Dulcet, spotted meUl • . • . • 4 feet. 

8. Fkgeolet, wood to c'tt, metal above . • 2 „ 

AH the stops of the Choir Manual are continued an octave below 
the keys, thus making in effect, by means of the couplers (2) and (4)» 
the important addition to the Great Manual and Pedal of three com- 
plete soft stops of 16, 8, and 4 feet tone, respectively. The continua- 
tiona of the Dulcet and Flageolet are both in stopt wood. 

Pedal ; two proper Stops and two borrowed ; Compass CCC to E, 29 notes: 

9. Yiolone, wood 16 feet. 

a. Principal bass, borrowed from (1) . . 8 feet. 

10. Twelfth bass, stopt wood ... 5} feet tone. 

b. Fifteenth bass, borrowed from (3) . . . 4 fbet. 

Couplers and other movements : 

1. Coupler, Choir unison to Qreat. 

2. Do., Choir suboctave to Oreat. 

3. Do., Choir to Pedsl, 8 ft. pitch. 

4. Do., Choir to Pedal, 16 ft pitch. 
6. Do., Oreat to Pedal. 

6. Pedal Wind-tnmk-valve. 

y I Compontion pedals to Great Manual and Pedal stops. 

220 Another New Organ. 

The tone of the stops U very good. The Violone deserves special 
mentioii from its being one of the £rst specimens of that stop made 
in this country. The CCC pipe measures only 7-h ii^ch^s by 5} inches 
at the block, and is one-fifth larger each way at the top. Its tone is 
much finer than that of the ordinary large-scale pedal pipes, while of 
course it occupies much less room. When combined with the Stopt 
Diapason in unison, the body of sound emitted by the two is amply 
sufficient to balance the rest of the instrument. Altogether we be- 
lieve that this organ will bear comparison with any in t|^e kingdom for 
its capability of supporting voices without drowning them, and for the 
variety of good effects which it oan produce from a very moderate 
number of stops. It is one among very few of two manuals that have 
been built in Bngland for more than a century past without a Swell : 
the designer being of opinion that though the Swell is an invention 
which does credit to our country, English organ-builders have been 
too partial to it ; — that Swells are not at all suited to rural churches, 
on account of the reed-stops, which are almost essential to them, re- 
quiring very frequent tuning ; and because a large amount of taste 
and skill b necessary for using a Sw^ll properly ; — and further, that 
a Choir of complete compass is in any case far better, for a second 
manual, than a Swell of short compass, while it costs considerably leas. 

Before proceeding to describe the organ-case and the arrangement 
of the various stops, it must be mentioned that the church is fortu- 
nate in having a north-east chantry chapel, of ample dimensions, open- 
ing into the chancel with an arch of 12 ft. 6 in. span, and into the 
north aisle with one somewhat narrower. The bass pipes of each stop 
being accordingly placed towards the north, and the smaller pipes to- 
wards the south, the sound of all spreads freely into the chancel, with- 
out any of the pipes being too near the singers. The bass pipes of 
the Open Diapason, which serve also for the Pedal Principal, stretch 
across the west front, above the key-boards and draw-stops : next to 
them stand the treble of the Open Diapason, and the other stops of 
the Great Manual, together with the small stop of the Pedal ; then, 
on the other side of a passage-board, the Choir Manual stops, and 
eastward of them, the Violone, of which the IS largest pipes, ranging 
from about 16 ft. in length to 6 ft. 4 in., form the easternmost row. 
Seven of the largest stopt pipes, belonging to the sub- bass of the 
Choir, are placed off the wind-chest on the north side ; the rest of 
that side being filled with panelling, so as to reflect the sound. On 
the south side, the case extends only a few inches above the sound- 
boards, so as to present no obstacle to the spread of the sound. It is 
to be surmounted on this side by an ornamental cresting carved in 
oak, with frequent piercings. The fittings of the key- boards, music- 
desk, &c., are also of oak ; the rest of the case of pine and yellow 
deal, not stained. Its dimensions are 9 ft. 7 in. in width by a little 
more than 9 ft. in the greatest depth. 

The exterior pipes are in every instance arranged according to their 
natural or semitonic order, and the interior also, except that the treble 
pipes of the Great Manual stops are, for a constructional reason, placed 
amidst the tenor pipes. The aspect of the west front will, we think. 

AUar Plate. 221 

coDTinoe any peiaon who ia notstaroogly prejudiced in favour of cinque- 
cento ammgenienls* that the natural order is qnite as well aiaited to 
a aeries of pipea the lai^at of which ia 7 ft. 7 ia. long in the body, 
aa to thoae of the ancient portable organa. 

Among the featorea for which credit ia apeoially due to Mr. White, 
we may mention the corbeUing out of the upper part of the weat front, 
aa a happy idea. There are aeveral improvementa of detail which, aa 
fiftr aa we are aware, have never been thought of previously, since 
the revival of Chriatian architecture. The atopper-handlea of the 
atopt pipea, inatead of being made in the usual j^n form, have, aa ia 
deairable when these pipea are exposed to view, been carved (in ma- 
hogany) according to deaigna fiirniahed by the architect, the pattema 
being different for different atopa. The front eztvemitiea of the keya, 
which are usually faced with Wts of wood of which the grain and 
mouldings run the lengthway of the key-board, thus belying the con- 
struction of the keya, in thia organ honestly show the lime-wood of 
which the body of Uie key ia made, and are aimply chamfered on their 
vertical edgea; the total effect of which ia very aatiafactory. The 
key-board cheeka alao have received conrect mouldkiga, inatead of being 
cut after the usual pattern, which aeema to be a rococo tradition. 
Theae are pointa which church architeeta hwe generally left to the 
oi^n builder, from not knowing the exact aituation of the boundary 
line between hia province and theirs. 

It is but just to Mr. Eagles to atate that he baa done hia work very 
well indeed, considering how much this organ differs from any that he 
had built before. Some needleaa irregularity in the cutting down of 
the Violone pipea, which rather injurea their appearance, and aome 
little inequalitiea in the voicing of the wooden atopa, are the only 
noticeable defects. 

In conclusion, we hope that the good examj^ set in the present 
instance will be extensively followed, with whatever modifications the 
size of the church and other special circumatancea may demand. 


A Paper read at the Amnhereary Meeting of the Eeeleeiological Society, 
Jtme I, 1868, hy W. Buaosa, Esq. 

A vxw mentha ^o, I made an offnr to the Editora of the Ecckeiohgist 
to write a paper upon Jewellery, a subject which as yet has been hardly 
touched upon ; but upon consideration it struck me that a notice upon 
the various articles of the goldsmith's art required for our Anglican 
ritual would be much more uaeful» as well as more within the scope of 
the Society. I propose, therefore, to restrict myself simply to those 
articles which are either imperatively demanded by our ritual, or may 
be safely added as means of increasing the solemnity and beauty of 

V6l. XIX. G G 

222 AUar Plate. 

Divine worship, excluding others, such as reliquaries, chasses, thuribles, 
&c., which belong to another Church, and with which we, aa Anglicans, 
can have nothing whatever to do, except as mere antiquarians. The 
following objects will therefore come under our consideration, as ca- 
pable and desirable of being executed in the precious metals, viz., the 
chalice and the paten, the flagon, the altar'Croes, the candleeticks, the 
binding of the service-books, the altar frontal, the altar dossal, and the 
alms dish. Other objects, such as lecterns, coronse, &c., belong rather 
to the brassfounder than the silversmith, or to the orafo dkOttone} both 
of whom executed the same objects, but in different materials. But 
before considering the form and construction of the different articles 
above mentioned, it may be as well to ascertain what were the usual 
processes at the command of the goldsmith for the execution of his 
work, as very often the construction was necessarily modified on their 

And first, it is wonderful what may be done with gold alone. The 
Scripture expression of jewels of silver and jewels of gold appears in- 
comprehensible to us, until we have seen what the Greeks did with that 
metal. As Jewellers, they have never been surpassed. They formed 
ear-rings by laying ' together gold wires not thicker than hairs, and 
soldering them together round a chalk centre, which was afterwards 
got rid of ; they coated golden beads, by soldering tbe most minute 
gold dust upon them. These two processes have still to be executed 
by the modems. The present Roman jewellers, who are probably the 
very best for minuteness of work now to be found, have despaired of 
the first; while their attempts with regard to the last only serve to 
show how lamentable is their failure. The Greeks and Etruscans also 
knew all the mystery of filagree, bossing up, &c., as well as, and better 
than, any nation that has succeeded them. 

But to return to the mediaeval workman : the best and simplest of 
all his decoration was 

Engraving, — Now engraving hardly tells of itself, unless the lines 
are exceedingly bold, and filled up either with niello, or enamel, or 
some other substance. It is also advisable that the figures should be 
well detached from the ground by cross hatching, and not by only one 
series of lines going one way, as is too often the case. When there is 
no ground, and the engraving 'consists simply, of an outline, it is as well 
to keep the lines firm to the very end, and simply turn them off bluntly, 
as we see on the monumental brasses, and not to end them by gra- 
dually decreasing their force. 

Piercing is another way of ornamenting a plain surface; but it 
almost always demands the aid of engraving to give us the details, and 
even then looks tame, unless some parts are slightly bossed up, to vary 
the monotony. 

Bossing up^ is by far the most important of all. Large subjects are 

' Sachetti, in one of his noTels, (cvi.) distinctly telU that a certain Florentme was 
an orqfb (orefice) d'ottonet — a fact which proves that it was a separate art. 

' Bossing up is the term nsed by our workmen now-a-days. The process is 
generally called repoust^ by antiquaries. Why employ a foreign word, when we 
ahready have a native one ? 

Altar Plate. 228 

generally commenced on the anvil, and finished on the pitch-block. 
CaradosBO and the workmen of his time used to make the subject, 
whatever it was, (say a crucifix,) in bronze, and beat a very thin plate 
of silver over it ; the silver was then cut off in sundry pieces, and very 
finely soldered together. I have seen a crucifix in Rome, attributed to 
Caradosso, which had evidently been made thus ; it was wonderfully 
light, and as to the workmanship, it folly bore out the testimony of 
Cellini as to the skill of his fellow artist. Cellini describes how he 
bossed up entire round figures^ from a thin plate of gold, soldering 
them down the back. The most wonderful examples I can refer to are 
the reptile^t the foot of the cup' attributed to him, now in the British ^ '^-^<- 
Museum. The figures of all the principal works oi the goldsmiths during 
the middle ages were executed by bossing up. Sometimes they were 
exceedingly badly done, as in the Monza frontal ;^ sometimes, on the 
contrary, as at Florence, so fastidious were the donors, that one dossal 
took more than a century and a half to finish ; and to the present day 
the cicerone, as he names the subject of each bas-relief, can tell you 
the name of the artist. 

A most charming specimen of bossing up and piercing occurs on the 
foot of a reliquary at Pistoia, and might serve as an excellent hint in the 
present day. I am not aware that it has been published. The surface 
is made into sundry bosses, which are pierced and engraved into the 
forms of animals and foliage. 

Chasing is employed principally to finish up cast work, and occa- 
uonally to form mouldings which have no very great projection. It is 
introduced very happily into some parts of Dr. Rock's altar, where the 
ground of some of the engraved leaves is cut away, so as to give an 
impression of roundness and relief.^ The grounds of the translucent 
Italian enamels are all chased from the solid. 

Stamping was another important process. Theophilus devotes a 
long chapter to it, showing bow the stamping-irons were to be made, 
and how from them the ornamental heads of nails for horse furniture 
were produced. Stamping was much used in the raised bands which 
separate the compartments of the works containing figures or groups. 
Theophilus even talks of pulpits ornamented with it. 

Punching is useful as a substitute for cross-hatching, to define an 
engraved figure. If the punch be small and the work delicately done, 

1 These figures were very small. CeUini, Trattato dell' oreficeria, cap. v. 

> Why is this cap, and the equally wonderfdl sculpture of the Death of the Virgin, 
executed by Albert Durer, kept in Uie print room ? Why not among the medieval ' ' 
collection ? 

'It should be remembered that the Florence and Pistoia works were national 
affairs, — i. e., tokens of the gratitude of two rich republics to S. John and S. James. 
The Monza frontal was a mere gift of a private indiridual goldsmith, who had been 
probably occupied all his life in executing the translucent enamels on relief, and 
knew Httle or nothing about bossing up. The enamels are very well executed, but 
the bas-reliefs are perfectly frightful. 

^ Dr. Rock*8 Altar has been published several times ; among others, in the Journal 
of the Archseological Institute, vol. iv. p. 247. I must here return my best thanks 
to Dr. Rock, for his courtesy in permitting me to examine at leisure both the altar 
and a chalioe. The Britidi Museum would naturally be the proper depository for the 


Aliar Plate. 

the figure will appear to itand above the groond ; it is also exceedingly 
utefol in forming the small ornaments on mouldings. 

One of the moat widely spread of all the modes of working gold is 
that of filagree* Now there are two descriptions 
of filagree. The first is formed of very small 
ribbons of gold laid on their edges, and soldered 
to a gold ground ; these ribbons are disposed in 
curves and arches, and generally have their upper 
edge milled. A much thicker ribbon, with its 
edge punched or stamped into small beads, sur- 
rounds the whole composition. In the other de- 
scription of filagree the ribbons are quite round 
— ^in fact, wires ; the scrolls are much stronger, 
and more elaborate ; minute balls or grains of 
gold are introduced to fill up the composition; 
and above all, there are often sundry parts which 
rise above the general surface, and break up the 
monotony, ^together, this sort of filagree is 
richer and more varied than the other. The 
Hamilton filagree in the British Museum showa 
the first, and the filagree from Roach Smith's col- 
lection, now also in the British Museum, the se- 
cond sort.^ 
In the latter half of the thirteenth century, a new developement took 

place. Instead of joining small pieces 
of wire together, they cast small 
leaves and flowers with a tolerably 
long stalk: these were then put 
together like the ordinary fila^^e 
work; and the effect is quite as 
good, and infinitely more artistic. 
The ground was left free, and a co- 
loured paliion introduced between it 
and the filagree, so as to show up the latter. 

Now, if we take the ribbon filagree, and pour enamels into the in. 
terstices, we shall have what antiquarians have agreed to call chUotmSe 
enamel : it is thus that the King Alfred jewel,^ and the cross belonging 
to Mr. Beresford Hope, are made ; only figures instead of scrolls have 
been formed by the ribbon. I am not aware that any attempt has been 
made to reproduce these enamels in the present day, except in the 
East, more especially in Persia, which country indeed appears to be 
the last refuge of the arts of the middle ages.' 

> A chalice at Pistoia is nearly coTered with it. See Digby Wyatt's metal work, 
from a drawing by the author. Cellini gives directions for this sort of work in the 
Trattato dell' oreficeria, cap. iii. 

' See Shaw's Devices and Decorations of the Middle Ages. 

* For an account of the process as practised in Theophilns' timoi see his Schednla 
diversamm Artium. In the haxaar at Constantinople, I saw specimens of nearly 
every sort of enamelling. The invariable answer to my inquiries was, that th^ all 
came from Persia. 

AUar Plate. 225 

These eUnmmU enamels are always found distinct from the body of 
the work they curnament, and in fact are treated as gems. 

Again, if we take a piece of metal, and scoop cavities in its surface 
by means of the burin, carefully leaving a thin strip of the metal 
to separate one cell from the other, and then pour in opaque enamels, 
we shall then have the second sort of enamd, called the champ lev4. 
Every one is aware how there were great manufactures of this ware 
in France^ and Germany during the twelfth, thirteenth, and part of the 
fourteenth centuries ; but it has always been in use from the earliest 
ages, and may dispute priority of date with the ch%somn4. The Limoges 
artists hollowed out their copper very deeply, — say from one-eighth to 
one-sixteenth ; but the goldsmiths, even when they worked in copper, 
were content with a very much less depth.^ This kind of enamelling 
is the more commonly used in the present day ; but, unfortunately, 
the modem enamel, like the modem stained glass, is too good and 
too pure: the consequence is that it suffers dreadfully if compared 
with the old work. No successful attempt has been made, at all 
events in England, to put three or four colours in the same compart- 
ment, so as to get variety, as the old artists did ; for in this sort of 
enamel the cells are larger than the cloisoMud, and the whole effect of 
the work demands that the colours should be broken up. 

The third species of enamels was due to the goldsmiths, who filled 
up the very shallow cells with transparent enamels, instead of opaque, 
working a diaper at the bottom of the cells, which shows through the 
enamels — as in the Lynn Cup.^ This kind of enamel obtained through- 
out Europe during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 

The Italians, and afterwards the French, went a step further, and 
succeeded in covering the whole surface of a sunk and chased medallion 
with translucent enamels of various colours, without any intervening 
line.^ Of course this required the very greatest skill both in the 
chaser and the enameller, who, by the by, were generally the same 



It should be observed that the beautiful transparent red will not do 
on silver. Mr. Keith, I believe, always uses gold ; but in every case 
in which I have seen it applied to silver, it has turned a dull, opaque, 
reddish brown. Mr. Hardman has, however, succeeded very fairly 
with it on silver ; in fact, very much better than the ancients. 

The last sort of enamelling to which I shall allude, consists in ap- 

^ Mr. Skidmore tells me that there is a great quantity of crystals of quartz to be 
found abont Limoges, which senred as the basis of the enamel. I always imagined 
that there most haye been some local reason for the long ooDtinnanoe of the mann- 
facture beyond the bare " Venetian traditions." 

s Another pecoliarity of the Limoges school was, that when the ground was 
enamel, and the figure engraved, the real outline of the figure is within the metal 

' llie Lynn Cup has been published by John Carter, in his Ancient Painting and 

* Cellini gives an account of the production of these translucent enamels. Trattato 
dell' oreficeria, cap. iv. 

* It is needless to say that no one now^-days works at 'A twmalucent enamels in 

226 Altar Plate. 

plying opaque or traospftrent enamels on rounded surfaces, such as 
figures. Cellini gives the process, the principal point of which is, that 
the enamels were attached to the metal before firing by a glue made of 
pear-pips. The Beresford vase, now in the possession of Mr. Beres- 
ford Hope, is one of the very finest specimens of this sort of work, 
as indeed it is of all sorts of enamellmg and jewellery.^ My friend, 
M. Didron, would call it a poem in Orfevrene. 

Enamel was often used to fill up engraved lines when they were 
sufficiently coarse ; for the finer sort niello (a composition of sulphate 
of silver) was employed. Cellini and Theophilus' give the whole 
process, but in vain as regards our workmen : for when I wanted some 
executed a short time ago, I found that there was no one to do it here, 
and was told to go to Russia. 

A most charming decoration was the enamel cL jour, i.e. a cloisonne 
enamel, without the gold bottom, so that it could be seen right through.. 

The last things I have to notice are jewels ; a most important item 
in all the richer works of the Middle Ages. Theophilus tells us that 
when we want a good piece of goldsmith*s work, our first care should 
be to collect as many jewels as possible. No one who has read Suger*a 
account of the works carried on by him at S. Denis, can forget bow 
earnestly he describes his embarrassment on account of the want of 
jewels for his great altar cross ; or his deep gratitude when his prayers 
where answered by the arrival of three monks (he calls them angels 
in the shape of monks), with the remains of the rich vessels once the pro- 
perty of our King Henry I., from which he at last obtained his jewels. 

Now the jewels of the Middle Ages are almost always en cabochom, 
i.e. not cut into facets ; they are generally set in a very projecting 
chaton or box, into which they are secured by strong points coming 
from the sides of the chaton and turning down upon them. These points 
are sometimes in the shape of a bird's claw, but sometimes the edge 
of the chaton is indented into a pattern and pressed down on the 
jewel. Jewels are sometimes set cLjour, i.e, so that you can see right 
through them. Sometimes they are found sunk into the surface of the 
Limoges- work ; but they are generally in strong chatons in exposed sit- 
uations, and alternate with enamels, or are connected by filagree, and are 
never placed alone except they are in such numbers as to quite cover 
the ground, an occurrence which is very rare. 

But as I have said before, they are generally employed in conjunc- 
tion with filagree and enamel, and applied in strips around the covers 
of books, or the edges of the divisions of altars or dossels, or around 
certain parts of chalices or ewers ; in fact these strips of jewels, and 
enamels, and filagree, are the great key to the decorations of the 
jewellery of the Middle Ages. 

Of course I should mention that many of the smaller objects in a 
complicated piece of goldsmith's work would require to be cast ; but 

' The Beresford vase has been published in the ** Choice examples of art work- 
mansbtp/' 1851, bat smaller than real size i the woodcut however gives an idea of 
the general form, bat not of the workmanship. ■ In Cact a book might be written 
upon this one vase alone. 

3 Theophilus, Sched. Div. Art. B. 3. Ch. 28. Cellini, Tratt. dell' oref. cap. iL 

AUar Plate. 227 

I think I need Bcarcely enlarge on that subject, seeing how very ready 
we are in the present day to cast every thing and any thing, The 
old men on the contrary were prodigal of their labour and sparing of 
their material ; besides sundry objects were required to be made light, 
chalices and patens for instance. Of all the objects I propose treat- 
ing on, the only things requiring casting are the candlesticks, and even 
they would be frequently wrought, especially if in silver. I should 
observe however, that I think the candlestick to be a perfectly legiti- 
mate field for the founder's art, inasmuch as it is required to be some- 
what heavy as a counterpoise to the candle. 

We come now to the consideration of tbe construction and shape of 
the altar furniture. The most important article is of course the chalice ; 
and it is very curious to note how the chalices of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries are directly descended from the regular pagan 
vase ; the Borghese or Famese for example. The first modification is 
seen in the little vase found at Gourdon,^ where jewels supply the 
place of figures : we then get the chalice of S. Remi at Rheims,^ and 
the large chalice described by Theophilus,^ where the upper part 
dwindles down to a mere border of enamels and gems. The chalices 
of Suger, once in the Treasury of S. Denis, show us the same thing ;^ 
but in the meanwhile almost all the other parts are developed and 
ornamented, more particularly the bowl and foot, which Theophilus 
orders to be beaten into the form of sf)oon8, alternately nielloed and 
gilt. Such a one, but probably of a later date than that of Theophilus, 
is still to be seen in the Treasury of the cathedral at Augsburg.^ It 
has however no handles ; but even in the time of Theophilus handles 
began to be optional, for he says, ** should you wish to add handles to 
the chalice.*' In the smaller chalices of the thirteenth century we 
observe nearly the same peculiarities ; tbe bowl becomes very shallow, 
much more so than a half-circle, and the edge turns over a little. The 
spoonlike projections have quite disappeared from the bowl, but are 
retained, although in a different shape, in tbe foot ; thus, in the Chi- 
chester chalice they are trefoiled, and in the Troyes chalice they be- 
come pointed leaves.^ These however are far too small for our present 
requirements, being intended for one, or at the most three or four 

The larger Italian chalices are I think far more applicable to our 
wants. Here we generally find the cup rather large, and of the 
form of the lower part of an egg. The spoons of Theophilus have 

> De Camnont, Ab^^dure de 1* Architecture, p. 53. 

' Transactions of Archseological Institute, vol. 3, p. 129. From a drawing by 
Albert Way, Esq. 

s Sched. Div. Art. lib. 3, cap. 27 — 43. 

^ One of the chalices of Suger, together with the paten, are said by the com- 
piler of the Catalogue du Cabinet des Medailles to be in the British Museum, hav- 
ing come to that institution with the Townly collection ; I believe however that 
there is no truth whatever in the assertion. The chalices of Suger are figured in 
Fdebien's Histoire de Tabbaye de S. Denis. 

* I am not aware if the Augsburg chalice has been published. Some years ago 
I gave a drawing of it to M. Didron, but he has not yet had it engraved. 

^ See Annales Arch^logiques, vol. 3, p. 206. 

228 AUwr Plate. 

dwindled down into the soollop^shaped cap which receives the bowl, 
while the foiled shape of the fo(A is only indicative of them in 
that port. Probably the finest and largest medieeval chalice is 
that at Mayence.^ This again would be an excellent model where 
a large chalice is required. Another one of nearly the same size 
as that at Mayence, is preserred at Monza, but is not so fine in de- 
sign.' With us in the latter part of the fifteenth and beginning of 
the sixteenth centuries, the form of the bowl became a half sphere, 
and is stuck upon a high ungainly pipe, more or less decorated with 
buttresses and pinnacles of very questionable taste.' I do not think 
that it is at all desirable that they should be imitated as they have 
been ; but I hope, on the contrary, that we are gradually getting out 
of this fashion. Probably the very best form we could adopt would 
be the Italian chalice, with a very large bowl, foot and knob, and a 
very short pipe.^ Should the chalice be very large indeed, I really do 
not see why we should not revert to the ancient practice and employ 
handles ; bat perhi^s upon the whole the modem custom of employing 
two chalices where there are many communicants, is the best and safest. 
I have been enabled by the kindness of Mr. Beresford Hope (whose 
collection can hardly be called his own, so much is it at the disposal of 
his friends) to thoroughly examine an Italian chalice in his possession^ 
and inasmuch as the pipe which connects all the pieces together is in 
rather a rickety condition, I have been enabled to ascertain its construe* 
tioQ perfectly. First of aU, there is the bowl of silver, for it was forbidden 
to employ wood, stone, or brass for this purpose.^ In the time of Theo- 
philus this was beaten out of a flat piece of silver. In the present day 
the bowls of the chalices of Mr. Hardman are soldered up the sides. 
The shape is, as I have observed before, that of the lower part of an 
e^. To the bottom of this bowl is soldered an hexagonal copper tube 
which goes right down until it reaches the top part of the foot, it is 
then split and turned up against it : in the present day a screw and nut 
is preferred.' The bowl goes into a cup with a scalloped edge, this is 
sometimes enamelled, but in the present instance it is only engraved. 
At the bottom of the cup is a moulding which serves as a curb to the t<^ 
of the pipe. The pipe is in two distinct parts, one above and another 
below the knob. The reason for this is that it is enamelled when fiat* 
and it is consequently easier and involves less risk to bead two short 

^ Published from a drawing of mine in Digby Wyatt'a Metal Work of the Middle 

^ The knob ia fall of spikey pinnacles, pediments, and crockets. 

' See the Leominster chalice, Archsologia, vol. zxxt. p. 489, from a dnwing by 
Mr. Shaw. 

^ The pipe in Dr. Rock*s chalice is rednoed to the height neeessary for the in- 
scriptions ; the chalice does not look the worse for it 

* The copper enamelled Limoges ware was excepted from this prohibition. A 
very beantiKd chalice of this work is published in the last volame of the SnsieK 
Ck>liection : — ^it was foand in a grave at Rasper- Priory. 

' Theophilos describes a pipe as attached to the bowl of his dialiee, bat it is not 
soldered but beaten out of the substance, a feat which I am assured by practical silver- 
smiths is impossible if the bottom of the bowl is to be kept smooth as it ought to be. 
I am inclined to think the passage to be corrupt. 


H H 

Altar Plate. 281 

pieces into the hexagooal shape than it would to bend one long one. 
When however the pipe is only iengraved, as in another chalice in Mr. 
Beresford Hope's possession, it is made in one length and passes through 
the knob. The knob is. beaten out in two hemispheres, which are 
soldered together, and upon it are soldered the projecting rims to take 
the enamels in silver covered with translucent enamel ; now entirely 
scaled off. The enamels placed in these projections are effectually se- 
cured by working the edges over them, and here I may observe how 
desirable it is to make these projections of a shape so as not to run into 
the fingers, as those of the Mayence chalice do. For this purpose a 
circle is better than a sezfoil, and a sexfoil than a quatrefoil : the object 
being to steady one's hold on the knob, and not to hurt the fingers. 
Some modem chalices have the enamds attached by internal screws 
and overlapping the projection, a practice which must render the knob 
anything but an assistance to the holder of the chalice. The knob has 
curbs or moulds soldered on the top and bottom to receive the parts of 
the pipe. At the bottom of the lowest portion of the pipe there is a flat 
plate with mouldings again soldered on as a curb, and below this again 
comes an engraved band often containing the name of the goldsmith. 
Then we come to the foot, which has a flat top with mouldings soldered 
on to serve as a curb for the piece containing the name, besides sundry 
other moulds which are merely for ornament. The foot itself has been 
beaten up like the bowl, but its lowest and broadest part is cut into a 
compound sexfoil. The mouldings were worked with the burin and 
punch upon a thick and narrow band of metal, which was then cut up into 
suitable lengths, bent round, and soldered at right angles to the lower 
edges of the sexfoil ; and in order to give a more secure footing to the 
whole a flat piece of metal was soldered horizontally all round.^ Now 
there is one thing to be observed about this chalice, and that is, that 
with the exception of the pieces at right angles to the foot, the whole vessel 
contains no piece of metal thicker &an a farthing. In the silver chalice 
of Mr. Beresford Hope the cup for the bowl has diminished to an orna- 
mental edging, and as the pipe is not enamelled and consequently passes 
through the knob, there is dso a third pipe soldered to the top of the 
base, and the whole are connected by transverse pins passing through 
aU the pipes, viz., the pipe proper, the bowl pipe and the foot pipe. 
When enamels are inserted into the foot the space for them is cut out 
and on the under side a rim of metal is soldered all round the opening, 
which is afterwards bent down when the enamel is inserted. See the 
Mayence chalice. With regard to our modem chalices I would suggest 
a closer study of Italian examples, more especially with regard to the 
form of the bowl and the form of the knob ; the former should be as 
much like the lower half of an egg as possible,^ and the latter should 
have a proper amount of rotundity, and above aU, with projections 
which will not hort the fingers. Of course all or any of the processes 
described in the first part of this paper, are applicable to the ornament- 
ing of the various pieces of metal of which the chalice is composed, but 
I would suggest above all, the employment of precious materials : thus 

> This horizontal part of the foot is exceedingly developed in the Lynn cnp. 
^ The bowls of the best Italian chalices have the shape of an orange. 

232 On the Future of Art m England: 

the bowl might be made of agate, like that of the chalice of Suger^ 
and lapis lazuli (^ malachite or rock crystal might be employed for 
the koob. In abort, nothing can be tpo preciooa or too good for a 

(Mr. Burgee* peper, contaimng hie deeeriptioH of the Paten, the AUar 
Croee, SfC, will be continued in our neatt number.) L 2^S^ 


A Taper read at the Amuvereary Meeting of the Ecdeeiologieai Soeietg^ 
June I, 1868. By Gbobqx Epkuho SraxaT, Esq. 

Thb revival of art in the nineteenth century, towards which this 
society has in one way or another been an undeniably powerful helper, 
should never be looked at from what at first may appear to be 
the natural point of view for us, without an attempt at least on our 
part to realize the real history of the movement we are aiding, what 
was its origin, what have been its successes, and still n^ore why it haa 
succeeded, and whether the course which it takes is likely to end in 
complete victory, or in the catastrophe of a drawi^ battle, and conse* 
quent annihilation. 

I do not speak idle words of apology when I express my sense of the 
difficulty of dealing with such a subject ; for few artists can or ought 
to be able to speak or write of art so well as work in it. When they 
do so it must be uuder exceptional circumstances, in the heat of battle 
or when they feel that the world drags on too slowly behind them, and 
that on all it is incumbent to speak the truths of which they are pos* 
sessed whenever and wherever they may. 

Probably there are few of those to whom I now speak who do not fed to 
the fullest extent the danger which may overtake us in such a work as 
we are engaged on, unless we are always in front of the battle ; few, I 
dare say, who do not see the absolute necessity for as vigorous a propa* 
gation and defence of the true principles of art from the ranks of this 
society now, as when it was first established. As long, in short, aa we 
continue to act together as a society, we shall only do good by being in 
the van of the movement, and whenever we come to such a point as to 
suppose that we may pause for a time, we may be sure that our work 
is done for ever. 

I am sanguine enough to believe t;hat signs are not wanting that the 
principles to which we have attached our artistic sympathies wUl ere 
long hold all but undisputed sway, and a short recurrence to the history 
of the revival will help to explain the grounds on which I venture to 
be so hopeful. 

Though the movement has been general throughout the whole of 
northern Europe, it is probable that in each country the moving cause 
has been to some extent national and particular. In England there 
were many signs of the coming change even in the last century. The 

On the fitture of Art in England. 288 

publications of the Society of Antiquaries, and the singular enthusiasm 
and skin of John Carter, displayed in his works on architecture and 
painting, and sculpture, had no doubt gone far to make a revival of ancient 
forms of art probable and possible. But it was necessary that some great 
external aid should be added to these purely archaeological efforts before 
the world in general could be affected ; and this aid came mainly in the 
person of Sir Walter Scott, who, himself possessed with an enthusiasm 
of the most genuine kind for old story, legend and song, created the 
same .enthusiasm in the minds of all who read his works. Uncon« 
sciously the world came to regard the past with a new feeling and 
a warmer love ; his skill had invested it with a gbry which was not 
undeserved: and it was no unnatural consequence that men should 
have longed to attempt some revival of the art of an age which they 
had begun to regard thus enthusiastically. 

A number of societies followed each other, whose main object was 
the re-publication, or the study and explanation of our early literature. 
Mea began to feel that a very large portion of our national glory was in- 
dissolubly mixed up with the history of the Middle Ages : and it was 
with a true enthusiasm that such a man as Southey did his best by a re- 
publication of the Morte d'Arthure — the great central romance of the 
Middle Ages — to enable the world to understand and to love their 
greatest peculiarities. Remains of early poetry, whose genuine life 
and beauty found a natural bond of unity in all that was best in 
men's hearts, aided in the revival : and it remained only for a poetry 
like Wordsworth's, gradually winning its way in men's love, by its sim- 
plicity, its earnestness, and its intensely close and exact description 
and observation of nature in all her sweetest forms, to destroy all 
chance of further success — for the present at least — to the believers in 
unreal, artificial, and foreign systems of thought and taste ; whilst 
Tennyson and others at the present day continue to give a direction to 
public feeling entirely in harmony with all the romance of our art. 

Indirectly, no doubt, the great religious revival, which commenced 
some thirty years ago, was aided by the altered tone of thought and 
feeling which had gradually been creeping over the world ; and one of 
its first results was the impetus which, in its turn, it gave to the 
revival of our ecclesiastical architecture. To the religious revival we 
owe the existence of this society, and to this society I think most of us 
may, without shame, admit that much of our success as ecclesiastical 
architects is attributable. 

Yet there has been one consequence up to this time of the very 
exchisiv^y ecclesiastical development of our art which has been a 
serious evil, and which must be overcome if we are to achieve a real 
and permanent success. The world has, unhappily, learnt to connect 
the revival of Pointed architecture with religion and religious buildings 
in such a way as to assume that it is not equally smtable for all civil 
and domestic purposes also : " unhappily," in two ways — first, for the 
world itself, it is unhappy that it should ever wish to divorce religious 
aad secular art ; as if religion were a thing for Sundays only, and 
not for every moment of every life : and, secondly, in the kind of 
unreality which must characterize, to some extent, an art which is not 

234 On the Future of Art in England. 

universally practised; though this has accidentally not been felt so 
much as might have been expected, owing to the very singular degree 
to which the work of many among us— of most, probably, in this room 
— has been restricted to ecclesiastical buildings, so that we have been 
able to wash our hands altogether of any work in a style in which we 
could not believe. 

Signs are not wanting on all hands that this state of things will not 
endure. It is impossible that men can throw themselves heartily into 
this eclecticism in art. So soon as they feel its influence at all 
thoroughly, they will and must decide entirely and once for all for or 
against us ; and I cannot doubt that the singular — I may say the over- 
whelming — success with which our attempt to revive medieval art for 
ecclesiastical purposes has been crowned, is a presage of a correspond- 
ing victory in course of time in its revival for every purpose. 

Of this I think we have irresistible evidence in the history of the 
sister art of painting. The struggle against classicism was first of all 
commenced among architects, and it has been carried on by painters. 
I suppose no revolution was ever more complete, sudden, or satisfistctory 
than the revolution now in progress among them. It is but a few 
years since that Mr. Millais exhibited his first picture, and Mr. Hol- 
man Hunt his : and in the Exhibition of this year, not only do we see 
artists on all sides attempting to emulate the Pre-Raphaelites, but we 
find their ranks recruited by almost every young man of talent and power 
who appears, and we see, as these men go on at their work, how year by 
year their power becomes greater in every respect, and tlieir influence 
more extended. The significance of this state of things for us lies in 
the fact that the Pre-Raphaelite movement is identical with our own : 
and that the success of the one aids immensely therefore in the success 
of the other. Nor, indeed, could our revival have been in any de- 
gree complete unless it had borne fruit in every branch of art. 

The systems and rules against which architects and painters had to 
contend were identical. Alike we had to contend against an established 
system, of false laws and idle traditions, with all the prestige of an 
Academy to back it, and all the power in the hands of its professors. 
Alike we had to recur to first principles — to maintain first of all the ne- 
cessity in all matters of art of absolute unwavering truth— to do battle 
against half truths and compromises of all kinds. Alike we have had 
to sustain our share of ridicule and abuse, though from the nature of 
the architectural profession we were in a much worse position than the 
painters, inasmuch as we are in some sense made responsible for the sins 
of the *' two and three branch hands," who to so large an extent ^ve 
us bad Gothic in one building, and, I doubt not, equally bad Classic 
or Renaissance in another. 

Hitherto, however, there has been one great and overwhelming dif- 
ficulty before us. For whilst architects first, and afterwards painters, 
have devoted themselves heartily and so far successfully to the revival 
of their several arts, I fear it is not saying a word beyond the truth* 
when I assert that up to the present moment there has been absolutely 
no corresponding progress whatever made by our sculptors. When 
things are at their worst they must mend : and with the horrible and 

On the Future of Art in England. 285 

nightmare-like recollection of the models for the Wellington Mono- 
meot, and the Commemorative Monument for the great Exhibition, etDl 
oppreasively fresh in our minds, what can we think but that things are 
abeady at the very lowest point of degradation ? Already, I know, 
there are men who feel this : only let them boldly venture to show it 
and I am confident I may promise them on our part hearty sympathy 
and willing aid in any attempt which they may make to raise them- 
selves out of the Slough of Despond in which they are now engulfed. 
We want in sculpture, just as much as in architecture and painting, 
strict regard to truth in the telling of the story, as well as in the nature 
and folds of the drapery, and an entire annihilation of all those empty 
absurdities of vapid allegory which seem to stand in the place of 
thought or study with our sculptors almost without exception. 

Up to the present time the Museum, near which we are meeting, has 
done next to nothing for the advancement of art in this respect. It 
might have been expected that some more obvious results would have 
been attained, and it is just possible that in addition to the fact 
that the collection is mainly devoted to merely decorative work, and 
not to figure sculpture, one of the causes of its comparative failure, 
has been the fact that it is to a very great extent architectural only, 
and not generally artistic. Nor is this a slight di£Ference : for I con- 
ceive that few things are more certain than that in a healthy and pro- 
gressive artistic period all the arts go on hand in hand together. 
Architecture, painting, sculpture, working in metals, music, and others 
should by rights all enter into any perfect scheme : and one consequence 
should be that we might iiot only have all that we do consistent and 
equal in all respects, but that from the gpreater interchange of thought 
and sentiment among professors of various arts we might now and then 
see some one man venturing to do something in more than one depart- 
ment of art. 

The question upon which I wish principally to engage you this 
evening is however as to the extent to which we architects may in the 
first place assist the revival now in progress among painters : and in 
the next place how far we may learn from the course they have been 
pursuing some truths which may guide us to further — and let me say 
much wanted — ^improvement in our own work. 

I speak within bounds when I assert that the Pre-Raphaelite paintera 
as a body are enthusiastic in their appreciation of and admiration for 
the Middle Ages and mediaeval architecture. They are therefore men, 
whose work deserves at least very special attention from us ; and we 
are, I think, bound to see how far the principles on which they work are 
such as may enable us to work with them : and if we find that they 
are really fighting the same fight, and aiming in the same direction as 
ourselves, l£en I say that we are bound to give them our hearty sym- 
pathy, and whenever we can our most energetic assistance. What 
has been the most distinct feature of their attempt? They found 
their art unreal in its attempt at representation of nature, and very 
careless (if not worse) in its aim after really good colouring. They 
found a school in existence whose main aim seemed to be to emulate the 
vapidity of the later eclectic schools, and nearly all whose efibrts 

286 On the Future of Art in England. 

seemed to be tending in a wrong direction ; and if now and then some 
real artist broke the trammels which confined him and came forth in a 
really original and noble manner — as Turner, for instance — his merits 
were gmdgiogly acknowledged, and his views thwarted and opposed in 
every possible way. The world had lost allsense of the infinite good- 
ness of beantiful colour ; and artists delighted, like dressmakers, to 
clothe everything and everybody in brown and grey, ignoring entirely 
all the gorgeous colour in which early — and indeed ail pure — artists 
took so intense a delight. 

And what has been our course ? We too found a dominant scho<^ 
in our art, eaten up by eclecticism, forgetful to the extremest degree 
of all natural laws, such as — to mention that which includes all others in 
itself — ^the law of reality, without which all our architecrts attempted to 
work, and yet without which no single good work of art has ever been 
executed since the beginning of the world. Then again we found that 
colour and form were no longer held to be both necessary for the per- 
fect developement of our art ; and indeed the men who prided them- 
selves most on the purity of their taste seemed almost to hate any 
colour more intense than light salmon or pale lavender, if they did 
not absolutely and deliberately prefer simple whitewash. Our work 
was therefore as nearly as possible identical with that which the Pre* 
Raphaelites had to accomplish, and I think it will not be a mistake 
to assert that we must always look with special interest at thehr 
progress, and lajoursdves out as much as possiUe to obtain their co- 
operation whenever we are able to do so. 

Hitherto we have done much, not only towards changing the direc- 
tion of the popular taste about architecture, but our movement has 
also most unquestionably aided greatly in the revival of ite coloured 
deeorations. Whether by stained glass, by painted decorations on 
walls, or by ornamental coloured pavemento, we have very distinctly 
proclaimed from the first that we must have colour in our buildings. 
Let us not stop here : let us not rest satisfied simply with colour, but 
let it be the most beautiful, the most glowing, and the most poetical 
we can obtain. We have made as yet but few attempte at painting 
on waUs, and those almost without exception have been simply deco- 
rative, and not of any high artistic merit ; and as a natural conse- 
qaence, what has been done has not become either popular or common. 
And probal^y I itell be met at once by the complaint of the excessive 
cost of employing artists of real skiU for work of this kind. 60 litde 
has been done, that it is radier difiicult to say how far this complaint 
is just. Men must be paid the real value of their work ; and none of 
us, I hope, would wish to see a good painter paid by day wages. And 
yet large snms of money are now very often spent on other decorative 
wwks, whieh might at least as well be spent on good wall painting, if 
people would but overcome the common shortsightedness which makes 
them wish to have everything finished completely at once. What im^ 
mense sums are spent aimually on stained glass of very third-rate cha- 
racter! wfiat upon carving! what upon decorations of die fabric 
wfnch might often be as well dispensed with. Take the two most per- 
fect examples of painted churches in Italy, Giotto's chapel at Psdua, 

On the Future of Art in England. 287 

and the church of San Frandseo at Assisi, and see how severely and 
tingularly simple their architecture is. and yet how eminently beau« 
tiful and permanent their decorative effect, owing to the painter's art 
which has been lavished on them. I am certain therefore, that if 
architects and ecclesiologists would think of the employment of a 
painter as often and as naturally as they do of the employment of a 
stained glass manufacturer, our art would be in all ways a gainer. 
There are not many of us, who if offered our choice between a build* 
ing whose walls glistened with painted story, while its windows were 
only delicately softened by grisaille, and one whose windows equalled 
even those of Canterbury or Chartres, while its walls shone with 
nothing but whitewash, would not probably agree in at once choosing 
the former : for we should feel, and justly feel, that whilst the limit of 
excellence ought soon to be reached in the one. there is in the other 
no limit whatsoever save in the skill of the artist. 

I have said enough to show that I do not wish painters to be paid less 
than they fairly deserve for such work. But it is worth consideration 
whether there are not modes of work which may so far eeonomiza 
time as to diminish greatly the expense. Unquestionably the majority 
of the early Italian wall paintings are simple works when compared 
with easel pictures, such for instance as the Pre-Raphaelites give us 
now-a-days. This you may see by looking at the Arundel Society's 
illustrations of the Arena Chapel. And in addition to their simplicity* 
some at least, if not many of them, were executed not in fresco, bul 
in distemper, and with a very considerable facility therefore as to ma* 
terial and manipulation. There is np reason whatever why painting 
should not be executed in distemper on our walls : as far as the mere 
colour goes, there is no process by which it is possible to obtain more 
brilliant or good effect of colour ; it is, I think, even superior in this 
respect to fresco ; and the only objection that can be made to it — that 
it is liable to be affected by damp, may 1 believe now be easily ob«« 
yiated. I owe to Mr. Scott the information that at Berlin they have 
recently introduced a system of setting distemper paifnting by an in-» 
jection with a fine syringe, which makes it impossible for any damp or 
wet to affect the colours 

Then again ; distemper requires no preparation. The illustrations 
of the Morte d*Arthure in the " Union** room at Oxford, are executed 
on the rough surface of con^mcn brickwork, I have, myself, tried the 
same ground and plaster, and 1 give entire preference to the former. 
There seems, therefore, no reason why such paintings should, in all 
eases, be very costly ; the materials and mode of dealing with them are 
simple, and much effect may be obtained by the severest treatment of 
a subject, with but few figures and a coloured back ground of uniform 
tint; though whilst recommending this style of iUuetration as one 
which might often be adopted, I would not have it forgotten how very 
great an interest is often excited by that full and lavish treatment of a 
succession of subjects in one picture, of which Benozso Gozzoli gives 
w such glorious examples in Italy and Memling in Germany. 

It may be said again, that it is easier to add one window at a time 
than one piece of waU-painting ; but 1 donbt tius. I am, I know, 

VOL. XIX. 1 I 

288 On the Future of Art in England. 

▼ery mediaeval in all my likings, and seldom fail to like what I find was 
done in those good old days. And among other things the mediseval 
painters certainly showed no hesitation whatever about painting their 
churches piecemeal. San Zenone, Verona, has abundant evidence of 
this. Its walls, built alike inside and out of red brick and stone, were 
painted from time to time here and there as opportunity served. An 
artist was sent into the church and filled in his painting under an arch 
or behind the canopy of a tomb, and if neither of these was ready for 
him, then upon some bare piece of wall, said what he had to say, and. 
enclosing it with a painted frame or border, left his work so far a great 
improvement in the aspect of the church, and full of interest to all who 
followed him. Or, where a more ambitious scheme is resolved upon, 
there is still no difficulty in completing it by degrees with at least as 
much chance of uniformity of character as there ever is in the intro- 
duction from time to time of stained glass. 

There is, finally, as it seems to me more avulable talent for this 
work than for glass painting. I fear the fingers of one hand will more 
than suffice to reckon up all the really good or promising English 
makers of painted glass windows at the present day ; and, owing to the 
great restriction which the nature of the material and the shape of 
windows impose, it is difficult to persuade painters to study the matter 
at all, or to give any help in its improvement and developement. Yet» 
I hope, we all acknowledge that it is necessary to enlist men who are 
really painters to assist in our works. None of us can be contented 
with what usually passes muster for painting among our church deco- 
rators, and we must take good care — and that as soon as possible — 
that in this matter as well as in others, we are both in advance of our 
predecessors and really anxious to emulate the mediaeval system. 

It is m Italy that we best learn what this system was ; for though 
there is nothing contrary to it in anything that remains elsewhere 
throughout Europe, yet no other country ever boasted of the same 
abundant richness of artistic power as she did. It is in Italy, therefore, 
that we may with most profit study our duty as architects in this matter ; 
and we shall, I think, unavoidably come to at least one conclusion from 
this study, and this is, that we have only in part fulfilled our mission 
if we do not try to do what the Italian architects did : paint the vails 
we build sometimes, and not always trust to other hands, other eyes, 
and other taste for their highest decorations. It is absolutely painful 
to think how little like our ancestors we are in this matter. I, for one, 
entirely disbelieve that in old days men contented themselves with 
designs for walls and roofs, and left everything else to other men to 
complete. Three-fourths of the poetry of a building lies in its minor 
details ; and it is undoubtedly true that it is easier to design with aca- 
demical accuracy an ambitious imitation of a cathedral, than it is to 
devise and work out a really fine idea in stained glass, or a true, vigo- 
rous, and beautiful treatment of a story, or even of foliage, in the tym« 
panum of a doorway. 

I trust that none of us here will object to the idea of having to do 
more than the merest architectural work; for we must all believe 
entirely that we should be better artists and greater men if we did a 

On the Future of Art in England. 289 

little leM in architecture and a little more in other arts. We may 
make mistakes in beginning. We may be laughed at by others who 
can — or think they can — do better ; but unless we begin the work, 
younger men will» I suspect, step in and do it for us. This, at least* 
must be our course if we resolve to persevere in the opposition to 
the set rules and customs of our profession with which we have hitherto 
carried on our revival. 

It would h>i impossible to say what I have ventured to say to you 
this evening without reminding you of the great work on which Mr. 
Dyce is engaged in the church in Margaret Street. I believe, without 
presuming to express an opinion as to the merit of his work, that when 
that church is opened an immense stride will have been made towards 
proving the necessity of introducing paintings on our church walls. 
Already indeed the paintings to which 1 have before referred in the 
" Union " Room at Oxford, are doing their work ; and it may be plea- 
sant to some here to know that the authorities of Llandaff Cathedral 
have very wisely begged Mr. Rossetti to paint the reredos for their 
altar with a very striking and original treatment of the Nativity. 

Nor before I conclude can I forbear to call your attention (as I have 
once before done) to the efforts which the Arundel Society has been 
making towards our instruction in the best Early Italian Wall Painting. 
I was sorry at their annual meeting yesterday to see (I believe I am 
right in saying) only one other architect beside myself present. And 
yet it is a society to which every one of us is absolutely bound to be- 
long : its subscription is very small ; its return in the shape of en- 
gravings singularly liberal ; and if the prints issued by the Society are 
not always exactly what we want, it is because more of us do not attend 
the meetings, and assist with our suggestions as well as our subscrip- 
tions. I owe you an apology for speaking of the work of this Society 
at all on this occasion, and yet I cannot refrain, persuaded as I am that 
it is lending most valuable aid to the cause I am advocating. 

I said at the outset that we must not only see how far we could 
assist the painters' movement, but at the same time that we must see 
bow far we might take a lesson from them for the furtherance of our own 
work. I do not wish to trespass much longer upon your time, and I 
must content myself therefore with a very brief treatment of this ques- 
tion. It seems to me that the same feeling which induced painters to 
look to the men who preceded Raphael must induce us to do something 
rather more definite than merely to look at the time before the Re- 
formation for our guidance. Before Raphael there was very generally 
among painters a simple desire to be real and truthful in their work. 
They painted things as to the best of their belief they did or might 
have come to pass. They were remarkable, moreover, for a general 
sense of purity of form and loveliness of colour, which made a great 
gap between them and succeeding painters. Now I always think that 
we may not only mark the same division between Gothic and Renais- 
sance architecture, but that we may also subdivide in the same way 
the varieties of Gothic architecture itself. One's own pergonal feelings 
and predilections must have much to do with any such division ; and 
for one I cannot but feel that my own practice may in some sort bias 

240 On the Futwe of Art in England. 

me when 1 say that the result to' which all my study of architecture 
leads me is that there is a great gap between thirteenth century archi- 
tecture and the Gothic of later days, and that whilst on the one side 
of the chasm we have energy, life, purity of form and colour, and rig^d 
truthfulness in the treatment of every accessory in erery material, on 
the other side we have — if not always the evils themselves, at least 
what directly paved the way for them — weakness, prettiness, luxury, 
lack of appreciation of nobleness of form, and love of ornament for its 
own sake, degenerating at last regularly and systematically into a style 
for which few, if any, of us are inclined to say much in the way of ad- 

Who that really has worked heartily at his work will venture to 
deny that in stonework and the science of moulding ; in sculpture—* 
Whether of the figure or of foliage ; in metal- work — whether iron or 
silver ; in embroidery, in enamelling, and in stained glass, the northern 
art of the thirteenth century is infinitely more pure, more vigorous* 
and more true than the work of later times ? Who. moreover, does not 
feel, as he confines himself more entirely to one style, his power de- 
veloping and his grasp upon its essential features becoming more and 
more real and pliable ? In truth what Pre-Raphaelites are doing for 
painting must be done for architecture — ^if at all — by the thirteenth cen- 
tury men«— for they will not dissipate their strength by spreading it 
over too large a surface, nor destroy their art by making it eclectic and 
imitative. Finally, unless I mistake entirely the meaning of thirteenth 
century art its great lesson to us is that of earnestness and reality of 
no affected kind. — just the kind of earnestness which will enable men 
possessed of its principles to grapple with the difficulties of nineteenth 
century inventions and thoughts in the most real and simple manner — 
just the kind of art in short which will impress itself upon a prac- 
tical age like the present. 

No doubt men who speak as I do will be charged with being mere 
mediaevalists. I dispute the adjective but accept in its fullest sense 
the substantive part of the charge. We are mediaevalists and rejoice 
in the name ; to us it implies a belief in all that is best, purest, truest, 
in our art, and we deny altogether that it rightly implies any desire 
to refuse to this age what its history really entitles it to demand. 
We are medissvalists in the sense of wishing to do our work in the 
same simple but strong spirit which made the man of the thirteenth 
century so noble a creature, in the same sense exactly it appears to me 
as the Pre-Raphaelites have taken their name, not because they wish for 
an instant to copy what other men have done — ^no one has charged 
them with this — but because they, as we, see in the name a pledge of 
resistance to false and modern systems of thought and practice in art* 



Oxford challenges our attention with ▼ariona works undertaken since 
we last called attention to that city. Fir^t in dignity comes the re- 
fitting of the cathedral by Mr. Billing, altboagh the work there is of 
a temporary character, and consists mainly of a redistribution of the 
old debased furniture. It will be remembered that the pristine con- 
dition of this church was that of a choir of the later English type, 
thrust into the eastern limb of the building, wholly uneuited for the 
mother church of a diocese, and inconTcnient even as a college chapel ; 
while the nave was empty of aught save some mean apparatus for 
occasional university sermons. 

Now these arrangements have been recast for the benefit mainly of 
the eoUege and the Univerrity ; though no doubt incidentally more 
eongregational accommodation has been gained. The system upon 
which tiie changes have been made is of that kind which it is impos- 
sible either to praise or to blame. The confessedly temporary nature 
of the works disarms hostility as much as it paralyses enthusiasm. 
They may b6 described in a few short sentences. The area has been 
dean swept, an open Jacobean screen has been evolved out of the ex- 
terior face of the old close one, and placed between the first pillars 
westward of the nave, so as to leave a little ante cha|)el of one single 
bay, whik ^e whole midway space of nave and choir is seated staUwise 
with the old benches and stalls, the organ being placed sidewaya. 
When the visitor stands anywhere within the new choir, the feeling of 
makeshift predominates ; but the view dead east through the screen 
where the foreshortening conceals the absence of side-screen, and the 
imagination may conjure up long lengths of nave behind, is decidedly 
striking. It is satisfactory to think that at all events no structural 
harm has been done. The east window of the south choir aisle has 
been recently fifled with painted glass by Mr. .Wailes. 

Of a difiFerent complexion is the rebuilt chapel of fialliol college, by 
Mr. Butterfield, an excellent specimen of his best style, grave, some- 
what startEng, but dignified and religious. The plan is a parallelo- 
gram, and the chief external characteristic is the series of discharging 
arches carried between the buttresses with a bold projection and em- 
phasising the windows. The use of red and white stone in bands has 
provoked much shallow criticism. We are disposed to plead that the 
constructional polychrome ought to have been dealt in even larger 
measure. Hie entrance is through a west door, which leads into an 
ante chapel. This is full short, abstractedly speaking ; but with the 
limited funds and the allotted area at the disposal of the architect, he 
was right not to be profuse in this least practical portion of a college 
vhapeL The solid lower portion of the screen combines brick and stone, 
and has a legend incised. The npper part is open iron, and is one of the 
most successful tilings in the chapel. Mr. Bntterfield's severity of 
taste has we think led him too far in his manipolation of this metal. 

242 Progress at Oxford. 

The differentia of iron is emphatically ita malleability, and therefore* 
as emphatically, iron, if anything, ought to indulge in curves. Even 
if straight lines predominate elsewhere, we look to iron to give them 
value by contrast. The stalls moreover are more massive than we 
should have chosen. Wood is another of the more playful elements. 
But when we reach the sanctuary, Mr. Butterfield^s ability most fully 
displays itself. The levels are of course arranged with dignity, and 
the pavements of mixed marble and tile are very artistic, for these are 
both points in which he is peculiarly successful. But we would also 
call attention to the decoration of the side walls. These are lined 
with alabaster, and have (so to speak) constructional hangings of incised 
lines richly cross- hatched and filled in with mastic. A similar system 
of decoration is also repeated higher up. The sedilia of wood stand 
under a recessed arch. The arcaded reredos is not so successful. 
Colour is likewise introduced into this portion of the chapel by the 
agency of a quasi-clerestory of circular traceried panels, which has a 
good and original effect. The east window, of five lights, is as yet 
devoid of painted glass. Into the side windows of two is adapted the 
glass of the old chapel, of the very loose school which flourished par- 
ticularly at Oxford. The roof is coloured, and between the choir-proper 
and the sanctuary a quasi-arch of timber is introduced, which we are 
bold to call the least successful thing about the whole chapel. The 
elevation of the upper portion of this arch is the usual one of a pointed 
arch. But at the cornice level, without capital, horizontal moulding, or 
any other break, the curve on each side changes abruptly into a straight 
line, and so attains its point of contact with the wall. This sudden 
mutation of outline gives a broken character to the whole member, and 
disturbs the proportions of the remaining chapel, while its decoration 
of party-coloured bands after the manner of curtain poles does not 
cure the defect. We believe that the notion intended to be taught 
was that of there being a special form of wood arch. But if such a 
lesson were to involve the use of straight lines, the principle should 
have been carried further, and the arch been made polygonal. Whether 
such were graceful or not, it would at least be a figure in which the 
lines were true to each other. We cannot praise the feeble greenish 
blue of the sanctuary roof. It is we conclude put up in anticipation 
of painted glass ; but we do not think it will ever reach an harmonious 

Of the new buildings at Exeter College by Mr. Scott, the principal 
yet completed are the rector*s lodging, and the very picturesque, though 
over small, library, with its stone constructional dormers. The yet 
unfinished chapel is a stately apsidal pile, which recalls though 
with English features the Sainte Chapelle style. Depending as 
such a structure must so much do upon its fittings, we reserve our 
description for its completion. When it is in use this chapel and the 
neighbouring one of BiftUiol across the street will form a most in* 
teresting comparative study as exemplifying how very differently archi- 
tects of eminence can manipulate the apparently simple idea of an 
aisleless college chapel built in the Middle- Pointed style. 

A commencement has been made by Mr. Hardman in the south-east 

Progress at Osford. 243 

window of Magdalen Chapel of the new painted glass, which is to replace 
the quaint old grisaille figures. If the work does not improve we shall 
regret their loss. This window appears to us destitute of Mr. Hard- 
man's peculiar touch. 

llie New Museum of Physical Sciences, by Messrs. Dean and 
Woodward (or rather by the latter gentleman), is in various particulars 
a noticeable structure, and not the less so because having been selected 
in an open competition, it is being carried out by the prizeman. 
The external fagade with its long two-storied building, Italianizing 
windows with circular shaft in lieu of muUions. and central tower with 
high capped roof, at once indicates that the old beaten path of English 
Gothic is being somewhat deserted. The triangular dormers on the roof 
are however somewhat too large for the remaining structure. The adja- 
cent octagonal laboratory sufficiently breaks the external uniformity, 
and is an ingenious adaptation ad rem of the old monastic kitchen. 
But the main grandeur of the building is inside : where by the aid of 
iron and glass a structure has been hit off resembling a cloister or an 
exchange, and yet wholly original and suitable for its destination of a 
museum. The large quadrangle with its double story of galleries, that 
on the ground floor being a cloister with frequent brick span arches, 
will when finished be reckoned among the most excellent buildings of 
Oxford, llie combination of science and art in the use of the various 
stones of the land to compose the shafts of the openings is particularly 
ingenious ; and the series of statues on the ground area will lend a 
look of life especially desirable in such a structure. Unhappily as 
is well known the clustered iron shafts supporting the glass roof have 
been found inadequate for the weight above, and Mr. Skidmore will 
have to replace them with stouter proportions. We trust that this con^ 
treiemps will not materially diminish the gracefulness of the coup d'ceil 
of this forest of pillars spreading into spandrils, each of which exhibits 
in the boldest and yet most truthful ironwork, the foliage, flowers, and 
fruit of some British tree, hardly at all conventionalised. We could 
say much upon the entire theatre, but we feel that we should do most 
justice to the Museum by indicating rather than describing its features 
at the present moment, and we therefore pass on to another work of 
Mr. Woodward, 

This artist can afford not to be always so successful as he shows 
himself in the Museum, and we have accordingly little hesitation in 
saying that we cannot admire the new room he has added to the 
Union for the double purpose of a reading and a debating room. It 
seems to us to be singularly devoid of any feature, either in detail or 
proportion ; no doubt it was built with very little money. But we 
have often seen great effects produced with small resources, — there the 
effect is none at all. The plan is octagonal ; two of the sides longer 
than the others ; or if viewed in a different way it is an apartment with 
an apse at each end. The material is red brick. The lower win- 
dows, of a sort of Venetian gothic, reach the ground and open like 
casements ; above is a clerestory of foliated lights, just below which 
inside a gallery runs. The fittings are simple, and suitable to the 
doable use of the room. Above the gallery and between the win- 

244 Limerick Cathedral and Mr. Stafford, 

doW8 ifl a series of paintings in distemper, from the legend of Arthur, 
by leading artists of the Pre-Raphaelite school — Messrs. Rossetti, Pol* 
len, &c. Of course the position of the paintings renders it almost im- 
possible for them to be seen, owing to the cross lights between and 
upon them. But as for as can be judged, these paintings are dear and 
odd, embodyiog all the most salient peculiarities of the extreme section 
of the school from whom they emanate. They are of course valued in 
proportion by its adherents as the artists themselves. What they will 
think of Chem ten years hence obviously depends upon the position 
which that school may by that time have reached. In the meanwhile 
no one can grudge these spirited and able young men the happy oppor* 
tonity which the building of this room afforded of being Me to carry 
out their own notions just as they themselves desired. 


A CIRCULAR has been published, by which the proximate commencement 
of Mr. Burges's design for this church is announced, the Sultan having 
given an ample site for the building in a peculiarly favourable locality, 
at GFalata, in the main street running up to Pera, close to the great old Ge- 
noan tower, and visible from the sea. The modifications to be introduced 
in the building, as contrasted with the prize designs, are comprehended 
in the restriction of the nave from six to four bays, the contraction of 
the transepts so that, as in French churches, their length should 
coincide with the width of the aisles, the substitution — in the main 
portions— of a pointed barrel roof for the groining indicated, (Norman 
groining being retained in the aisles), and the general simplification 
of detaH and decoration, especially externally. Thus the featorea 
which formed the main characteristics of the building, the triple 
height of arcade, triforium, and clerestory, the apse and procession 
path, will not be lost, while the dimensions of the church will still be 
sufiicient to preserve the minster-like eiTect. The reduction in length 
will be in round numbers, we believe from 170 to 130 feet. An 
appeal, which we hope may be successful, is made for special offerings, 
for fittings, and painted windows. The latter, it is proposed, shoiJd 
be of rich grisaille patterns designed by Mr. Burges. 


Wx are §^ to report, that the StaflFord Memorial has assumed the 
satisfactory form of the commencement of a most judicious reatora- 
tion of S. Mary's Cathedral, Limerick, This buildiBg* though now 
greatly disfigured by bad fittings, a plaster ceilingp &0o is* in its aiebi- 

The Presence of Non-CimmuTiiamts at Holy Communion, 245 

tecture, a monament of Bingalar interest, comprising double aisles and 
transepts, while the piers of the nave are quadrangular, with simple 
nook shafts, the date being earliest First- Pointed. Of these there are 
four bays, besides the transept arches. The clerestory is of single 
circalar-headed lights. The west window is at present a six-light 
Third-Pointed one, put in with good intentions, but unsuccessful re- 
sults, a few years since. It is proposed to replace it by a bold triplet 
of Irish type, to be filled with painted glass, by Messrs. Clayton and 
Bell ; to raise the eastern gable to its original height, and restore one 
bay of the choir roof with a waggon-headed roof of oak, in hopes of 
its being continued all through the church, (which never had any 
lantern or choir arch,) and to insert a reredos, exhibiting the native 
marbles. We trust that these works may form the prelude to a 
complete restoration of the entire structure. 


Whbn reprinting, in our last number, the valuable opinion of the late 
Dr. Mill on The Presence of Non-Communicants at Holy Communion, 
we intimated that some further argument on the subject might appear 
in our next publication. This we now proceed to furnish. 

But first let us say that we do not, now at least, propose to pursue 
this question from the point of Primitive Antiquity, or to investigate 
it by the light of early Church History : we are content (and perhaps 
our readers may be also) to accept the view of one so qualified to form 
a judgment on these grounds as the eminent man whose letter we pro- 
duced ; and we are the more satisfied to acquiesce in his estimate of 
the mind of antiquity on this matter, because we think that estimate 
has been confirmed by what has since been written with the opposite 
object. Another reason for this course is — that (while satisfied of the 
intention of the Church of England to follow the guidance of the Early 
Church even in matters indifferent, and on which every particular 
Church is free to act for itself) the more practical inquiry for English 
Churchmen is, What authoritative indications are there of the mind of 
our own Communion on the subject ? And to this examination there- 
fore we will now address ourselves : the materials, indeed, from which 
to construct an argument are, so far as oar reading enables us to 
judge, somewhat scanty; yet they seem suflicient to qualify us for 
forming a reasonable conclusion. 

Now of the practice which prevailed at the accession of Edward the 
Sixth no question can be made : all will admit, no doubt, that then 
non- communicants habitually remained throughout the entire celebra- 
tion : if any think otherwise, the ecclesiasticid annals and legislation 
of the period ought to correct their mistake. Was there, then, any- 
thing done at that time or subsequently to alter the rule or practice 
which everywhere subsisted at the death of Henry the Eighth ? 


246 7%6 Anglican Authority far 

It 18 alike needless to deny and wonld be impossible to disprove — 
that, for various reasons, it was considered necessary by Edward*8 
ecclesiastical advisers to abolish the then common custom of private or 
soUtary Masses ; to establish Communion in both kinds ; and also that 
it was a prominent object to make the Mass« whenever celebrated* 
more distinctly a Communion of the people than had been the general 
practice. The very first Statute of Bd ward's reign tends to show tiiis : 
for the Act 1 Edw. VI. cap. i. Nov. 4, 1647, •* An Act against such as 
shall unreverently speak against the Sacrament of the Altar, and of 
the receiving thereof under both kinds," provides (Sect. VII.) that as 

''it is more agreeable to the first institutioD of Christ, and to the usage of 
the Apostles, and the primitive Church, that the people being present should 
receive the said blessed Sacrament with the Priest, than that the Priest 
should receive it alone," therefore " the Priest which shall minister the 
same, shall, at the least one day before, exhort all persons which shall be 
present Ukewise to resort and prepare themselves to receive the same. And 
when the day prefixed cometh, after a godly exhortation by the minister 
made (wherein shall be further expressed the benefit and comfort promised 
to them which worthily receive the said holy Sacrament, and danger and 
indignation of God threatened to them which shall presume to receive the 
same unworthily, to the end that every man may try and examine his own con- 
science before he shall receive the same,) the said minister shall not without 
a lawful cause deny the same to any person that will devoutly and humbly 
desire it; any law, statute, ordinance, or custom contrary thereunto in any 
wise notwithstanding : not condemning hereby the usage of any Church out 
of the King's Majesty's dominions." 

In this clause it is that we get the earliest statutory information of 
what was passing in the mind of Archbishop Cranmer and those who 
were associated with him in ecclesiastical reforms ; and, moreover, we 
trace the germ of proceedings which very shortly after led to the 
repeal (by 1 Edw. VI. c. 12) of the Act of the Six Articles : a reference 
to that Act (31 Hen. VIII. c. 14, a.d. 1530) indicates the key to this 
enactment : correctly or not, it seems to have been considered that 
Articles 2, 6, and 6, viz., the doctrine of concomitance, the practice of 
private masses, and compulsory confession, were bars to more frequent 
communion, not less than contradictions of the teaching of the early 
Church ; and so this Statute (though only condemning, as unc^^oHoUe 
and unprimitive, the English rule ; and confessedly avoiding any judg- 
ment on the practice of the Church elsewhere) sought to afford that 
liberty to English Churchmen which, it was supposed, would draw 
them towards more frequent and regular reception of the Sacrament of 
the Altar. 

This was immediately followed up by " The Order of the Commu- 
nion," supplementary to the Missal; that Office, however, (while 
encouraging, as did the Act, those present to commnaiieate) so aolemnly 
warned the people against unworthy receiving, that, unless we are to 
adopt the most absurd supposition of a sudden and general improve- 
ment in the morals and religion of those who frequented Mass, we 
cannot seriously imagine any very marked increase of commu&icanta ; 
nor probaUy would any venture to maintain so improbaUe a notion as 

the Presence of Ntm^Communicania at Holy Communion. i4Bt 

that non-oommanicanta proceeded to absent themaelves from the chief 
act of piiUic worship, not the slightest hint to that effect being given 
them in the new eccksiastieal directions. 

Nor indeed, so fiar as known documents bear witness, was any allusion 
made to the presence of non-communicants for an entire year after- 
wards : the first direction we have respecting them occurs in the third 
Rubric after the Offertory sentences in the Communion OfEce of the 
Pra3rer Book of 1549, and is in these words : — 

" Then lo many as shall be partakers of the Holy Communion, shall tarry 
still in the quire, or in some convenient place nigh the quire, the men on one 
side, and the women on the other side. All other (that mind not to receive 
the said Holy Communion) shall depart oat of the quire, except the minister 
and clerks." 

A plainer and more distinct recognition than this of the contemplated 
presence of non-communicants, could hardly be demanded; and it 
might have been thought that the Rubric must have put the question 
beyond controversy so far as the authority of Edward's First Book 
is concerned : yet it is worth while to notice a difficulty which has 
been raised upon it by a recent writer who is opposed to the presence 
of non-communicants ; indeed his difficulty is so curious as to seem 
like the objection of one who meant not to be convinced. Mr. Scuda- 
more (Communion of the Laity, 1855, p. 100), after quoting this 
Rubric, says thus : — 

" There is evidently some error in this Rnhric as it stands, for it implies 
that ' the minister and clerks' may he non-communicants. The last clause, 
which excepts them, should probably be omitted. Even thus there is great 
awkwardness of expression, whidi can only be remedied, so far as I see, by 
supposing that the second sentence was intended to run thus : ' All other 
(that mind not to receive the said Holy Communion) shall depart out of the 
cAtircA.' A hastv correction from change of opinion, or by a second hand, 
may perhaps explain the peculiarity." 

Now, this surely is a most gratuitous assumption of carelessness or 
ehange of opinion on the part of those entrusted with the preparation 
and publication of that book : the history of its preparation, the jealous 
criticism which watched it at every stage, the personal superintendence 
of Cranmer, the time occupied in compiling and printing it ; these, and 
other considerations which might be named, forbid the notion of haste 
or inattention. If there is, as Mr. Scudamore thinks, a difficulty in 
understanding it, the likelier explanation would have seemed to be — 
that we were imperfectly acquainted with the customs of that time, 
than that the framer of the Rubric used " great awkwardness of ex- 

But is there any difficulty, real or apparent ? We think not. Mr, 
Seudamore'e perplexity about this departure " out of the quire,^* may 
have arisen from his not knowing how the people came to be tfi there ; 
but the 29th of Edward's Injunctions of 1547, coupled with the 
directions of his 1st Book as to the Offertory, will probably settle that 
point. The Injunction orders ** a strong chest with a hole in the upper 
part thereof," to be fastened " near unto the high altar, to the intent 

248 The Anglican Authority for 

the parishioners should put into it their ohlation^ and alms for Uieir 
poor neighbours :'* the Rubrics direct that after one of the sentences 
" said by the minister," or " while the clerks do sing the oflfertory, so 
many as are disposed, shall offer to the poor men's box every one ac- 
cording to his ability and charitable mind." What, therefore, hap- 
pened? plainly, as it would seem, that the people who offered, came 
up from their places in the church, and severally placed their alms in 
the box near the altar : hence their presence in the quire. That this 
was the practice appears to be confirmed by the alteration which, for 
reasons of convenience no doubt, was made in the Second Book, where 
" the churchwardens, or some other by them appointed," were ordered 
to " gather the devotion of the people, and put the same into the poor 
men's box." Yet, commodious aa were the quires of that age, it is 
easy to understand that if the greater proportion of a large congrega- 
tion offered, the quire would be so inconveniently crowded as to inter- 
fere with the orderly administration of the Sacrament : nay, the Rubric 
contemplates that it might not be large enough for all the *• partakers 
of the Holy Communion ;" and so, while such of these as could not be 
accommodated within the quire were directed " to tarry .... in some 
convenient place nigh the quire," those who did not purpose to com- 
municate were to return into the other part of the church. 

But this separation was not merely a matter of convenience; it was 
also connected with Ritual reasons : for it will be seen by examining; 
the Communion Office of Edward's Ist Book, that certain portions of 
it (which else might be thought as general as the re»t) were expressly 
limited to be done by or for the intending communicants alone : such 
are — (1) The "Exhortation, to those that be minded to receive the 
same," beginning, "Dearly beloved in the Lord," &c. (2) The 
" General Confession " to be " made in the name of all those that are 
minded to receive " the Holy Communion, " to Almighty God, and to 
His Holy Church here gathered together in His Name," (as if in com- 
pliance with S. James v. 16) " either by one of them, or else by one of 
the ministers, or by the priest himself." (3) The Prayer of Access, 
'* We do not presume," &c., to be said " in the name of all them that 
shall receive the Communion." (4) The Thanksgiving after Com- 
munion, " Almighty and everliving God," &c. 

A very little consideration of these directions will show the propriety 
no less than the use of thus separating the communicants from the 
non-communicants : but there is little need to reason on the fitness of 
the arrangement when we find evidence that this ritual severance was 
designed ; for in Ridley's Injunctions of the following year, (1 550) •' for 
an uniformity in his diocese of London," even at the time when (without 
any authority) he was seeking to remove the altars, in order to " move 
and turn the simple from the old superstitious opinions of the Popish 
mass, and to the right use of the Loan's Supper," he speaks thus : — 

' An attention to this distinction and to the description given in another Injanc- 
tion and in a Rabric at the end of the Communion Office, of certain offerings to be 
made, might have prevented the mistake of some writers— that the BlemenU for Com- 
munion are not " oblations." 

the Presence of Non-Comimunicanis at Holy Communion. 249 

'' We ezhoTt the curates, churchwardens, anil questmen here present, to 
erect and set up the Lord's board after the form of an honest table decently 
covered, in such place of the quire' or chancel as shall be thought most meet 
by their discretion and agreement, so that the ministers with the communicants 
tnav have their place separated from the rest of the people : and to take down 
and abolish all other by-altars or tables/' — Cardwell, Doc. Ann. Vol. i. p. 93. 

Yet if this evidence be not thought explicit and late enough, or 
Ridley be considered as too much attached to the old religion ; we 
have the moat unsuspicious testimony in the " Articles concerning 
Christian Religion," given to the clergy of Gloucester, as recorded in 
•• A True Coppey of Bishop Hooper's Visitation Booke, made by him 
in anno dom. 1551, 1552 :" for in his XLIIIrd Article, which runs in 
the same words as that of Bishop Ridley just quoted, he gives this 
reason for his direction as to the place of the Lobd's Table, viz. : 

** So that the ministers and communicants may be seen, heard, and understood 
of all the people there being present." 

And this, notwithstanding that he plainly enough evinces his desire 
to promote communicating attendance by saying, in Art. XXII., " that 
the Sacraments are instituted of Christ to be used, and not to be gazed 
upon :" and further, when arguing in Art. XXVII. against the then 
frequent practice of one "man" receiving "the Communion of the 
Body and Blood of our Lord for another," he declares, 

''Wherefore the Communion ought not to be kept or celebrated within the 
Church, unless that the whole congregation (or at least a good part of the 
same) do receive it." — Later Writings of Bishop Hooper, Parker Society, 

From this contemporary evidence it is abundantly clear that, what- 
ever "awkwardness" any one may now find in the " expression" of 
the Rubric of the First Prayer Book as to the presence of non- 
communicants, Ridley and Hooper — a London and a Coimtry prelate — 
perfectly understood its meaning, and took care to give directions for 
complying with it. 

Mr. Scudamore does indeed admit that — 

" As the Rubric was published, and as we must take it, it certainly does 
not forbid the presence in Church of those who do not receive, but only expels 
them fipom the quire."— P. 101. 

> Lest this expression " quire or chancel " should perplex any one, or might 8 
to encourage Mr. Scudamore's notion that " quire " should be read ** church," it 
may be as well to observe that the quire was not always in the ehaneel : it might be 
between the chancel and the nave, as e.g., uider the tower, when that occupied this 
position, or in transeptal churches. Bishop Hooper, in the fifth of his Injanctions 
of 1551, directs that " in case the chancel stand far from the people, or else by 
reason of rood-lofts, belfries, or any such inclosare, the psalms spoken by the 
minister cannot be beard into the lowest part of the church, or else if the curate or 
minister have so small and soft a breast or voice that he cannot be heard into the 
lowest part of the church, that then every of them come into the body of the church.' ' 

The direction, then, in Edward's 1st Book must mean that the non-communicants 
were to retire beyond the quire, whether that quire was utithin or without the 

260 J%e AngUem AiUhoritp/or 

And he quotes Cra9Mer*s Answer to the Devonshire Rebels as proving 
that that prelate " was certainly willing at that time to penoit the 
presence of non*communicant8 " — though 

" he speaks in a manner which, uoless he purposely so expressed himself as to 
avoid rsising the question, seems to imply that the alternative of sending them 
out of the church had not yet presented itself to his mind." 

Cranmer's words are : 

" Although I would exhort every good Christian man often to receive the 
Holy Communion, yet I do not recite all these things to the intent that I 
would in this corrupt world, where men live so ungodly as they do, that the 
old canons should be restored again, which command every man present to 
receive the Communion with the priest ; which canons, if they were now used, 
I fear that many would now receive it unworthily." 

Now, even if these words were less plain than they are, it might 
well be thought very unlikely that the Archbishop took a different view 
on this subject from Ridley and Hooper — ^at all events from the former, 
whose opinions so mainly guided him : but in fact this extract conveys 
but a partial notion of Cranmer's argument on that occasion : it is 
essential, moreover, to recollect what demand he was combating. The 
rebels bad said, among other things, 

" We will have all the general councils, and holy deorees of our foK&thers, 
observed, kept, and performed." 

And again : 

" We will have the mass in Latin, as was before, and celebrated by the 
priest, without any man or woman communicating with him." 

To this Cranmer replies : 

" How contrary be your artides, one to another I Ton say in your first 
article, that you will have all general councils and decrees observed, and now 
you go from them yourselves. You say yon will have nobody to communicate 
with the priest. Hear then, what divers canons, decrees, and general councils 
say clean against you." 

Then he quotes, first, a Roman Decretal, the revival of which he 
deprecates in the passage quoted by Mr. Scudamore ; secondly, he 
quotes the 8th and 9th Apostolic Canons, but without the slightest hint 
that he would have taken a different view of them from that which is 
famished in Dr. Mill's Letter ; thirdly, he says, " the council Nicene 
also showeth the order, how men should sit in receiving the Comma* 
nion, and who should receive first ;" and then he sums up his references 
thus: — 

"All these decrees and general councils utterly condemn yonr third article, 
wherein you will, that the rriest shsll receive the Communion alone, without 
any man or woman communicating with him. And the whole Church of 
CmuBT also, both Greeks and Latins, many hundred years after Christ and 
tiie Apostles, do also condemn this your article; which ever received the 
Communion in flocks snd numbers together, and not the Priest alone. 

** And besides this, the very worda of the Mass (ss it is called) show 

tie Preience of Nat^Ckfmmumetmta at Holy Communion. 261 

lUnly, that it was ordained not only for the Priest, but for others also to com- 
municate with the Priest For in the yeiy Canon, which they so mnch extol, 
and which is so holy that no man may know what it is, (and therefore is read 
so softly that no man can hear it) in that same Canon, I say, is a prayer con- 
taining this, ' that not only the Priest, bnt also as many beside as communi- 
cate with him, may be fulfilled with grace and heavenly benediction.' How 
agreeth this prayer with yonr article, wherein you say, that neither man nor 
woman shall communicate with the Priest? In another place of the said 
Canon, the Priest prayeth for himself, and * for all that receive the Commu- 
nion with him, that it may be a preparation for them unto everlasting life.' 
Which prayer were but a very fond prayer, and a very mocking with God, if 
nobody should communicate with the Priest. And the Communion concludes 
with two prayers made in the name of the Priest and them that communicate 
with him, wherein they pray thus: 'O Lord, that thing which we have 
taken in our month, let us take it also with pure minds, that this Communion 
may pnr^ us from our sins, and make us partakers of heavenly remedy.' 
And besides all this, there be an infinite sort of Post-Cmnmunions in the 
Masa-book; which all do evidently show, that in the Masses the people did 
communicate with the Priest." 

Then follows the passage which Mr. Scudamore has quoted, though 
he has omitted the following conclusion, which shows more distinctiy 
the point which was in Cranmer's mind : — 

" But I speak them to condemn your article, which would have nobody, 
neither man nor woman, to be communicated with the Priest : which your 
article condemneth the old decrees, canons, and general councils, condemneth 
all the old primitive Church, all the old ancient holy doctors and martyrs, and 
all the forms and manner of Masses that ever were made, both new and old." 
», Parker Society, pp. 171, 2. 

We have, indeed, in all this the strongest possible evidence that 
Cranmer was determined to insist upon the abolition of all celebrations 
in which the Priest alone purposed to communicate ; but his answer to 
these Western malcontents, so far from affording the least indication 
that he thought it wrong for non-communicants to remain when others 
were communicating, is the best comment we could have upon the 
Rubric which he had sanctioned, if indeed it was not (as is more likely) 
framed by him : while, therefore, we may freely admit, with Mr. Scuda- 
more, " tiiat the alternative of sending them out of church had not yet 
presented itself to his mind ;" we may be tolerably confident that such 
an idea was not likely to suggest itself to the Archbishop, though 
he was most anxious to increase the number of communicants, and (as 
his reply to their 5th article shows) to encourage more frequent 

One cause of doubt in Mr. Scudamore's mind as to the accuracy of 
this Rubric was, that " it implies that ' the minister and clerks ' may 
be non-communicants," and so he thought that " the laet clause, which 
excepts them, should probably be omitted." Now, if Mr. Scudamore 
supposed that " the minister " meant the CelebrmU, no doubt it would 
be a most neediess direction, though it would by no means " evidently 
imply some error," and certainly could not in any way suggest that the 
Celebrant need not communicate, in the teeth of the positive direction. 

252 The Anglican Authority for 

" Then shall the Priest first receive the Communion in both kinds him- 
self." Moreover, an examination of this Communion Office of 1549 
will show — that in every instance where the Service is limited to the 
Celebrant, there he is invariably called *• The Priest," not "The 
Minister.*' In truth, however, he seems to have created his own diffi- 
culty — at all events to have added to it — by twice misquoting the 
Rubric itself, in printing " minister " for ** ministers :" for, as such a 
notice respecting the Celebrant would have been obviously meaningless, 
so, on the supposition that " the minister" referred to him, it was a 
not unnatural conjecture that there was '• some error in this Rubric." 

No doubt the Rubric does imply that " • the Minister* [plural] and 
Clerks ' may be non-communicants :" had the reverse been intended, 
there would have been no need for any direction as to them ; for being 
in the quire, they would undoubtedly ** tarry still " there, in order to 
communicate : but, aware that they were not bound to communicate 
at every Celebration, they might have supposed that they must leave 
the quire with the " all other (that mind not to receive the said Holy 
Communion) : hence, therefore, the need of this direction for them to 
remain in the quire. The Rubrics were necessarily drawn so as to 
cover the cases not only of Parish churches in which there were more 
than one Clergyman and his Clerk, but also Cathedral and Collegiate 
churches, in which there were many Clergy and Clerks ; and as all, 
but those (probably few) to whom the old offices were repugnant, 
would naturally continue to follow the ancient rubrical and traditional 
practices where not inconsistent with the expressions or the silence of 
the new offices, so, it was important that they should not be misled by 
any direction which seemed, but was not meant, to put an end to their 
former customs. That " the Ministers " would not consider themselves 
tied to receive the Holy Sacrament whenever they were present at its 
administration — ^is an inference inevitable, it would seem, liot merely 
from such strong probabilities of the case as arise from the then custom 
and from the fact that where there were two Celebrations in the day, 
(as the order of the Privy Council to Bishop Bonner, June ^, 1549, 
proves that there were) the Canon Law only permitted a Priest to com- 
municate a second time in case he was compelled to celebrate twice ; 
but, too. from a consideration of the following Rubrics themselves : — 

(1) That the Priest, having received the Communion himself, shall 
*' next deliver it to other Ministers, if any be there present, (that they 
may be ready to help the chief Minister)." Here, be it observed, he 
is not ordered to communicate all " other Ministers,*' but those who, 
intending to communicate, would be required to assist in the minis- 
tration to the people. Indeed, he is not ordered to communicate " the 
chief Minister:"^ for, obviously, it might often happen that he had 
communicated at a previous Celebration, either as Celebrant or assistant. 
(2) The sixth Rubric at the end of the Communion Office, on the plea 

1 I.e. the Celebrant's principal assistant — ** the minister," who, by the 4th Rubric 
after the Offertory, (the counterpart of one in the old office) is appointed to bring 
the oblations to the Celebrant for Consecration ; for the Rubric ends thus — *' And 
setting both the bread and wine upon the altar : Then the Priest shall say, 

"The Lord be with you," &c. 

the Presence of Non-Communicants at Holy Communion. 253 

preyiously noticed, viz. its being " most agreeable to the institution 
thereof, and to the usage of the PrimitiTe Church/' orders that '* In all 
Cathedral and Collegiate Churches, there shall always some [i.e. of the 
tmembers, meaning probably ' Priests and Deacons/ as is expressed in 
the corresponding Rubric of the Book of 1552] communicate with the 
Priest that ministereth." 

The case of Ferrar, Bishop of S. David's, who on Feb. 21, 1651, was 
articled before the Privy Council, " of the malice " of " certain covetous 
canons,*' (as Foxe says,) of his own Cathedral, bears out the view here 
taken of the case of non-communicating Clergy ; and it is the evidence 
of an unsuspicious witness, " a godly bishop," as Foxe says, for he was 
one of those Reformers who suffered death in Mary's reign. Among 
fifty-six accusations, one (the 19th) was that he — 

" . . . . celebrating matrimony in hit own person, dispensed, contrarv to the 
book of ordinance, with the parties married, for not receiving the Holy Com- 

manion At which celebration the Bishop communicated not himself : 

and further, the Communion was celebrated by a chaplain of his, with super- 
stitious blowings, kneelings, and knockings, lioth of the chaplain that mmis- 
tered, and of all the company, only one other priest communicating for the 
manner." — Foxe, Acts and Mon. Vol. viL p. 6, ed. 1847. 

The Bishop's pleading seems to have been deferred for a whole year, 
owing to delays caused by his prosecutors : so that his answer not 
only shows what he understood to be the law of the First Prayer Book, 
but speaks his mind at the very time when the Second Book was ready 
for the sanction of Parliament : what does he say ? This is his reply : 

" That after travel of fourteen miles, being not able fiasting to celebrate 
the Communion, in a chapel within the house of Sir Thomas Jones, Kt., one 
of the Kinff's majest^s honourable council of the Marches of Wales, this de- 
fendant c^ebrated matrimony without receiring the Communion for the 
causes aforesaid, betwixt Master Griffith Rice, and the daughter of the said 
Sir Thomas Jones, accordiog to the King's ordinances. And Thomas 
Prichard, priest, administered the Holy Communion then without any super- 
stition, to this defendsnt's knowledge ; and the married persons not disposed 
to receive the Holy Communion, he could not compel them against their con- 
sciences: and saith, that he did not dispense with them, as it is contained in 
the article."— P. 12. 

The nature of another charge against him, and its bearing upon the 
point under consideration, will be seen at once from his answer, which 
is in these words : — 

*'.... that he hath been divers times in the choir of Caermarthen, and 
hath tarried there in the communion-time, not communicating himself ; and 
that in every church where he cometh on the holy-day to preach, or to pray, 
he kneeleth in the choir, bareheaded, as well at matins before the Communion, 
as at even-song sfter, without any supentition : he thinketh it not necessary 
for the Communion's sake to leave kneeling to Christ. But he hath dih- 
gently taught the people not to kneel nor knock to the visible show, or external 
show of the Sacrament. And the choirs of Csermarthen and other places 
there, are not close at the sides, so that the people may come in and forth at 
their pleasure. Moreover, the King's ordinances do not authorize him to re- 
buke the people for knocking on their breasts, in token of repentance of their 


254 1%e Anglican Auihority for 

Bins ; nor for kneeling, in token of submission to God for mercy in Christ/' 
--P. 12. 

Such language, more especially as coming from a Bishop, must 
aarely be regarded as strikingly confirmatory of the argument already 

This being the rule for " the ministers/' it cannot be reasonably 
si^iposed that a stricter one should be applied to the " clerks *' 
who, being commonly laics, w«re not presumed to be m a more 
habitual state of preparation than the clergy. And yet, as the 
Rubric shows, their presence was required throughout the service ; for, 
not only were they to "sing," and lead the responses be/ore the conse- 
cration, but also they were to " sing*' the Agnus Dei '* in the commu- 
nion time," and '* the post-communion :'* if there were " no clerks" 
then *' the Priest" was to '* say all things appointed ... for them to 
sing." But there is one remarkable exception to their duties in the 
post-consecration service; and that is — they were not appointed to 
lead the " general Confession,*' as would have seemed likely, seeing 
that " one of " the laity, who were " minded to receive," might do it. 
What is the explanation of this ? Surely, that as it was to " be made 
in the name of all those" minding to communicate, a " clerk," (whether 
the solitary parish clerk or a member of a capitular body,) if not pro- 
posing to partake, was not their fitting representative : yet. if the 
Rubric had named him as one, who so likely to have been always left 
to fulfil this office. Whether he was about to communicate or not ? but 
this would have defeated the apparent object of the Rubric — viz., 
to make it a confession of the communicants. It wiU be objected per- 
haps — that *' one of the ministers" might make the confession, and 
that therefore upon the theory of their being permitted non-communi- 
cants, the argument just advanced is unsound. But the answer seems 
to be that " the one of the ministers" making the confession must 
be interpreted to be one about to communicate .- a Rubric just quoted 
shows the obligation they were under '* always some" of them to 
*' communicate :" there was an obvious propriety, then, in their per- 
forming the act when it had to be done for them as well as for the 
people ; hence in all likelihood' the direction. 

Prom what has now been advanced it seems undeniable that by the 
Prayer Book of 1549, ministers, clerks, and people were all permitted to 
be non-communicating attendants at the Holy Communion. 

But it seems to us that their presence was rather enjoined than 
permitted* What else can be the meaning of the following Rubric — 
the last but one at the end of the Communion Office of 1 549 ? 

** Furthermore, every man and woman to be bound to hear and be at the 
Divine Service, in the parish church where they be resident, and there with 
devont pra^fer, or godly silence and meditation to occupy themselves. There 
to pay their duties, to communicate once in the year at the least, and there 
to receive and take all other SaoramenU and Rites, in this book appointed.'' 

Now (without discussing the question, whether " the Divine Service'* 

the Presence of Non-Camnrnikants at Holy Communion. 265 

was at that time used as a technical term for the Holy Communion) it 
is most observable that this direction is one of eight, all relating to the 
Communion Office and appended to it : the Book, too» certainly con- 
templated a weekly celebration at least in. all the parishes — a daily one 
in cathedrals: the Rubric preceding the second exhortation directs 
it to be read *' if upon the Sunday or holy-day » the people be negli*- 
gent to come to the Communion :" the Rubric immediately befoie thq 
one now under discussion, most carefully arranges the attendance in 
" course*' of one communicating representative from each house in tb« 
parish, so as to ensure a regular Loro*s Day celebration ; it also invites 
'* all other, who be then godly disposed tiiereunto . • • likewise" tp 
"receive the Communion :'* the Rubric we are considering enforces of» 
more than annual Communion as the minimum : it prescribes to the 
<• every man and woman" whose attendance it bespeaks " godly silence 
and meditation** as the alternative of '* devout prayer ;*' a course 
which coincides with the limitations already noticed of certain parts of 
the office : add these facts to the one already commented on, vis.^ 
the order for non-communicants *' to depart out of the quire ;*' and 
there appears no way of avoiding the conclusion. That even those wbe 
refrained from communicating, except when obliged, were certainly 
invited and encouraged to attend thie (then separate and distinct) '* Di- 
vine Service," as well as other : nay, seemingly were forbidden It 
absent themselves without just and reasonable cause. If this be the 
true interpretation of the Rubric (and we are unable, upon reflection, 
to see any flaw in it) then the first Act of Uniformity, by enforcing 
the use of the first Prayer Book, not merely sanctioned by authority of 
Parliament the ecclesiastical permission for the presence of non-com- 
municants, but added the force of Statute Law to a direction which 
made their attendance at celebrations a part of that ordinary public 
worship in which they were expected to join as obedient Churchmen 
and loyal subjects. 

We conclude this part of our subject with the following extracts 
from the Visitation Articles of Bishop Ridley, June, 1550, of the 
existence of which we were not aware until we had written thus far; 
it will be found, we think, that they entirely confirm our position.: 
there are others which do so less directly. 

" Whether your parishionen every Sunday and holy day doth come to their 
own parish church to hear divine service with silence m prayer, pay their 
duties there, and once in the year at the least receive the Holy Communion 
as it is in the Book of Common Prayer appointed. 

" Whether l^e Minister leceiveth the Sacrament except there be one at the 
least to Gommnnirate with him. 

" Whether any tarrieth in the quire after the offertory, other than those that 
do communicate except clerks and ministers." — Foxe, Acts and Mon. Vol. 
vi. App. No. 1. Ed. 1846. 

(The conclusion of this paper, in which it is discussed whether the Law 
of the Church of England as to the presence of non- communicants was 
altered by the Second Prayer Book, is unavoidably postponed to our next 



Thb nineteenth anniyenaiy meeting of the Society was held on Tiies* 
day, June 1» in the Lecture Theatre of the South Kensington Museum, 
for the use of which the thanks of the Society are again due to the 
Department of Science and Art. 

The chair was occupied during the former part of the evening by 
A. J. B. Beresford Hope, Esq., M.P. ; and subsequently by the Rev. 
W. Scott. 

Among those present were the Revs. J. S. Clarke, S. S. Ghreatheed, 
H. L. Jenner, W. H. Lyall, J. F. Russell ; C. B. Allen, Esq., G. F. 
Bodley, Esq., W. Burges, Esq., J. Clarke, Esq., Professor Cockerel!, 
J. F. France, Esq., F. S. Gosling, Esq., J. Masters, Esq., A. O'Connor, 
Esq., G. G. Scott, Esq., W. Skter. Esq., G. E. Street, Esq., G. Trae- 
fitt, Esq., R. E. E. Warburton, Esq., W. White, Esq., and R. J. 
Withers, Esq. 

The following report was read by the Rev. H. L. Jenner, the secre* 
tary for music, in the absence (on account of domestic affliction) of the 
Rev. B. Webb :— 

" The Committee, in presenting their Nineteenth Annual Report to 
the Ecclesiological Society, have again to record a year of satisfactory 
progress in all the chief departments of religious Art. A review of the 
general church building, church restoration, and art- literature of the 
year, will show that the principles for which we have ever contended 
are still in the ascendant ; and their influence for good is not by any 
means confined to those branches of art which fall more properly within 
the scope of our own operations. 

'* In accordance with their usual practice, your Committee will first 
report briefly their own proceedings during the past year. They have 
to record the accession of two new Episcopal patrons — the Bishops of 
Kilmore and Montreal ; and they have added to their number R. £. E. 
Warburton, Esq., a liberal patron of art ; and the Rev. George Williams, 
an honorary member, well known as a contributor to the Ecclesiologisi, 
and as late President of the Cambridge Architectural Society. 

" The Committee have continued the publication of the Ecdeno- 
logist, the value of which they propose, with the co-operation of their 
publisher, to enhance both as regards literary matter and illustrations. 
The thanks of the Society are due to the various contributors 
during the past year : in particular to the authors of the descriptive 
papers entitied Church Notes in Central and South-Eastern France, 
Upsala Cathedra], Church Restoration in Warwickshire, The Eccle* 
siology of Gravesend, Ecclesiological Progress on the South Coast, 
The Third-Pointed of the South-Westem Counties, The Manchester 
Art-Treasures' Exhibition, and an Ecclesiological Day in Manchester. 
Our thanks are further due for the theoretical papers on Glass 
Painting, on the Basilican type of churches as suitable for modem 

Ecelesiological Society. 267 

reqniremento, and on Iconographical Refoim in Rome. To these 
must be added Mr. Burges' interesting paper on Paganism in the 
Middle Ages ; Mr. Street's paper on Oerman Pointed, and his letter on 
the Destnictiye Restoration which he found in progress during a tour 
in Italy ; Mr. Blenkinsopp's letter on the Architectural type suited for 
the Scottish Highlands; Mr. Clarke's papers on S. Mary the Less, 
Cambridge, and on Gothland ; and Mr. O. J. R. (Gordon's two letters 
on Norwegian Ecclesiology. To this gentleman we owe the im« 
portant Sequences, from the ancient monastery of S. Oall, which have 
seen the light for the first time in our pages, in the last part of the Se- 
quentise Ineditse. Finally, the translator of the official reports of the 
architect of Cologne Cathedral, published in the Kolner Domblatt, 
must be thanked for his valuable aid. 

'* The Committee have received reports or communications from most 
of the allied Societies, including the Oxford Architectural Society, the 
Architectural Society of Northampton, the Cambridge Architectural 
Society, the Worcester, Leicester, Liverpool, and Buckinghamshire 
Architectural Societies, the Surrey Archaeological Society, the Archi- 
tectural Institute of Scotland, the S. Patrick's Ecelesiological Society, 
and the New York Ecelesiological Society. They have again to thank 
the Department of Science and Art, and the Committee of the Archi- 
tectural Museum, for permission to hold their present meeting in the 
Lecture Theatre of the South Kensington Museum. 

" With the Architectural Museum the Committee have maintained a 
dose and friendly intercourse ; and, after more than one conference, 
as to the best method of forwarding the interests of Christian Art, 
the Committee have agreed to found an annual prize of five guineas 
for art-workmen, in connection with the other prizes offered under the 
sanction of the Architectural Museum Committee. The subject of 
this competition is to be settled each year by a joint conference, while 
the adjudication rests with the Ecclesiologi(»l Committee. The prize 
thisyear is to be given to the person who shall succeed best in applying 
colour to a cast of the figure of Faith from Niccola Pisano's weU-known 
gate at the Baptistery of Florence. The Committee of the Architectural 
Museum have agreed to provide all applicants with the necessary casts 
at a remunerative price : upon the understanding that the difference 
between that and the cost price shall be returned to all bona fide can- 
didates for the prize who shall return the casts for the competition 
either coloured or damaged. The prize is to be adjudicated at the 
dose of the year. 

" A congress of Architectural Societies has been summoned to meet 
at Oxford hi the course of next week, and all members of the Ecele- 
siological Society are invited to attend. Some members of the com- 
mittee hope to join the congress as representatives of this society. 

" With foreign ecclesiologists your committee have maintained many 
friendly relations. M. Reichensperger has more than once commu- 
nicated very interesting and important letters to the EccUsiologist, In 
particular he has given an account of the union of church-art sodeties 
which met at Ratisbon : and has informed us, to our great satisfaction, 
that the authorities of Cologne Cathedral have accepted, with unim- 

268 Ecclesioloffical Society. 

portant modific^tiffns, the ioq^ological schemis for the glims of that 
chercti which Mr. Burgea suggested in a paper in oiir joomal. From 
the Royal University of Christiania we have received varioua ecdesio* 
logical Scripta Academic^. 9fA have forwarded the Ecciedologi^t in 
return. We have abo exchanged puhUcationa with M. Alb^iogk 
Thijm of Amsterdam, the editor of the Dietsche Warande. The two 
iqedals adjudged to English artists in the competition at Bern, for ti 
new Catholic church, were forwarded to your committee through the 
Engiish Minister for delivery to the prizemen. Mr. Goldie of Sheffield 
received the gold medal, and Mr. Pediey of Southampton the silver 
one : and the two prize designs were courteously submitted to tb^ 
inspection of the committee. In connection with foreign eccleaiology 
your committee must mention the lamented apd unexpected death of 
M« Lassus. an honorary meml)er of the society and a contributor to 
our journal. They adopted af the time n resolution expressive ol 
their regret at the loss of this distinguished French architect. The 
death of Mr. Herbert Minton, to whom the artistic movement of our 
days owes so much, must also be chronicled with every ezpreasion of 
our regret. 

'* Tucniag now to the ecclesiological publications o( the day,, the Com* 
mittee must first notice Mr. Scott's volume on Secular and Domestic 
Gothic Architecture, as the most important. Next to this they most 
rank Messrs. Oraves and Prim's History of the Cathedral of S. Canicew 
Kilkenny. Ms. Wigley's Translation of the churchbuilding maoval of 
S. Charles. Borromeo is a work of special value and interest.. Mr* 
DoUman's Ancient Examples of Domestic Architecture* Mr. l^ukis oi| 
Church BeUs, Mr. Bptron's work on Scudamore Organs, and Mr. Buiges'a 
Essay, (veprinted from the Afinales Arck4ologiqus£) on the Capitala of 
the Dncal Palace at Venice, mu^t also be recorded* From Amedea we 
have received Mr. Halt's essay on Parish Churches. And in the de* 
partment of ritualism we have to mention Mr. Neale's cheap edition 
of the original Gjseek text of the Litui^ of S. Mark. Th^ edition 
of the Sarum Missel, under the editorial care of some members of the 
Committee^ is making steady progress. The. Arbuthnot Miasal ia 
also in course of nepxinting under the editorship of the Bishop of 
Brechin and his brother. The late discovery of a perfect Miasal of 
the Use of Hereford is. a circumstance too interesting to liturgicists 
lo be omitted. The useful scheme of the Master of the R(& ixxt 
pnblishing ancient historical records — to M^hich allusion was made in 
our last report — has already borne fruit in the issue of three works 
of much interest. 

" Of new churches, completed, in progress, or designed, during the 
past year, the most important are the following, which will be noticed 
in alphabetical order of their authors' names. Mr. Boi^s has in hand 
some modifications, rendered necessary by the selection of site, for his 
Memorial church at Constantinople, which is to be built without delay. 
Mr. Butterfield's church of All Saints is in process of completion: 
the baptistery has been decorated, and the internal, fittings are in 
band. The same architect's fine design for S. Matthew's, Auckland, 
New Zealand, has been noticed ai length in our pages. His works 

Eedmological Society. 259 

at Baliol Odege will be reviewed in our next nubber. Mn Clarke's 
design for rebuilding Famham chureb, Essex, Mr. Crowther*s sum^- 
tOdiMS chiiroh of S. Mwy, Holme, Maiu^eefe^r, tmd Mr. Nortom'B 6bm- 
pletioQ of Stiiptelxm ebutch, UMist be UMtiotted. Mr. Scott's stately 
ohureb at Doncaster is nearly completed : bis church at Stoke New- 
ingtoo is also far advanced, and those at Richmond and Huddersfieki 
are in progress, as are his buildings at Exeter College, Oxford. Mr. 
Slaner's cathedral at Kilmore has just been commenced. His church 
of Burntisland m^st also be noticed. Mr. Street has rebuilt Hagley 
chbrcb, as a testimonial to Lord Lytteltbn. His design for the English 
«bupel at Bern was piquant and original. Mr. S. S. Teulon's Holy 
IVinity. Hastings, has been opened for Divine service, although in an 
incomplete state. Mr. Woodyer*s church and college at Tenbury have 
been du&y noticed in our journal* 

" Montreal cathedral, designed by the late Mr. Wills, of New York, 
is tiie most important c^nial work of the year. 

** Among restorations and enlargements we must notice with satis- 
llction Mr. Butterteld's commission to restore S. Cross, near Win- 
chester; Messrs. Priehard and Seddon's works at Llandaff cathedral ; 
Mr. Scott's designs for Lichfield cathedral; Mr. Slater*s works at 
Sherborne Minster, Hig^am Ferrers, and Devizes } Mr. Street's res- 
torations at Wantage and Twyning, and an enlargement of Arley 
diapel, Cheshire, and especially his plans for S. Dionis Backchurch in 
the City ; and Mr. Teuton's sumptuous refitting of Blenheim Palace 
chapel, llie restorations in the choir of Limerick cathedral, intended 
as a memorial of the lamented Mr. Stafford, have been placed in Mr. 
Slater's hands. 

" The Committee have also had much pleasure in examining able 
designs by Messrs. Bddley, Hills, St. Aubyn, W. M. Teulon, Truefitt, 
White, and Withers. 

'* The large and sumptuous church of Ste. Clotilde at Paris was con- 
secrated during the course of last winter i and, as will be seen by a 
notice in the current Ecclesialogut, important restorations are in hand 
at Notre Dame, of which M. Viollet Le Due is now the sole architect. 
We have given some particulars of the unsatisfactory commence- 
ment of the Cathedral at Lille, and alluded to Messrs. Hansom's' 
churches at Boulogne, and that by Mr. E. Pugin, at Dadizeele, near 

*' In stained glass, they have seen with great pleasure Messrs. Clay- 
tun and Bell's designs and works for several places, and especially for 
the University Hall at Sydney and Sherborne Minster. They have 
also inspected some able works by Mr. Lavers. Mr. Powell, (in a 
paper read at Birmingham,) argued skilfully for an archaic style in 
glass painting, but ran into extremes^ 

" In sculpture, the Committee have but little to report. Mr. Clay- 
ton has (kisigned a bas*relief of the Ascension, for the reredos at Sher- 
borne. Mr. Philip has transmitted to Melbourne the memorial cross 
of Sir O. Hotbam. Mr. Scott's Crimean monument to "old- West- 
minster*' heroes will be erected in front of the Abbey. We look for- 
ward to its completion as an epoch in the monumental art in England. 

260 Ecclesioloffical Society. 

Mr. Philip has in hand the recumbent effigy for Dr. Mill's tomb in 
Ely Cathedral. 

'* In painting, we have to record with great pleasure, the proximate 
termination of Mr. Dyce*s noble frescoes at All Saints. Our colleague, 
Mr. Le Strange, has commenced his great undertaking of painting the 
nave of Ely Cathedral. The Arundel Society, though in arrears with 
its publications, announces a great accession of subscribing members. 

'* In ecclesiastical metal- work, we may notice Mr. Keith's execution 
of church plate for Baliol College, from Mr. Butterfield's designs, and 
for Colton church, Staffordshire, from Mr. Street's designs. The 
paper to be read this evening by Mr. Surges will, we hope, throw new 
light on this branch of Church art. Mr. Skidmore's works, on a larger 
scale, at the Museum at Oxford, must be here commemorated, and 
also his costly metal chancel-screen and parcloses for Uam church, 

" In church embroidery, the Ladies' Association has met with such 
success that want of workers hinders their accepting all the commis- 
sions that are offered to them. Some able designs for their use, by 
Mr. Bodley, especially one for Peterborough cathedral, deserve notice. 

"In organ-building, as well as in the designing of organ cases, 
hopeful progress has been made, not only by Mr. Street's designs in 
Mr. Baron*s book, but by Mr. Ghreatheed's experiments in an organ 
for Hayward*s Heath chapel school, in which he was ably seconded 
by Mr. Bodley, and Mr. White's organ case (now nearly finished) for 
Preston church, Kent. 

*< In Secular Pointed, your Committee would call attention to Mr. 
Scott's florid Town Hall at Bradford, and to Mr. Withers* able public 
buildings at Cardigan. Mr. Scott has designed some almshouses in 
honour of the late Mr. Minton at Hartshill ; and Mr. Goldie's Crimean 
monument for Sheffield must also be noticed. 

'< Your Committee must call attention to the gratifying fact that the 
Architectural Exhibition for next year will be held in the rooms of the 
Architectural (Jnion Company, in Conduit Street. 

" Your Committee must refer with disapprobation to the soi-disasU 
Oothic fittings of the Chapel Royal, on occasion of the marriage of the 
Princess Royal, llie movement in behalf of the rebuilding of the 
Trinity College Church, Edinburgh, has not yet succeeded : and the 
works at Manchester Cathedral, and to some extent at Worcester Ca- 
thedral, though well meant, are not such as to be viewed with com- 
plete satisfaction. 

" The vigorous movement, originated at Manchester, in favour of 
free churches, is a more hopeful sign : and the opening for service of 
the naves of Westminster Abbey, and of Rochester and Worcester ca- 
thedrals, is to be chronicled with pleasure. The design for fitting np 
the dome of S. Paul's for large congregations must be watched narrowly, 
as difficult problems in ritucd arrangements are likely to be involved 
in it. At the same time it is a matter of congratulation, that the 
scheme announced in the published proposal of the Dean not only com- 
bines a large plan of ornamentation on correct principles, but is likely 
to carry out the architect's original and sumptuous designs. In the 

Bcdesiological Society. 26 1 

able hands of Mr. Penrose 'we are sure that this great work has every 
promise of success. 

*' The Dissenting communities have given their adhesion more than 
ever to Pointed architecture for their religious edifices. The most 
conspicuous example in the year has been Mr. James's Congregational 
meeting-house at Halifax. 

" We cannot allow this report to go by without some reference to 
the competitions for the new Public Offices, for the Monument to the 
Duke of Wellington, and for the Memorial of the Exhibition of 1851. 
Anxious as we are, on public grounds, to uphold free competition in art, 
we must say that there are circumstances about all these applications 
cf the principle which will not tend to promote its cause in England. 

" Upon the whole, the Committee are of opinion that the general 
progress of the cause of sacred art during the p^st year has been such 
as to satisfy just expectations, and to give good hopes of further 

The Rer. W. H. Lyall moved, and — Twysden, Esq., seconded, the 
adoption of the Report. 

In so doing the latter gentleman remarked, that as to the fitting up 
of S. Paul's Cathedral for special services, they ought to keep their 
eyes open in reference to the ritual arrangements proposed, which were 
of a most unsatisfactory character. 

A Member of the Society observed that he was not aware that any 
arrangements had been completed on the subject. He was not aware 
that any arrangements had been come to, and certainly in the Dean's 
published letter there was no allusion made to ritual arrangements. 

Professor Cockerell said, having the honour of being a member of 
the committee appointed to consider proposed decorations for S. Paul's, 
he might remark that it was certain that in the first instance it was 
thought best to invite the City of London and the authorities of the 
City of London to do that which they all desired, in order to give to 
the metropolitan cathedral that becoming and decorous aspect which it 
ought to have, and to carry out in a great measure what was the in- 
tention of Sir Christopher Wren in this respect. But everybody had 
been fully aware of the popular interest taken in the services at S. 
Paul's Cathedral, which had been as crowded of late years, he might 
say, as Westminster Abbey. And they would find that Mr. Penrose's 
plans were in fact determined with regard to the accommodation of the 
dome for public cathedral service ; and that was the real object of the 
Dean and Chapter as guardians of the public worship, llie other 
matter of interest — that of the becoming decoration of the cathedral — 
was one which had reference to the carrying out of a grand object of 
its architect^ along with the carrying out of a religious object. 

The Chairman observed that this was a subject of general interest, 
and that the more that was known of it, the more satisfactory and the 
better would it be for the public. Though the decorative movement 
had been put forward, yet the ritual was the first matter in the view of 
the Dean and Chapter ; and he was sure that no one would wish to see 
S. Paul's dome fitted up as Mr. Spurgeon's intended chapel might be. 


262 Ecclesiological Socieiy. 

In answer to a question from one of the members. 

Professor Gockerell said the choir of S. Paul's was of a very limited 
character, and could not contain so many as two thousand people. 
Therefore, it was proposed to accommodate a much larger congrega- 
tion, under the dome, and so to satisfy the popular wish that it should 
become a great centre of public worship. The choir was to remain as 
it was. lliey might as well propose to alter the liturgy of the Church 
of England, as to attempt to alter the services in the choir. 

Mr. Scott remarked that the question as to the removal of the choir- 
screen was not settled ; it was still left open. He was a member of 
the restoration committee. 

The Chairman. — ^Precisely so ; but that is a matter which requires 
to be watched. That is not a question we can at once forestall. There 
is a great deal to be said on both sides as to whether the screen should 
be removed or not. 

Professor Cockerell must say that that question was not positively 
settled. He was against the removal of the screen, as it was a part of 
the original design of Wren. There was a remark which it was scarcely 
necessary to midLe, but it was undoubtedly a matter of great import- 
ance, that Wren designed the dome so that it might afford spacious 
accommodation for a large auditory to the preacher ; and in tluit way 
they would find the means of affording a larger space for the congre- 
gation than any other form of building they knew afforded. A great 
architect like Wren would not have designed a dome like that of 
S. Paul's without having some purpose for it. They knew that the 
voice of the Dean of S. Paul's was well heard on the occasion of the 
funeral of the Duke of Wellington ; and it was hoped, therefore, that 
preachers of sufficient power of voice would be found to be heard in 
the dome by a very large congregation. 

Mr. Burges did not think it at all desirable, as a general rule, to get 
rid of the screen, which might be legitimately used for preaching from. 

Mr. O. £. Street expressed himself in favour of the interior being 
decorated with high artistic ornaments. 

A Member remarked that the letter of the Dean bore upon that 
matter, and referred to the introduction of fine marbles and other deco- 
rations becoming the cathedral; but nothing had, at present, been 
definitely fixed upon. 

Professor Cockerell said, there would be very great impropriety in 
his pretending to give reports out of school as to what was proposed to 
be done, as he had the honour of being on the committee, and there- 
fore he was sure they would applaud his reserve ; for he had found on 
more than one occasion, that when he had spoken out of school he bad 
been misrepresented, and he had no desire whatever to be puUed up by 
the committee. He might observe, however, that whatever men of 
taste had said about the decoration of S. Paul's had been a matter of 
careful consideration by the committee. They knew that light trans- 
mitted through colour gave colour to the whole cathedral. It was 
obvious that coloured glass was desirable in that cathedral : but how 
far it might be employed without obscuring the light was a very great 
question. And if any gentieman or gentlemen would throw out bints 

Ecclesiohgical Society. 268 

as to the best mode of retaining or increasing the light there was at 
present, and on colour at the same time, such remarks would be caught 
up with great eagerness by the committee. The committee would 
seize with very great interest any hints which might be thrown out on 
this subject. 

Mr. White considered that the mistake lay in painting the windows, 
and leaving the walls destitute of colour. 

The Report was then unanimously adopted, and ordered to be 

The Chairman here called attention to Mr. W. H. O'Connor's 
triptych, and to Mr. Arrowsmith's marquetry mosuc, specimens of 
which were exhibited. He pointed out that this marquetry was as 
suitable for churches as for houses, and that, being cut by machinery 
out of the solid, it was both cheap and durable. 

The Music Report was next read by the Rev. H. L. Jenner, and 
adopted on the motion of F. S. Oosling, Esq., seconded by W. 
White, Esq. 

" The Sub-committee for Music, in their last year's report, announced 
the completion and publication of the Hymnal Noted : so far, at least, as 
concerned the simple musical notation of the hymns. It was regretted 
that the appearance of the second series of Harmonies had been delayed by 
unavoidable impediments. They have now to congratulate the society 
on the final completion of the entire undertaking. The harmonised 
Hymnal can now be had, either in two separate parts, or bound up to- 
gether in a handsome octavo volume ; the typography and general 
appearance of which reflects much credit on the publisher, Mr. J. A. 
Novello. In reporting, in the Ecclesiologist for April last, the termina- 
tion of this stage of the Society's hymnological labours, (for they cannot 
consider their task to have been duly completed so long as vast stores of 
music, and of Scriptural application and religious poetry, still lie buried 
in the Sarum Antiphonary and Gradual,) a hope was expressed that 
the Hymnal would now obtain a fair and patient trial. This hope the 
Committee would now reiterate, and with some confidence in its real- 
isation, since they observe indications that the ancient music, as well as 
the ancient poetry, of the Church (both which are represented in the 
Hymnal to a far greater extent than in any other similar publication) 
are becoming every day better known, better understood, and better 

" The Committee have again to report the increased efliciency of 
their Motett Choir, whose exertions are really above all praise. Three 
public meetings were held, as usual, in the course of last season, at 
which, though the audiences were less numerous than could have been 
desired, there was but one opinion as to the excellence of the perform- 
ance, which indeed was sufiiciently striking to win the approbation and 
complimentary notice of the daily newspapers. The Committee, having 
determined that the present ' season * should commence before C^ist- 
mas, the first meeting was held on the 15th December. A second 
took place on the 20th April, which was far better attended than any 
previous one; and the third and last is fixed for the 20th July. 

264 Ecclesioloffical Society, 

Meanwhile the practice-meetings have been regularly held at the Curzon 
Chapel schools, for the use of which the best thanks of the Society are 
due to the Rev. £. Hawkins. This is also the place to express the 
Committee's grateful sense of the services of Mr. Chapman, the master 
of Curzon schools, who has kindly undertaken, and admirably fulfilled, 
the duties of choir secretary. 

" Among the more noticeable examples of figured music performed 
by the choir since the last anniversary, may be instanced, — a very fine 
mass for five voices, by Orlando di Lasso ; the noble ' Veni Sponsa 
Christ! ' mass of Palestrina ; some motetts of Giovanni Croce, with 
English words. 

*' Palestrina's mass, ' Assumpta est,' for six voices, is in rehearsal, 
and will be performed on the 20th July. 

" Of Canto Fermo, the Advent antiphon, < O Sapientia/ was sung 
on the 15th December ; and at the April meeting two hymns from the 
second part of the Hymnal Noted were performed for the first time : 
viz. the Baster hymn, * O Filii et Fills,' and ' Veni, veni, Emmanuel/ 
for Advent. 

" The Committee have again to mention the lectures of their pre- 
centor, as useful in diffusing sound principles of Church music. An 
important one, remarkably well illustrated by a choir of local singers, 
was given with much success at Canterbury in November last. 

'* But among all the methods of promoting a love for choral music in 
the services of the Church, the Choir Festivals, — now, it is hoped, be* 
coming general, — stand, in the Committee's opinion, unrivalled. 

'* The meeting of parochial choirs in Lichfield Cathedral, in 1856, 
was referred to in last year's report, when also it was lamented that 
the music chosen for the occasion was of so unecclesiastical a type ; a 
defect which does not seem to have been remedied at the second meet* 
ing of the same choirs, held last autumn. 

<'The Choir Festival at Southwell Minster, held on the 28th April, 
has been reported on in the Ecclesiologist for the present month. It 
comprised a conspicuously laudable and successful attempt to exem* 
plify the appropriateness of the ancient ritual music in conjunction 
with the existing services of the English Church. The experiooent is 
to be repeated next year. 

" It has been proposed^ also, to hold a Plain Song Choir Festival in 
London. Whether this will be found possible, the Committee cannot 
now say with certainty ; but it has been thought that many of the 
choirs in London and its neighbourhood, and some perhaps from a dis- 
tance, who use the old music, would be glad to join in a gathering of 
this kind, which might be organised under the auspices of the Music 
Committee of the Ecclesiological Society, whose Motett Choir would 
form an admirable nucleus, and would probably find itself permanently 
reinforced by the movement. 

" The Committee, in conclusion, would again remind members of 
the Society, and others who appreciate their efforts in the cause of 
Church music, that their operations cannot be successfully carried on 
without the active support and assistance, as well as the good wishes, 
of their friends. «Funds are urgently required to defray the heavy ex- 

Ecclesiological Society. 265 

penaes of the Motett meetings ; and many additional voices must be 
added to the choir before it can be brought to that high state of effi- 
ciency which the dignity and importance of its labours and its aims 
require and deserve. • 

"Arrangements are now being made for the establishment of a 
separate Choir Fund, to relieve the general revenue of the Society from 
the expenses incident to the music meetings. Several members have 
already enrolled themselves as annual subscribers to the new fund ; an 
example which the Committee would hold out as worthy of general 

The Treasurer then presented the balance-sheet of accounts, showing 
a balance in hand of £6% The Chairman endeavoured to induce 
members to exert themselves in support of the Society and its organ. 

The Committee for the ensuing year was next elected, consisting of 
A. J. B. Beresford Hope, Esq., M.P., Rev. S. S. Gx«atheed, Rev. B. 
Webb, Rev. J. M. Neale, Rev. H. L. Jenner, and Rev. T. Helmore. 

The Rev. J. M. Heath and H. PameU, Esq., were elected auditors. 

A long and interesting paper on Church Plate and Jewellery, illus- 
trated by drawings on a large scale, and by specimens from the collec- 
tion of A. J. B. Beresford Hope, Esq., was then read by Mr. Surges. 
The lecturer dwelt upon the materials, construction, and shape, &c., 
of the chalice, the paten, altar-cross, flagon, candlesticks (wrought and 
cast), service books, altar frontals and dorsals, and the alms-basin. 

Before Mr. Burges had finished the reading of his paper, Mr. Beres- 
ford Hope, the chairman, stated that he was obliged to leave the meet- 
ing, in order to be present in the House of Commons to propose a 
motion, of which he had given notice, for the appointment of a com- 
mittee to reconsider the whole question of the building of the Public 
Offices. He added, that he had reason to believe the Government 
would not oppose the motion. 

A vote of thanks to Mr. Beresford Hope was then passed by acda- 
matioD, for presiding over the meeting, and for his unremitting atten- 
tion to the interests of the Society. 

Mr. Beresford Hope having retired, the Rev. W. Scott was called 
to the chair. 

The Chairman then proposed a vote of thanks to Mr. Burges for his 
excellent paper. It was gratifying to know that the fame of Mr. 
Burges was not confined to this country, and that he had achieved an 
European reputation. 

Mr. G. E. Street then read a paper «• On the Revival of Art in the 
Nineteenth Century,** giving a history of the architectural movement 
of the present time, comparing also the state of the kindred arts. 

An interesting conversation ensued which was chiefly sustained by 
the eminent architects present. 

Mr. Burges confirmed Mr. Street's views as to the architects of the 
thirteenth and preceding centuries being also painters and sculptors. 

Mr. Scott agreed with Mr. Street and Mr. Burges, regretting his 
own deficiencies in the latter arts. He spoke highly of the sculpture 
of the thirteenth century for expression and sentiment, and recom- 

266 Ecclesiological Society, 

mended the enlargement of the collection of casts in the Architectural 

Mr. White spoke in favour of the Arundel Society, and appealed to 
the meeting on its hehalf. 

The Chairman, in summing up, maintained that the Society had 
from the first advocated principles, not mere imitations of old examples. 

The meeting then, after inspecting a quantity of Church plate manu- 
factured by Mr. Keith and Mr. Hardman, — a very interesting ancient 
diptych, attributed to Memling, exhibited by the Rev. J. F. Russell, — 
and a new triptych for S. John's church, Harlow, by Mr. O'Connor, 
Jun., — separated at a late hour. 

Committee Meetings of the Ecclesiolo^cal Society have been held 
on June Ist, June 26th, and July 20, and have been attended by Mr. 
Beresford Hope, M.P. ; Mr. Dickinson, Mr. France, Mr. Gosling. Rev. 
S. S. Qreatheed, Rev. T. Helmore, Rev. H. L. Jenner, Hon. F. 
Lygon, M.P., Mr. Luard, Mr. T. Gambier Parry, Rev. W. Scott, 
Mr. Warburton, and Rev. B. Webb. 

£. M. Barry, Esq., of Palace Yard ; the Rev. Dr. Crosse, of St. 
Leonards-on-Sea ; B. Ferrey, Esq., of 'f rinity Place, Charing Cross ; 
and the Rev. T. E. Heygate, of Sheen, Staffordshire, were elected 
ordinary members. 

Invitations were received for the Architectural Congress at Oxford ; 
and it appeared that the Ecclesiological Society would be represented 
by its president. Archdeacon Thorp ; Sir S. R. Glynne, one of the 
vice-presidents ; and the Hon. F. Lygon, M.P., one of the members 
of committee. 

It was agreed that no member of Committee — generally resident in 
England — should be re-elected, unless by special vote, who had neg- 
lected for three years to attend a meeting. 

The report of the sub-committee appointed to confer with the com- 
mittee of the Architectural Museum as to the foundation of a prize 
for art students, was received and adopted. The following advertise- 
ment has been issued in connection with this prize ; — 

'' A prize of five guineas is offered by the committee of the Ecclesiological 
Society (of London) through the committee of the Architectural Museum, 
for the competitor who shall show himself most successful in colouring, ac- 
cording to bis own judgment, a cast from that panel of Andrea Pisano's gates 
at Florence, which contains the figure of Faith, the outer border of the cast 
being omitted. This being specifically a colour prize, the ssme cast for com- 
petitive coloration is proposed to all the competitors. The candidate may 
adopt that medium for applying; hia colours which he prefers, but he is ex- 
pected to treat the panel as formmg a portion of an architectural composition, 
and not as a cabinet piece ; and although the original is of metal he will f^- J 
with it as if carved in stone, a material to which it is equally applicable. 

" Casts from this panel will be supplied on application to the honorary 
secretary of the Architectural Museum at 5s. each at the Museum, or by pay- 
ment of 28. extra for packing and case. The sum of 2s. will be allowed as 
the difference between the cost and charged prices of the cast on the return 
of each east coloured or spoiled, with the case ; but no claim for this return 
will be received after the 1st of January, 1859. Duplicate casts will be 

Ecchsiological Society. 267 

** The caste in competition must be delivered in the Architectural Museum, 
carriage free, on or before the I at of December, 1858, with the competitor's 
name and address in full, and those of his employer (if any) attached. The 
committee of the Ecdesiological Society will themselves adjudicate. 

** In addition to the prize for the most successful specimen, the committee 
of the Architectural Museum will award a testimonial of merit to such com- 
petitors as the judges may consider deserving. 

" The specimens will be exhibited in the Architectural Museum for one 
month before the prizes are given, and afterwards, if thought desirable, but 
will remain the property of the competitors. 

*' The prize will not be awarded unless there appear sufficient merit in any 
of the specimens to entitle it to such distinction. 

" Qeorgb Qilbbrt Scott, A.R.A., Treasurer. 
'* JosBPH Clarke, F.S.A., Honorary Secretary. 
(All communications to be sent to 13, Stratford Place, W.) 

«' The Architectural Museum, June, 1858." 

A design by Messrs. Hardman, for a monumental brass for West- 
minster Abbey, to the memory of the late Bishop of Gloncester and 
Bristol, was examined and criticised. 

Letters were read from the Yen. Archdeacon Abraham, G. £. Street, 
Esq., B. Ferrey, Esq., G. G. Scott, Esq., S. S. Teulon, Esq., the Rev. 
H. Phillips, Herr Reichensperger, the Rev. J. C. Jackson, F. H. 
Dickinson, Esq., and others. 

The rearrangement of the area of S. Paul's Cathedral was discussed, 
and a paper on the subject was accepted for the next Ecclesiologist. 
In connection with this a letter was read, and a resolution passed, as 
to the treatment for ritual purposes of such churches as Christ Church 
Priory, Hampshire. The committee heard with satisfaction that move- 
able chairs had been ordered for the nave of S. Paul's, and also for 
the church of All Saints, Margaret Street. 

It was agreed to publish a new Report for the present year. 

By the courtesy of the secretary of the Arundel Society, the com- 
mittee examined two unfinished chromo-lithographs, by Griiner of Ber- 
lin, from Mrs. Higford Burr's drawings, of the Death of the Blessed 
Virgin, by Taddeo Bartoli, at Siena, and a Madonna with Saints, by 
Ottaviano Nelli at Gubbio. These are intended to form parts of the 
futore publications of the Arundel Society. The progress of Mr. 
Dyee's frescoes at All Saints, Margaret Street, was reported. 

Mr. Keith had an interview with the committee, and exhibited a 
chalice, made after Mr. Butterfield^s design for that at BaUol College, Mr. 
Street's plate for Addington, and a copy of an ancient chalice, in the 
possession of Mr. Beresford Hope, made for the Hampstead Peniten- 
tiary. The latter was compared with the original, and Mr. Burges 
pointed out the different manner of working in various details. 

Mr. Lavers met the committee, and exhibited cartoons, drawn by 
Mr. Marks, for windows at Bocking and Rosberville. He also brought 
a specimen of an imitation of the old method of cross-hatching for 
producing shadow. 

The committee inspected a panel painting, by Mr. W. H. O'Connor, 
intended for a reredos at Harlow church. 

The necessary modifications of the Constantinople memorial church. 

268 Eeclemlogical Society. 

by Mr. Burges, to suit the conceded site, were considered : and Mr. 
Surges mentioued that he had designed some mediaeval furniture, 
which was satisfactorily executed. 

Mr. Gordon Hills met the committee, and exhibited his designs for 
the restoration of Newenden church, Kent» for new schools at Nut- 
bourne, in Pulborough, Sussex. 

The committee examined Mr. Norton*s design for the rebuilding 
of Frampton Gotterell church, Qloucestershire, for a new rectory at 
Madresfield, Worcestershire, and for a Tudor mansion at Ferney Hall, 

They also examined Mr. Scott's design for a Pointed monumental 
column, sixty feet high, intended as a Crimean memorial at West- 
minster. Mr. Scott consented to the design being engraved for the 
October Ecclesiologist, 

Mr. Seddon met the committee, and exhibited the designs, by Mr. 
Prichard and himself, for restoring and rebuilding the western tower 
and spire of LlandafF cathedral : and also for restoring the very curious, 
and foreign- looking, church of Grosmont, Monmouthshire, and for 
new schools at Whitchurch, Glamorganshire, llie committee also 
inspected with great interest, Mr. Rossetti's first sketch for an oil- 
painting reredos, for Llandaff cathedral : representing, in a triptych- 
like arrangement, a conventionalized treatment of the Adoration of the 
Shepherds and of the Wise Men, in one picture, with David, as 
Shepherd, and as King, in the wings. High praise was given to the 
sentiment of the design, and to its beautiful colouring ; and a hope 
was expressed that the principal figure of an angel might be improved 

Mr. Slater met the committee, and exhibited his designs for the new 
church of S. Peter, Edinburgh, and for new schools at Steeple Lang- 
ford : also for the pavement of Sherborne minster, and for the restora- 
tion of part of Limerick cathedral — as the memorial of the late Augustus 
Stafford. He also produced the drawings for an iron church of the 
greatest simplicity, which he had made, under Mr. Beresford Hope*s 
advice, for use, in the first instance, on that gentleman's estate. 

The committee examined Mr. Street's designs for the restoration of 
the churches of Clifton Campville, Staffordshire ; Addington, Bucks ; 
Chaddesden, Derbyshire ; and Shipton-under- Wychwood, Oxfordshire ; 
and also for new schools at S. Peter's, Plymouth. 

They also examined Mr. S. S. Teulon's designs for the new churches 
of S. Thomas, Agar Town, and S. Paul, Hampstead ; and for the 
restoration of Shenfield church, Essex ; and for collegiate schools at 
Wimbledon. The pulpit for Blenheim Palace chapel, now finished by 
Mr. Forsyth, had been seen by some members of the committee, and 
highly approved. An invitation to the committee from the Rev. H. 
Vigne, a member of the society, to visit Mr. Teulon's restoration of 
his church at Sunbury, was communicated through the architect, but 
it was unfortunately impossible for any members to accept it. 

Mr. White met the committee, and exhibited his designs for new 
schools at Chute, Wilts, for various headstones, and for a Pointed 
country house at Winscote, Devonshire. The latter design gave 


Ostford Architectural Society. 269 

occasion for an interesting discussion on the adaptation of Pointed 
features, and especially windows, to modem habits. 

The last Meeting of the Ecclesiological Motett Choir was held on 
Tuesday, July 20th, at S. Martin's Hall. The Hon. F. Lygon occupied 
the chair, and the audience was exceedingly numerous. The Choir, 
too, we are glad to announce, has increased both in number and 
efficiency. The programme we give below. The most noteworthy 
portion of it was the Mass '* Asstmpta est" of Palestrina, for six voices ; 
one of the most exquisite and gorgeous productions of the immortal 
composer. Its interpretation was a work of great difficulty, but the 
Choir proved fully equal to the task. 

Hymn 66 (or 32.)—" Corde Natiw" .... Rwtinal Noted, 

Communion Sbrvicb Gibbons in F. 

Canticle.— " Nunc dimittis.'* . . . Srd Tone, 2nd ending. 
Communion Sbrvicb . Vittoria, Motett Society's Music. 
Hymn 47" (or 2".)-" O qaanta qualia." , Hymnal Noted. 

MissA.— ''Aisumptaest." Palestrina. 


Thb General Architectural Congress at Oxford was a complete suc- 
cess. We regret that we cannot find space for a detailed report of 
the proceedings. The Dean of Christ Church presided at the opening 
meeting, on June 9th, and was followed in his speech by the Rev. T. 
James, E. A. Freeman, Esq., Sir H. Dryden, the Rev. G. A. Poole, 
and M. H. Bloxam, Esq. The congress inspected Wadham College, 
and the New Museum, which was described by Dr. Acland, who read 
a letter on the subject from Mr. Ruskin. 

At the evening meeting, the Junior Proctor discoursed upon Pho- 
tography, and the Rev. J. Baron upon Scudamore organs. 

On June 10th the congress, guided by J. H. Parker, Esq., in- 
spected the colleges ; and, in the evening, Mr. Skidmore read a paper 
on metal- work, followed by Mr. Hart. Lord Dungannon, Mr. Parker, 
and the Hon. F. Lygon, addressed the meeting. 
^'' On June 11th, the congress made an excursion to Forest Hill, 

Wheatley, Cuddesdon, Milton. Haseley, and Dorchester. 
b The concluding day must be reported more at length : 

ec *'Jtme 12.— The Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Oxford Archi- 

IcT tectural Society was held in the Society's rooms at twelve a.m., when, 
an:: after some preliminary business, the following Annual Report was read 
fct by the Sei^ior Secretary : — 

•• Your Committee have now to lay before you their Twentieth 
f:r: Annual Report ; and they feel that they cannot do better than con- 
pj/ gratulate the Society again, as they did last year, on its present 
m : position and on its future prospects. It must not be expected diat we 

VOL. XIX. n n 

270 Oaford Architectural Society. 

ihonld have the same amount of work to do nwm as we had in our 
earlier days. We must not expect that the public will exhibit nev 
the same amount of interest in our proceedings and in our teachings 
M they did when there was scarcely another Architectural Society in 
the fields when the lessons which we had to teach had been learned 
but by few, and when hundreds were eager to attain a knowledge of 
iMSts and principles which are now familiar to thousands. And, in* 
^eed, the mother may naturally expect to be allowed to rest awhile, 
when she can look around upon the goodly band of her children, who 
have spread themselves over her once wide field of action, and have 
penetrated into distant nooks and comers which she had never herself 
reached. And there cannot be a more fitting occasion for calling at- 
tention to this than the present, when she has gathered those sons 
and daughters around her, to ask them huw they fare, and to show 
that her old affection for them is as fervent and as strong now in her 
old age as it was at the moment when she gave them birth. 

** To return to the individual concerns of this the mother Society. 
Last year your Committee were able to congratulate you on a very 
large accession to our numbers; the number of our meetings waa 
doubled, and at almost every meeting several new members joined us. 
The influx this year has certainly not been so great, but it will bear 
comparison with that of many recent years, and the average of thia 
year and last has been above our usual average for some time past. 
Your Committee have, therefore, to report that the prosperity of the 
Society in this respect has not failed ; while, at the same time, they 
would strongly urge upon its members the necessity of making con- 
tinual exertions to bring the claims of the Society before the junior 
ttenbers of the University, in order that in each annual report for the 
time to oome, they may have to congratulate the Society on the in- 
creased and increasing prosperity which it ought to enjoy, and the 
popularity which it ought to maintain. 

" The appeal which your Committee made in the year 1855 to the 
life members of the Society for an annual subscription of ten shillings, 
to assist them in defraying the necessarily large expenses involved in 
their continuing to keep up their present large room, and to preserve 
in good repair and order its valuable contents, was attended in its 
woceesa with the most valuable results. They feel that they must con- 
tinue to make this appeal, at least for the present year, and they do 
so — as they said last year — ^ni the hope that, while residents in the 
University continue to afford to the Society the support which it is 
fairly entitled to claim from, ^em, those who have long ago removed to 
distant places will not be forgetful of a Society, their former connection 
with which they must, without doubt, often think of with pleasure. 

" Several papers of considerable value and interest have been read 
te the past year, and lectures delivered, and for these your Committee 
tender their best thanks to their respective authors. 

" Your Conmittee have received but few applications for advice or 
^sistanoe ; neither are they surprised or discouraged by this. The 
wof^ which in former days was well, but of necessity, to some ex- 
tent, imperfectly done by the Oxford Society, is now done mnch bet- 

Oxford ArckU&dwTMl Society. 271 

ter» uid much more effectually, by the various diooeean sodetiet. The 
smallnen of the Special Boilding Fund, which was opened a few years 
ago ¥rith the intention of enabling your Committee to make small 
grants to such works of church restoration and church building as 
might deserve to meet with their approTal, has limited their liberality 
in this direction, only one very small grant having been made to the 
enlargement of the suburban church of Summertown. 

«« • Your Committee have also to acknowledge, with many thanks to 
the various donors, several gifts of drawings, &c., which have been 
made from time to time. Especially would they desire on this occa* 
sion, in welcoming Archdeacon lliorp, the esteemed President, from 
its foundation, of the Cambridge Camden (now the Beclesiobgical) 
Society, for the kind remembrance which he has given us to-day in 
the lithographs of his beautiful chancel at Kemerton, which lie upon 
the table* They would also thank Sir Gardner Wilkinson, who, unable 
himself to join the congress, sent us several of his valuable publications. 

" In their last report your Committee directed your attention to 
the fact that in the great competition of architects, set on foot by Sir 
Benjamin Hall, for the proposed new Home and Foreign Offices at 
Westminster, the first premium had been bestowed upon a design of 
the nondescript style, commonly called by us ' Classical.' This they 
considered a retrograde step, especially when a comparison of the suc- 
cessful design with Mr. Scott's noble conception, and the admira- 
ble drawings of another distinguished member of this Society, Mr. 
O. £. Street, could inspire no other feelings than those of regret and 
sorrow that there should be any danger of Westminster being spoiled 
by the erection of an incongruous boilding ; while our great revival 
would be slighted and ignored by the rejection of designs, either of 
which would have been considered by every man of taste and true 
artistic feeling thoroughly adapted to the wants of the Government 
Offices, and thoroughly in place beside Westminster Palace, West- 
minster Hall, and our grandest English church, Westminster Abbey. 
Your Society petitioned the authorities, for the sake of our northern 
architecture, and for the sake of the men who have toiled hard to shut 
oat a foreign style by showing us what our own national style was 
and is in all its power of adaptation, and strength, and beauty, to re- 
consider the verdict of the umpires which they had accepted. And 
now your Committee feel that they can* heartily congratulate you on 
the fisct that with the scheme itself has fallen to the ground and failed 
utterly this grand attempt to undo, as far as possible, the hard work 
of twenty yean ; for the evil of postponing the erection of suitable 
Offices for the Home and Foreign Departments can be remedied any 
day, and more safely next year than this, as taste and knowledge ad- 
vance, and prejudices vanish; whereas the evils which would have 
oome upon this country (as far, at least, as its art and its arehitec- 
tare are concerned), had their erection been commenced this year, 
ipvould have been irremediable. 

*' In our own Univeraity there seems to be no danger (if we may 
be allowed to be only reasonably sanguine in our estimate of the signs 
of the times) of any such incongruous erections as the buildings of the 

272 Oxford JrckUectural Society. 

Taylor Institute being ever again introded among iU noble and time- 
honoured examples of our great English styles. Your Committee 
would especially call attention to the fact that the boldest step that 
has ever been attempted in England in the way of restoring our old 
secular architecture, has been made at this very time here in Oxford* 
and with the most complete success. Of all the ideas that could have 
been started in the question of secular architecture, the most bold and 
daring of all is that which we have started and nearly brought to its 
successful issue here — the adaptation of the old English architecture 
to the rooms and laboratories and museums of physicians and che- 
mists, and anatomists and mineralogists. Your Committee congratu- 
late you with feelings of exultation and most natural pride on the fact 
that now has nearly been brought to completion in this our University, 
the noblest and greatest — not, indeed, the largest, but the purest and 
truest secular building of modem times — the Oxford University Mu- 
seum. On the present occasion they content themselves with stating, 
in a broad and general way, their entire approbation of the manner in 
which its eminent architects have executed the high task committed 
to them, and their gratitude to those architects for this their great vin- 
dication of the Early Gothic style. 

" Your Committee reserve till next year, when these buildings will 
be in all essential points completed, that full and careful description of 
them which the Society has a right to ask for, and which is de- 
manded by their importance. 

" The works at Exeter College proceed with unabated vigour and 
uninterrupted success, under the masterly superintendence of Mr. 
Gilbert Scott. The library is justly admired as a most perfect work. The 
Rector's new house is equally successful, but will not be seen to ad- 
vantage, or duly appreciated, until the poor wooden buildings by which 
it is encumbered shall have been removed : this will be done in the 
course of the present year. The detailed account of the new chapel 
must also be postponed until our next annual meeting, when, in all 
probabihty, it will be finished. It is sufficient to remark now, that it 
promises not to sustain but to add materially to Mr. Scott's great 
reputation : while it will, undoubtedly, be no mean rival of the beauti- 
ful chapels of Wykeham and Waynflete, and the stately choir of Wal- 
ter de Merton. 

" The new chapel at Balliol College deserves high praise, and is 
worthy of its architect, Mr. Butterfield. 

" The new Debating- room of the Oxford Union Society is by the 
architects of the New Museum, and is worthy of the originality and 
skill to which here, in Oxford, at all events, they may safely assert 
their claim. 

" Your Committee rejoice to hear that the long dilapidated and 
too much neglected University church, S. Mary's, is to be immediately 
restored, and they congratulate the Society on the fact that the work 
has been intrusted to Mr. Scott. 

'* Of works in the city and its neighbourhood little has been done 
during the past year ; some restorations have been effected in Holy- 
well church, where good polychrome, chiefly the work of amateurs, 
may be seen. At Iffley, Mr. Buckler has restored the beautiful west 

Oaford Architectural Society. 278 

front ; and the large circular window, which he has opened, has been 
filled with stained glass by Hardman. 

" A chancel, in good taste, has been added to Summertown church 
by Mr. Street. 

'* Mr. Buckeridge has designed and carried out a small school- 
room at Holywell, which is well adapted to the purposes of its erection. 
The same architect is about to effect a judicious enlargement and re- 
storation of Woolvercott church. 

'* In conclusion, your Committee would refer to the General Archi- 
tectural Congress, which has been held at the end of this the twen- 
tieth year of our Society^s existence, and which has met — thanks to 
the kindness and zeal of our friends — with a success which the most 
sanguine among us scarcely dared to hope for. We invited all those, 
our daughter societies, to which reference has already been made, and 
they have cordially responded to our invitation, and materially helped 
us to attain our great success. 

*' The admirable description which our most esteemed member. 
Dr. Acland, gave us of the Museum ; the sight of the building itself; 
the inspection of the grand features of the colleges and churches of 
Oxford, new and old ; the pleasant and profitable evening spent in 
this room on Thursday night, amidst the glories of ancient and mo- 
dem works in the precious metals, and in our nineteenth century ma- 
terials of brass and iron ; the healthy and edifying sights and scenes of 
yesterday, when we visited nearly a dozen old English churches in 
old English villages, to say nothing of the meeting of old friends with 
old faces, and old places, will, we trust, long live in the memory of all 
who took part in the toils and pleasures of the Oxford General Con- 
gress, and be the earnest of future success in our work, and of other 
similar meetings here and elsewhere, hallowed by the same high as- 
sociations, and by the same strong tie, which has bound us all together, 
of brotherly love. 

'* After some remarks from Mr. E. A. Freeman (who was in the 

" Mr. H. O. Westwood, (of the Taylor Institute,) rose to express a 
hope that the day was not far distant when in this University, as else- 
where, there might be a Professor of Architecture. 

" Archdeacon Thorp, in a long speech, expressed his delight with 
all that he bad seen, and the great pleasure which he had felt in join- 
ing the General Congress. 

'* The Chairman proposed, and it was carried with acclamation, that 
Bishop Potter, of Pennsylvania, who was present, be elected a Patron 
of the Society. 

** The Bishop of Pennsylvania returned thanks. 

'* The Rev. 11. H. Codrington proposed a vote of thanks to Dr. Bar- 
row, the Principal of S. Edmund Hall, and late President of the So- 
ciety ; and to the Vice- Chancellor and the Dean of Christ Church, for 
their kind assistance on the occasion of the present Congress. 

" llie Junior Secretary proposed a vote of thanks to Heads of Houses 
and others who had lent their plate on the occasion of the conversatione. 

'* After some remarks from Mr. Parker, and the distinguished French 
antiquary, M. Francisque- Michel, the Chairman dissolved the Congress." 



Ths fint meeting of the society for the Eaater Term waa held oo 
Thursday evening, April 28. The Rev. the President in the chair. 

The Rev. W. J. Beamont, Trinity College. .Mr. W. Maples, Clax« 
College, were elected ordinary members. 

Mr. T. O. Hatfield, Trinity College, and Mr. T. M. Remingtoa. 
Trinity College, were proposed for election at the next meeting. 

Papers were read by Mr. T. T. Drake, Trinity College, on the church 
of Stratford*upon-Avon, and by Mr. J. W. Clarke. Trinity College, on 
the wooden church of Urnes, in Norway. 

The meeting then adjourned. 

The second meeting of the society for the Easter Term was held oo 
Thursday, May 6. The Rev. G. Williams. King*s College, Vice- 
President, in the chair. 

Mr. T. G. Hatfield, Trinity College, and Mr. T. M. Remington. 
Trinity College, were elected ordinary members. 

G. J. R Gordon, Esq., H. B. M. Minister at the Court of Hanover, 
was proposed as an honorary, and the Rev. R. G. Peter, Jesus College, 
as an ordinary member. 

Mr. W. M. Fawcett, Jesus College, read a paper on the new church 
of S. Michael, Buslingthorp, Leeds. 

Mr. J. W. Clarke, Trinity College, also read a paper on the wooden 
churches of Borgund and Hitterdal, in Norway. 

The meeting then adjourned. 


Thb first general meeting and excursion of the members of this aocietj 
took place on Tuesday, June 1st. 

On arriving at Bredon, Mr. J. S. Walker pointed oot the varioiss 
examples of architectural style embraced within the sacred edifice. A 
remarkably fine fourteenth century tithe barn, with two transepts on 
the north side, were next inspected ; and the party then proceeded to 
Twyning church, upon which a paper was read by Mr. Walker. 

The party next went to Ripple church, where a paper on the ranark- 
able characteristics of its architecture was read by Mr. W. J. Hopkina« 

The excursionists then proceeded tnd Upton to Ham Court, the resi- 
dence of Major Martin, and having viewed the picture gallery, made 
the best of their way to Queen Hill chapel, which is a small structure 
consisting of chancel, nave, south porch, and west tower. From Queen 
Hill they travelled to Pull Court, where they were kindly invited by 

Leicestershire Architectural Society. 275 

W. DowdesweU» Bsq., the president for the day, to luncheon. At 
half-past four the party proceeded to Bushley church, which was re- 
built about fifteen years ago, in the Perpendicular style. 


T«B society held its June meeting on the 38th, the Rer. R. Bnmaby 
in the chair. 

Mr. Thompson exhiluted a drawing, by Mr. H. Goddard, of the Hall 
of Leicester Castle, as it appeared previously to the alterations effected 
in 1821 , when its original appearance was entirely destroyed. 

Mr. Woodcock exhibited casts, in copper, of the great seal of King 
Edward the Confessor, the inscription on which is, " Sz«illvk Ead- 
wABDi Ak6ix)rvm" The word Baeilei instead of Regie is an 
interesting indication of the knowlege and use of the Qreek language 
among the Anglo-Saxons. The fact that Christianity was introduced 
on^nally from the Eastern Church, through Gaul, and that the usi^s 
of the East (as for instance, the time of keeping Easter) prevailed in 
England until the Conquest, and among the Anglo-Saxons even 
after, is well known. The knowledge, therefore, of Greek among the 
Anglo-Saxons, and of Latin exclusively among the Normans, is im- 
portant. The Norman Conquest brought Rome, and the language 
of Rome, in a way to England, which S. Augustine's mission had 
fEuled to do, although the succession of the clergy of the previous 
Eastern Church of England had been superseded by the western ais- 

Mr. Gresley produced rubbings of the brass of 6. Ethelred in Wim- 
bome Minster, and of the inscription belonging to it mentianed at die 
last meeting, as having been discovered daring the restoration of the 
church last year, wbid^ is as follows : 

** m HOC LOCO avtBSoiT compvs sancti 




This inscription is upon a plate measuring 1 0^ by 3 inches. It difiers 
from the inscription now in the church, in having no contractions, and 
also having the date 872 instead of 873, the latter, according to Hut- 
chins, being a wrong one. Lebnd says the date when he visited 
Wimborne (temp. Henry VIII.) was 827, "evidently a misprint," 
says Hntchins, for 873 ; which shows that it was the inscription re- 
cently discovered, if either of them, which Leland saw. But although 
evidently more ancient than the present inscription, the one discovensd 
baa the appearance of being of the commencement of the seventeenth 
century rather than of the sixteenth century. 

Mr. Gresley also exhibited some antiquities discovered last year in 
the Minster and Stow Pools at LichfiekL 



8. Peter, Edinhurgh. — ^Thie new church, by Mr. Slater, intended for 
the use at a moderate cost of a poor district in the old town of Edin- 
burgh, displays much simplicity and boldness x>f treatment. The plan 
comprises nave and aisles of five bays — the aisles being continued 
eastward of one bay, and forming on the south side a vestry and organ 
chamber, and a seven-sided apse, five of its bays being pierced with 
windows of two lights, like those of the aisles ; the west window being 
a couplet of long two-light windows with a rose above. The west win- 
dows of the aisles are single lights. Attached to the most western 
bay of the nave on the north side is the steeple composed of a tower of 
three stories, the uppermost clear of the roof pierced with long coupled 
two- light belfry windows, and capped by an octagonal stone spire, rising 
out of bold spire-lights and angle pinnacles. The tower forms a porch 
in addition to the west door. The nave pillars are circular, of lofty 
proportions with bold foliaged capitals. The chancel of the elevation of 
three steps, rises vertically the sheer height except at the centre, where 
the steps are placed, and is seated stallwise, while the pulpit is placed 
against the northern pier of the chancel arch. The apsidal sanctuary 
rises on two more steps. The font is placed to the left of the west door. 
The sanctuary roof is curvilinear, that of the remaining church a bold 
collar construction. The dimensions are, extreme internal length 
109 ft., of which the nave measures 75 ft. 6 in. Breadth 54 ft. of 
which the nave is 28 ft., while the external height to the apex of 
the nave roof is 63 ft. 6 in. Altogether this church promises to 
present that notion of spaciousness which is so much to be desired in 
modem constructions. The Scotch use of the apse is of course a very 
desirable feature. 

S. Tkonuu, Jgar Toum, London, — ^This is a cheap brick church by 
Mr. Teulon, costing (including foundations) only £4000. The win- 
dows are of stone, but of the simplest kind of plate tracery. The 
plan of the shell may be best described as parallel triapsidal, with a 
western narthex. The arrangements display a low chancel screen, 
two rows of longitudinal seats in the chancel, the westernmost stall on 
the south side being used as a prayer-desk. The chancel aisles are 
used for seating the children. The northern apse is the vestry, and 
the southern one holds the organ. There is a large west gallery. 
There is much merit and originality in the treatment, the chancel being 
marked by a transverse gable, from the middle of which rises an oc- 
tagonal spirelet. The buttresses are internal, and are arched across, 
forming recesses for the windows, and diminishing the span of the 
roof. The walls are faced externally and internally with red and white 
bricks in patterns, and the spandril spaces are relieved by geometrical 
figures. The parallel triapsidal shell does not however well represent 
the construction : the three apses opening rather awkwardly by unequal 
arches from the eastern wall of the nave^ and there being no interior 

New Schools. 277 

arcades to answer to the suggested triple division* This is, we know* 
a not uafrequent arrangement in Italian Mediaeval Pointed ; but in 
these cases, unless we are much mistaken, the apses are treated more 
manifestly as mere adjuncts to the rectangular shell. But we hope to 
judge of the actual effect of this undeniably ingenious design by actual 
inspection. We are inclined to fear that the general ensemble will be 
not unpicturesque but what is technically called " busy.'* 

S, Paul, HampHead^ is a new church designed by Mr. Teulon, in- 
tended to stand on a small slip of land with its east end towards the 
road. The total cost is to be £4000 : the material brick, variegated in 
colour, the spire of wood, covered with slates of two colours. The 
plan comprises a nave of five bays, with aisles extending (for the pre- 
sent) only along the three easternmost bays, a chancel with two aisle.s 
(that to the north containing the organ and vestry), and a projeicting 
semicircular-ended apsidal sanctuary. The porches occupy the middle 
of the aisles — a position fiir too much to the eaM, but rendered neces- 
sary here from the nature of the site as befoce described. The ar- 
rangements include three rows of benches on each side of the chancel, 
a pulpit against the north pier of the chancel arch, and a prayer-desk 
under the arch on the souUi side. The altar stands a little forward 
from the end of the apse. We should like to see it brought still nearer 
to the chord. There is a huge west gallery, filling the whole of the 
un-aisled west end of the nave. A massive tower rises above the con- 
structional chancel, carrying a broached spire, the belfry windows on 
each facing rising above the base of the spire in gables of masonry. 
The nave roof has on each side a large dormer window of three lights, 
in lieu of a clerestory. The detail, which is of brick, is carefully de- 
signed : and the apse is a good feature, very ably treated. But we 
sludl look with interest to the completion of this church to see whether 
our apprehensions are justified that its whole effect will be wanting in 
unity and repose. 


8. Peter, PfynunUh. — An excellently arranged group by Mr. Street ; 
the boys' and girls' schoolrooms opening at right angles to each other, 
each having a class-room. The material is stone, with jambs and 
arch-hessds of brick ; the tracery, &c., being of stone, of good plain 
character. Mr. Street is not afraid of blank wall; and the whole 
design is manly and vigorous. The dormer lights on the east elevaiion, 
with their wooden monials, are especially good. 

Some new schools at Whitchurch, Glamorganshire, designed by 
Messrs. Prichard and Seddon, are notable for their (Striking exterior 
and inconsiderable cost. They are in two stories, the girls occupying 
the lower and the boys the upper one. Each schoolroom has lavatory, 
cloak-room, and class-room ; and there is a teacher's house annexed. 
The high roofs, with lofty metal crests, a square turret of much dignity, 

▼OL. XIX. o o 

278 Church Restorations. 

and excellent character in the arched window-heads, make a rather 
imposing ensemble. We do not however much like the outer truss of 
the timber roof being shown on the exterior in a building of so ornate 
a character, where so much stone is used. The walls are highly poly- 
chromatized with bands and tympana of coloured bricks and tiles ; and 
the windows have marble shafts. 

Nvtboume, Sussex, — Mr. Hills has designed a third set of schools 
for the parish of Pulborough. The style is a simple Pointed. There 
is a single schoolroom, with separate entrances and offices — ^the latter, 
perhaps, scarcely distant enough from each other. A teacher's re* 
sidence is to be added hereafter. 

Madresfield Rectory, Worcestershire, is a successful design by Mr. 
Norton, but is unfortunately reduced, from motives of economy, from 
the first conception of the plan. 

Femey Hall, 8alop» standing on an elevated plateau above Ludlow, 
by Mr. Norton, and Winscote Hall, Devonshire, by Mr. White, are con- 
spicuous examples of modern mansions. The former is a Tudor build- 
ing, the latter is of distinctive Pointed character, with its peculiarities 
very marked, but thoughtfully considered by its architect. For our 
own parts we prefer a more decided adaptation to modem manners. 


S, , Grosmont, Monmouthshire^ is a most remarkable church, 

connected historically with the memory of the Black Prince, and bear- 
ing evident tokens, we think, of being the work of a foreign architect, 
— probably one from the South of France. The style is severe First- 
Pointed : the plan is cruciform. There is a very noble chancel, the 
whole north side of which is pierced with lofty contiguous arcaded 
lancets ; a central crossing, surmounted by an octagonal lantern, which 
bears a spire of austere but beautiful proportions and character ; two 
transepts, each with a western aisle ; nave and two aisles, separated by 
arcades of five, and a north-western porch. Besides this, there is a 
large chantry, quite as large as the chancel, parallel with the south wall 
of the latter, but only opening into the church by a narrow door in the 
middle of the south chancel wall. Among the unusual characteristics 
of the building may be mentioned an original dormer window in the 
nave-roof, and the singular absence of windows in the north aisle. 
Messrs. Prichard and Seddon have in hand the restoration and re- 
arrangement of this interesting church. As the area is much too large 
for the present population of the parish, we are glad to see that a great 
part of the nave and both the aisles will be free from seats. But we 
advise that the transepts should be left quite empty, and the lantern filled 
with chairs, the pulpit being placed against the north pier of the chancel 
arch. The chancel is to receive stalls. Above all, we counsel the 
architects not to add the spiral staircase they have proposed in the 
angle between the north transept and chancel. The contour of so 

Church Restorations. 279 

monumental a cburch should be left untouched ; and as there was no 
originBl constructional staircase to the ringing- chamber in the central 
lantern, we should suggest that there was of old an internal wooden 
staircase and gallery of access, which might well be reproduced, to the 
great advantage of the interior, in wood or iron. 

^. Mary, Addington, Bucks, — ^This church is almost wholly rebuilt 
from the designs of Mr. Street, It comprises clerestoried nave and 
aisles, an engaged western tower, porch on the middle of the south 
side, spacious chancel, and (added) north chancel aisle for vestry, &c. 
The population is very small, and there are only eighty-four seats pro- 
vided — exclusively in the nave, the aisles being left quite free. We 
rather wish that chairs had been used instead of moveable benches on 
a tiled floor. We much like the general character of the work, 
though we detect (we think) some needless eccentricity in the tracery. 
But the whole detail is complete and elaborate. The reredos is espe- 
cially rich— of elaborately coloured alabaster, with rich stonework 
of arches and cornice, and marble shafts wreathed and decorated. A 
large cross of red marble is in relief in the centre panel. Unfor- 
tunately the shape of this cross is a plain cross of Calvary, which 
seems inconsistent with the motif of the whole composition, and is to 
be attributed, we are sure, rather to private preferences than to the 
mind of the artist. On each side of the reredos the east wall is deco- 
rated with incised patterns on the stone ashlar. This is rich in effect ; 
but the patterns struck us as rather crude and archaic. The woodwork 
is very good throughout the church : and we note with pleasure the 
chamfered wheels on which the bells are hung. We prefer luffer boards 
however to the pierced tracery with which the belfry-lights are filled. 
The lych-gate departs from the more common type in favour of that 
less pleasing kind, in which the axis of the roof is transverse to the gate. 
In the churchyard there is a well, which is furnished with a charmingly 
simple pulley of iron-work. In fact the whole appointments are most 
complete and satisfactory. 

S. , Clifton Campville, Staffordshire, a noble specimen of four- 
teenth century architecture, of nearly uniform character throughout, is 
in course of gradual restoration, under the care of Mr. Street. For- 
tunately, the task of the restorer is not, in this case, a difficult one. 
Mr. Street adds two porches, in excellent harmony with the design ; 
but otherwise preserves all the ancient features that remain. In the 
first instance he has thrown open to the church the fine tower with its 
groined roof, and has restored the old stalls, adding new subsellss, for 
use in the chancel. A beautiful ancient parclose screens off the chancel 
from a large chapel (opening into it by three arches) on its south side ; 
and the gates of the choir-screen were added, as an inscription carved 
upon them states, by '* Master Gilbert, Parson of Clifton, in the year 
of our LoBO, 1634," — a sufferer, afterwards, from the Parliamentarians. 
Thb church is remarkable, further, for a curious transeptal chapel on 
the north side, and for the traces left of the old arrangement of the 
tiled floor of the nave. 

S. Mary, Shipton under Wychwood, Cxfordshire, — ^This church is 
restored by Mr. Street, the greater part of the north aisle being rebuilt. 

280 Ckwreh Besiorations. 

The church is a very fine one, with a remarkable early tower and apie. 
This is — we think wisely— to be spared the risk of rebuilding : but as 
it is in a somewhat insecure state, the bells are to be re-fauag on a 
timber framework within it. Had the bell-cage always been kept free 
from the walls, resting merely on brackets, it is probable that the tower 
would never have got into such bad repair. The new arrangements 
are thoroughly correct. The roofs are new ; as also are the clerestory 
windows and the east window, — the latter a rich composition of five 
lights, subdivided into couplets with circles in the heads, and above aD 
a fine ciuqfbiled circle. The seats are all new, and good; and wc 
much like the parclose on the south side of the chancel. 

8. Mary, Ckaddesden, Derbythire. — This church is being reseated, and 
the nave and aisles re-roofed, by Mr. Street. The chancel has been 
previously restored. The style is Third-Pointed ; and the tieatmeot 
is very appropriate. A new circular stone pulpit, with projecting 
quatrefoiled ornaments, we do not much like. 

8. , ShenfiM, Esses. — ^Tbis church, which has been frightfally 

modernised and gutted, is to be restored by Mr. Toulon. This not 
easy task has been felicitously accomplished. The tower stands oo 
massive timber stumps, engaged towards the west end of the nave. The 
architect has stripped it of its weather-boards, exposed the constmc- 
tional timbers and filled the interstices with luffer-boards and tracery. 
He retains the octagonal shingled spire, adding angle tarrets and quaai- 
fiying^buttresses of timber. This is doubtless tiie right treatment. 
lliere is a good timber porch well restored : and a wooden dormer is 
added to the south side of the roof of the nave. The main doubt we 
have is, whether it was expedient to gable out the west end in order to 
give height for a pointed-headed west window. We do not like to see 
so many as three parallel seats on each side of the chancel : but the 
prayers are said, we are glad to see, from the chancel. 

Ebony Chapel, Kent, a very picturesque almost-ruined Third-Pointed 
chapel, an oblong in shape, is to be removed to another site and re- 
stored by Mr. Teulon. It is one of those cases in which the hand of 
the improver is fatal to the interest of the building. A vestry is added, 
and the arrangement of the doors altered : a dumpy belI*cote towards 
the west end making way for a spruce pyramidally capped spirelet. 
We do not quite like the disappearance of the old buttresses, some of 
which at least seem, in the photographs kindly lent us by the architect, 
to retain original fragments. The whole work is not to exceed £400. 
We feel inclined to regret the demolition of the ruin, and we doubt 
whether it would not have been cheaper, as well as better, to build a 
new chapel on the new site. 

S.Peter, Frampton Cotterell, Gloucestershire. — ^This church, a spacious 
clerestoried Third-Pointed building, with western tower, has been re- 
built by Mr. Norton. The tower, a characteristic specimen of the 
local type, has not been altered. There is some insipidity in the some- 
what ornate uniformity of detail of the rebuilt portion : and the east 
window is somewhat cumbrous. The reredos is a series of niches, and 
has merit. 

8. Andrew, East Haghoume, Berkshire. — Mr. W. J. Hopkins, of 

Notices and Answers to Correspondents. 281 

^Worcester, has in hand the restoration and re-arrangement of this 
church. By filliog the chancel aisles with longitudinal benches for 
cliildren, he makes room for about one hundred and eighty worshippers 
in addition to the two hundred and seventy-six sittings provided by the 
old plan. The chancel is arranged properly : though the ** reader's" 
stall is made rather too distinctive. What new details there are are 
"well designed : but the greater part of the restorations consists in the 
faithfol restoration or imitation of the old work. We rejoice to see that 
the leaden roof is renewed, instead of being replaced by one of tiles. 

iS. Peter, Newenden, Kent. — ^This little unpretending church is about 
to be restored by Mr. Gordon Hills, who purposes idso to remove the 
present half-ruined tower, which stands at the north-west angle, and 
to add a new tower, with small shingled broach-spire, over a south- 
^weet porch to the south aisle. The new position is certainly less 
picturesque than the old one ; and the general effect will scarcely be 
improved by the change. The new tower, moreover, is not high 
enough, we think, with reference to the height of the ridge of the 
nave-roof : otherwise the restoration is judicious. 


Thb Parliamentary Committee, appointed on the motion of Mr. 
Beresford Hope and presided over by him, have reported on the im- 
portant question of the Reconstruction of the Foreign Office. We are 
truly glad to say that they dispose satisfactorily of the monstrous claim 
set up by Mr. Pennethome to be of right the architect of all Public 
Works : they submit the verdict of the Judges of the late Competition 
for Public Offices to a searching examination, from which it clearly ap- 
pears that the question as to highest merit in that competition lies 
between Mr. Scott and Messrs. Banks and Barry : and they establish 
the fact that for purposes of practical convenience and economy there is 
no substantial difference between the Pointed and the Classical styles. 
Upon the whole, they advise that out of the prizemen of the late com- 
petition should be selected the architect for the new Foreign Office. 
We consider these conclusions to be of high value and interest : and we 
look forward with much curiosity to the publication of the evidence. 
Our want of space prevents however any further notice of this im- 
portant document. 


To the Editor of the Ecclesiologist. 

Cheltenham, June 2, 1858. 
Dbab Sib, — Perhaps you will excuse a few remarks on a notice in 
the last number of the Ecclesiologist, At a meeting of the Ecclesiolo- 
gical Society it is stated that *' a letter was read from Mr. G. G. Scott, 
asking for information as to the best way of representing the modern 
Episcopal habit in monumental brasses." As that habit is *' worn at 

282 Notices and Answers to Correspondents. 

present" I am afraid Mr. Scott will never be enabled to delineate any- 
thing to his own satisfaction. Our Prelates having gradually divested 
themselves of the hood (at present I believe worn only by the Bishop 
of Gibraltar) and the pastoral staff as well as the gloves (which I think 
the Irish Episcopate still retains), have left the arrangement of their 
costume in the tailor's hands. In consequence that part of- the dress 
which covers the arms is made usually of very coarse lawn, and is 
swelled out to such a degree as to deserve the appellation of *' balloon'* 
sleeves, facetiously given to it in the Nodes Ambrosiana, I have not 
seen the monumental effigy of Archbishop Howley at Canterbury, but 
I cannot imagine that any artist however skilful can make that elegant 
which art has conspired to make ugly. When very young, I remem- 
ber, or rather recollect. Dr. Beadon. then Bishop of Bath and WeUs, 
and whatever his merits or demerits might be, he was almost episcopally 
costumed in rather tight sleeves made of the finest lawn, and white 
gloves with a purple fringe. I may add that black formed no part of 
his ordinary costume. Certainly no public functionaries of any class 
are costumed in so undignified a manner as English Bishops, most of 
whom appear really wrapped up in a bundle of the coarsest linen, and 
80 high shouldered from their dress as to deprive them of all symmetry. 
I think if Mr. Scott were to reduce the dimensions of the sleeves, and 
to re-introduce the gloves sometimes worn by a Coiirt Preacher, he 
might make a tolerably graceful figure either in marble or braas, but 
the total disuse of the ancient vestments has put a great stumbling- 
block in the artist's way. 

I am almost ashamed of writing on what may be artistically called 
tailor painting, but my excuse must be that every part of art, both high 
and low, must be attended to. I do not know whether you are aware 
that in the reign of James I. the Bishops when in the House of Lords 
seem to have worn the dress of Temporal Peers, as is shown from 
Mill's Catalogue of Honour, speaking of the Form and Manner of the 
Procession to Parliament. " Every Bishop's gown was made of scarlet, 
made after the fashion of a Baron's, and hoods of the same lined with 
miniver and hanging down behind them." 

Hoping you will excuse this lengthened discussion of a trivial subject, 
I remain, dear Sir, yours truly, 

Henry Philipps. 

To the Editor of the Ecclesiologist. 

Sib, — I have just found a fragment of an old English MS. which 
seems to me the first of the kind yet brought to light. It is one part, 
(for the book was never bound, but divided into parts stitched into vel- 
lum wrappers) of the antiphonary with music for antiphons, verses, re- 
sponsories. &c., and full rubrics. These are the curious part — for they 
not only give directions for Sarum, but also for Extra Sarum, for the 
diocese of Norwich and that of Lincoln. From this it would seem that, 
as far as the Breviary is concerned, the Lincoln use was in the main 
almost the same as the Sarum. 

Yours truly, 

J. C. J. 

Notices and Answers to Correspondents. 288 

We are glad to see our spirited contemporary, the Dietsche Warende, 
still pursaing its outspoken course in the defence of mediaeval Teutonic 
art. M. AlberdingkThijm's foreign readers will however be sorry to 
perceive that the ample epitome of each month's contents in French has 
given place to a more abbreviated article in the same language. In 
the meanwhile an exhibition of national antiquities which took place in 
Amsterdam this spring, points to the growth of archaeological feeling 
among the Dutch. M. Alberdingk Thijm points to the Duchy of 
Limberg as the portion of the actual kingdom of the Netherlands in 
which ecclesiology has made most notable progress. He states that 
the first great Grothic church *' en style XIIP si^cle excellent" is now in 
the course of being erected at Wijk-Maastricht. In a somewhat 
stately Roman Catholic church lately completed at Amsterdam, early 
Flamboyant forms have been adopted. 

F. C. complains that the disfigurement of Westminster Abbey by pa- 
gan monumental sculpture is on the increase rather than the contrary, 
and he urges the expediency of a memorial to the Dean and Chapter on 
the subject. We had not ourselves noticed of late any downward pro- 
gress in the Abbey. We agree with our correspondent that the success 
of the Evening Services ought to lead to a better arrangement of the 
whole interior. A good example set at S. Paul's in this respect would 
probably be followed in Westminster. 

A former correspondent repeats his earnest wish to see a treatise un- 
dertaken on altars and altar-arrangements. We quite agree that such 
a work is much wanted. He also argues that altars, even in square- 
ended churches, should not be placed against the wall ; and refers to a 
German essay on Christian Altars, by Laib and Schwartz, lately pub- 
lished at Rottenburg. In another letter he questions some directions 
in Cleaver's Almanac for this year, as to the proper height of altars 
from the chancel floor. Of course no precise rule can be laid down on 
such a subject. There is much room for variety in the number and 
disposition of chancel levels : and we should be sorry to see any arbi- 
trary canon on the subject. 

The same writer desires an absolute rule as to the proper place, with 
reference to the outer or inner face of the wall, of the glazing of a win- 
dow. Here again some licence must be allowed, with reference to the 
special requirements of each case. The glass should certainly be nearer 
the outside than the inside, for practical reasons connected with the dif- 
fusion of light by means of the internal splays. As for the shafting of 
window-jambs or monials, — another subject of the same writer's com- 
plaint, — we may prefer the Italian Pointed system of completing such 
shafts with bases and capitals, without absolutely condemning the more 
usual method of the northern style. 

We thank a correspondent for favouring us with some controversial 
letters and pamphlets connected with the proposed restoration of Wor- 
cester Cathedral. 

Mr. Giles has just built a Bank at Wells, in an unpretending and 
graceful type of Pointed, and showing in its cornice a flat roof and 
symptoms of the Italian variety. We fully realise the frequent neces- 

284 Notices and Answers to Correspondents. 

sity of this modification in a town like London : but at Wells, where 
there are so many gables standing, we do not so well appreciate its ap* 
propriateness. With this building may be compared the larger and 
more costly Crown Assurance Office* Bridge Street, Blackfriars, by Mr. 
Woodward, in Italian Pointed (a free use being made of the circular- 
headed arch). The interior is carried out en suite and partially painted 
by Mr. PoUen. 

M. Statz has received the commission to design a Pointed cathedral 
for Linz, in Austria, on the Danube. At a recent competition (style 
free) for a Town Hall at Berhn, a stronghold of classicism, a Pointed 
design by M. Schmidt, was so superior, that its success was at the date 
of our information thought more than probable. 

Mr. Forsyth has just completed Mr. Teuton's sumptuous pulpit for 
Blenheim Chapel. The admixture of alabaster, coloured marble, and 
glass mosaic, and the introduction of busts in high relief, combine to 
render this work worthy of high commendation. Mr. Forsyth is like- 
wise completing Mr. Slater's design, the remarkable reredos of Sher- 
borne Minster. The groups which it contains of the Last Supper and 
the Ascension, are designed by Mr. Clayton, and are of particular 

Workmen are now actively engaged in restoring the crypt of S. 
Stephen's chapel. It cannot be sufficiently regretted that the chapel 
itself came under consideration just too soon. A few years later there 
could not have been two opinions as to its preservation. 

We trust in our next number to give, by the kind permission of Mr. 
Scott and of the committee, an engraving of the Gothic memorial co- 
lumn which Mr. Scott is about to erect in front of the west end of 
Westminster Abbey, in memory of Lord Raglan and other Crimean 
*• old Westminsters." 

Mr. Philip has completed, with much success, his model of the re- 
cumbent effigy of Dr. Mill. He has likewise made one of an effigy also 
recumbent, of Queen Katherine Parr, whose tomb is in the chapel of 
Sudeley Castle, which is being restored by the spirited purchaser of 
that building. He will soon proceed with the effigy of Dean Lyall. 

We are particularly glad to observe that Lord John Manners has se- 
lected Mr. Steven's design for the Duke of Wellington's monument, 
including a recumbent effigy for erection in S. Paul's, under Mr. Pen- 
rose's superintendence, in that beautiful chapel heretofore used as the 
Consistory Court, which is to be decorated in unison with the mona- 
ment. The stately tomb of the Duke in the crypt — a monolith of 
Cornish porphyry — is now completed, and the aspect of the sepulchral 
chamber with its quaint candelabra is very solemn. The cross we are 
glad to see has not been forgotten upon the sarcophagus. 

We regret to be unable to notice in our present number several works 
of much interest and importance : including the Second Part of Mr. 
Hallam's Monumental Memorials, the Second Part of the Collections of 
the Surrey Archaeological Society, and Mr. Pittman's suggestive treatise, 
entitled The People in Church. 

Received— G. R. F,— M.— E. E. B. 



<< Surge igitar ct ac: et crft Bomlntis tecum.* 

(new series^ no. xcii.) 


(Continued from p. ^3%J 

The Paten. 

The ancient patens are simply thin pieces of metal slightly hollowed, 
containing a shallow octofoil, or sexfoil, or even a qaatrefoil heaten 
down in the middle. In the centre la generally an engraving of the 
Agnns Dei, or the Nimbed Hand, or some other subject within a circle, 
bnt occasionally we find an enamel. It would appear, however, that 
this excessive plainness of decoration did not obtain anciently, for we 
find that the paten of Suger was made of porphyry with sundry gold dol- 
phins in the centre, the whole surrounded by a most elaborate border 
of gold filagree, enamels, and gems, as also that of S. Goslin, now in 
the cathedral at Nancy .^ 

At the present day the Church of Rome permits no engraving or or- 
nament whatever on the inside of the paten, (which by the way has be- 
come simply the cover of the chalice) ; but I do not see that we as 
Anglicans are bound by any peculiar ordinances of tl^e Church of 
Rome, or why we should not decorate our patens with gold and gems 
as Suger and S. Goslin did (962.) 

The Altar Cross. 

The altar cross as well as the processional cross, for they were often 
one and the same, but with different stands, was usually composed of 
wood, of the thickness of about an inch or three quarters of an inch ; 
the front was faced with gems, enamels, filagree, &c., placed alternately 
as directed by Theophilus, while the back and sides were simply covered 
with stamped silver. The extremities were always in the form of one 
of the many crosses so well known to the heralds, but the lower ex- 
tremity was almost invariably completed, i.e. it did not die into the stem. 

' See De Canmont, Ab^dure de 1' Architecture, p. 52. 
VOL. XIX. p p 

286 Altar Plate. 

If the cross had figures the centre was occupied by an image of our 
Load, and the extremities by enamels or bas reliefs of the emblems of 
the evangelists : but very often in the earlier times, say down to the 
twelfth century, and sometimes even later, there were no images at all 
on the cross. Thus the celebrated cross of Suger was entirely com- 
posed of gems and filagree. There is a very beautiful one of the same 
description, but later in date, in the Hotel de Cluny.^ I think these are 
the description of altar cross we should aim at, and not thin plates of 
brass, which do not by any means sit well on a solid round foot, — a dif- 
ficulty to be overcome by making the cross of a proper thickness. 
With regard to the foot, it may be of the same shape as the foot of the 
chalice from the top of the knob downwards, or it may be of founder's 
work and enamelled, like that now preserved in the Museum at S. 
Omer,^ where the cap of a square column supplies the place of the knob, 
and the immense circular base is supported on the seats of the four 
evangelists, who are writing their gospels. Or the foot may be of 
pierced cast work like the Albero at Milan, and set with occasional 
jewels.^ In fact a cast foot of a cross or a cast bronze candlestick is 
like the square yard of stone Mr. Ruskin talks about, where he says it is 
sufficient space for a man to work in who wishes to immortalise him- 

Thb Flagon. 

Almost all the modem flagons fail in one particular point, namely, in 
the curve which begins at the lip and continues to the foot. Now in all 
the best of the old flagons there is always a straight part between the 
lip and the beginning of the curve. The burettes of the middle ages 
were generally very small, for as the cup wgis withheld from the laity 
they were only required to contain sufl^cient wine for the celebrant. But 
here again the earlier ages help us : the flagons of Suger now in the 
Louvre are 1 ft. 3 in. high : one with the spout has the lip, neck, and 
cover made of gold or silver gilt, decorated with bands of filagree and 
jewels, and enamels : the body of the vase is of agate. The foot is 
again of metal beaten up into the form of spoons, with an inscription 
roimd the edge.^ 

The other one is without the spout, but has its body of rock crystal 
cut into projecting facets. An inscription on the foot informs us that 
it was a gift from the famous Eleanor (afterwards the wife of our 
Henry II.) to her husband ^ouis, who gave it to Suger, who dedi- 
cated it to the church. These two flagons strike me as being fu 
better examples to be studied, if only in regard to their shape, than does 
the Guernsey example. A flagon should have its body, if possible, made 
of glass, crystal, or some other translucent material ; it is very true that 
if this is broken it takes some trouble to replace, but then in the first 
place, the glass need not be thin, — (in fact it may be very thick, as thick 
as crystal would be,) — and if the metal top and .bottom be connected by 

' It is engraved in Da Sommerard's " Arts da Moyen Age," bat very roughly. 
^ See the last number of Didron's " Annales Arch^logiques, voL xviii.'' 
3 For engravings of the Albero see *' Annales Arch^logiques, vols, xiv., xv/' 
* See Digby Wyatt*s ** Metal Work" for a lithograph from a sketch of mine. 

AUar Plate. 287 

omBmented strips, secured at one end by screws, there would surdy be 
no very great trouble in undoing these screws and grinding the top of 
a new glass body to fit the metd above. 

The outer face of the handle also affords a good opportunity for the 
em^oyment of gems, as they serve to give a hold to the hand : hnt 
then they should be strong gems in cabochon, such as carbuncles, 
aquamarines, &c., and not delicate ones, like pearls. The chatons 
or cases would also require to be very strong. 


Candlesticks are of two sorts, the wrought and the cast. The wrought 
candlesticks are made much in the same manner as the chalice, but of 
different proportions. Thus the first thing is a cup to receive the wax. 
This may be either concave or convex in its section ; there is only one 
thing it ought not to have, and that is a cresting, which the modern 
designers are so fond of putting. In fact their ingenuity in devising 
forms to hurt the hands is perfectly wonderful. There may be such 
things as crestings to be found on ancient candlesticks ; for an example 
or authority can be hunted up for anything ; but it is quite against 
common sense that there should be one. The only things like crest- 
ings are a few semicircular projections sometimes used to break up the 
edge of the cup ; and in latter times the edge had a few incisions 
made in it, so as to give the general idea of a battlement ; but neither 
of these is a cresting, or could hurt the hands. Candlesticks, indeed, 
would appear to have received worse treatment in these days than 
all the rest of the church plate ; for I have seen some with a cresting 
running round both sides of the knob, so that it is perfectly impossible 
to take hold of that which has been introduced for the express purpose 
of laying hold on. I have seen the foot of another candlestick sup- 
ported, not on animals, or figures, or legs, but actually on dormer 
windows ! Now a very littie thought upon the uses of things would 
surely have avoided these errors. For the rest, a candlestick, like a 
chalice, consists of a cup with a pricket or socket in the middle, a 
pipe, a knob, and a foot often supported on animals or figures ; the 
foot also takes various shapes, and becomes triangular, or square, 
or circular.^ 

The cast candlestick contains precisely the same parts as the beaten 
ones ; but is far more fanciful in its decorations, as the knob and foot 
are often perforated. The foot especially becomes a mass of foliage^ 
ending in strange dragons, which do duty as legs ; sometimes we see 
figures intermingled, and occasionally crystals and gems. 

The Albero of Milan is the largest example of a description of work, 
of which Dr. Rock's^ censer is one of the smallest, and both are equally 
beautiful and spirited. I am not aware that very much has been done 

^ The cnp is made far too shallow in modem examples ; it should not he pierced, 
as it is required to hold the droppings of the wax. 

^ I am not aware that Dr. Rock's censer has been published, but another, evi- 
dently from the same mould, in the possession of M. Benvignac of Lille, is en- 
gnyeA in the Annales Arch^ologiques, Vol. iv. p. 293. Both these censers were 
cast from tiie same mould. 

288 Altar Plate. 

in the present revival beyond a small restoration to Dr. Rock's censer 
by Hardman, and which, by the way, I am bound to say, is very well 
executed indeed. Occasionally the artist did not confine his attention 
to the usual cup, pipe, knob, and foot, but made a group of his candle- 
stick. Thus in the hospital at Vercelli, there is a candlestick^ in the 
form of S. Michael vanquishing the dragon ; the cup for the candle 
was placed between S. Michaers wings, while the whole afiair was 
supported upon the legs of the dragon and the end of his tail. It 
strikes me that there is a very large field open to the artist with re- 
spect to cast candlesticks. 

Service Books. 

The ordinary way of binding the service books was to cover them 
with stout leather, to put corners and bosses more or less ornamental 
on the angles, with a large one in the middle, and to attach stout strips 
of leather to one side, which went over the edges, and fastened on 
brass pegs in the middle of the opposite side ; the ends of the strips of 
leather being strengthened with brass tips, perforated with a hole cor- 
responding in size to the pin. Strong nails are often inserted in the 
lower edges of the covers, so as to rest on the book board. This was 
the ordinary binding, and with such are the beautiful service books of 
the cathedral of Siena covered. Occasionally these bosses, &c., were 
made of silver, and nielloed or enamelled, — as for instance a book in 
the library of the same town ; but the more precious or more sacred 
volumes were entirely covered with jeweller's work. In this case the 
covers were formed of very thick boards — say •)- or j^ in. thick ; the middle 
part was sunk to the depth of f or ^ in., leaving a raised and often 
bevelled border of about 1 1 or 2 in. wide all round ; the edges of the 
bevel and of the cover were generally overlaid with thin stamped 
silver, but the border was one mass of jewels, filagree, and enamels, 
set as usual alternately, and with art, as Theophilus has it. The sunk 
part in the middle contained very often an ancient work in ivory, such 
as the leaf of a consular diptych, or more frequently a plate of silver 
with the crucifix, with the Blessed Virgin and S. John, in bossed work, 
the ground being occupied with more jewels or enamels, and engrav- 
ing, according to the fancy of the designer. 

The cathedral of Vercelli possesses a most splendid book of this 
kind. There are several very fine ones to be seen in the Louvre, and 
one or two in the British Museum ; but the finest of all is in the 
library of Siena. It is one mass of filagree and cloisonne enamels, 
and the back is composed of gold chains with cloisonne enamelled 
roundels at their intersections, lliis cover and book are both By- 
zantine work. Some books were covered entirely with champ-lev^ 
enamels, of which there is a very fair example in the British Museum. 
Others had the clasps enamelled with figures or coats of arms. Great 

^ There are some small candlesticks of this description in the Museum of the 
Department of Science and Art at Kensington, as well as illustrations of all the pro- 
cesses above described. I have, however, preferred referring the reader to the 
British Museum whenever it has been possible, for the Museum at Kensington has 
been very unhappy in its choice of a locality as regards the general student. 

AUar Plate. 289 

luxury was also displayed upon the markers and their pipes, the latter 
being made of gold enamelled, and even of a single ruby. I have 
a strong suspicion that King Alfred's jewel might have been the 
end of a bookmarker, but so arranged that the plain end was attached 
to the bottom of the book, while the jewelled part hung over the top. 

I have beard of no particularly splendid bookbinding having been 
done in our own times, except the Durham book in the British Mu- 
seum ; but it appears to me a very legitimate field for exertion, more 
especially if we could manage to get portions of the service written 
out in large and fairly illuminated, or in gold letters on purple vellum.^ 

Altar Faontals and Dossals. 

I have placed frontals and dossals together, for they are generally so 
much alike, that it is difficult to distinguish one from the other. The 
general design of a plain dossal or frontal may be best described, by 
saying that it was a collection of such book covers as I have just de- 
scribed, placed in juxtaposition. Thus a strong framework of timber 
was made and boarded, and upon it were nailed other projecting pieces 
of timber, dividing it into a number of cells or panels. These latter 
were filled up with groups in bossed work, while the projections had 
their faces covered with strips of jewels, enamels, filagree, &c., and 
their sides with stamped work. Sometimes these raised divisions take 
an architectural character, and become columns, arches, &c., such as 
the altar-piece of Bale, now in the Hotel de Glujfny.^ At other times 
they become quatrefoils or crosses, as at Milan,^and fprmerly at Sens. 
Sometimes they are simply in squares, and only covered with stamped 
work, the enamels being restricted to the comers, as at Pistoia. But 
after all, provided the bossed groups are well and effectively done, the 
thing is sure to look well. At Monza the contrary effect is produced : 
— although the enamels are very good indeed, the figures are atrocious. 
Now at Pistoia and at Florence nothing can exceed the beauty of the 
groups, and so careful were the authorities in the matter, that two or 
three generations passed away before the completion of the work.^ If 
an arcade be used, and it project very much, the single figures may 
almost be detached, but if there are simply groups in compartments, I 
think it is as well not to entirely detach the head, but still to detach it 
more than the body, as the heads will have the effect of specks of 
light like the little globules in filagree. At the same time very flat 
work should be as much avoided as possible, otherwise the whole effect 
will be tame. I should mention that the outside border should be 
wider and more important than the others, and that it should never 
be omitted, especially when architecture is used. 

I believe in this country, we have yet to do a precious frontal 
or dossal. The only modern one I have ever seen was at Monza, 

^ The purple Tellum was produced by immersing the vellum in a mixture of 
madder and white vinegar. I tried the experiment with a tube of Windsor and 
Newton's moist colour : it succeeded perfectly. 

' SeeArchaeologia, Tol.zxx. p. 148. ' See Sommerard, Arts duMoyen Age. 

^ Clone, Pollajuolo, besides others, worked at the Florence dossal. 

290 Aliar Plate. 

where the priest of one of the pariah churches has had an electrotjrped 
one made at Milan. Of course the art was debased classic* but the 
effect was very good.^ 

Alms Basin. 

I think here we should avoid bossing up as much as possible, 
for it will always be liable to be injured by the weight of the money 
poured into the basin. Howeyer we can substitute enamel and en- 
graving, while there could be no objection to a bord^ of jewels, &e. 
round die outer edge, where it would be safe from the money. It 
might also be worth while to try the experiment of making the basin 
deeper and smaller than usual, and perhaps to place three or four 
rings round the circumference, such as we see in the Anglo-Saxon 
basins ; — in fact to make it as little as possible like an enlarged pa- 
ten. Mr. Hardman has produced a very excellent electrotyped alms 
dish, with a very good and bold engraving, but unfortunately with 
some evangelistic symbols, quite unworthy to be in such company. 
Perhaps after all it is better to get a really good engraved subject, and 
then to multiply it by our modem appliances, such as electrotyping, 
which makes a perfect copy, than to prepare a fresh and often equivocal 
design for every new object. 

I have now completed what I proposed, viz. a notice of our 
church plate. I leave untouched the wider subject of domestic 
orfdvrerie, as well as that of jewellery. It appears to me that a man 
may show his talent in designing and executing goldsmiths' work 
quite as much as in architecture, painting, or sculpture : and indeed we 
ought not to forget to how many goldsmiths their profession was but 
as a preparation for their success in arts with which their names have 
now become identified. It is much to be wished, that every cathedral 
could have its two or three goldsmiths constantly working at the 
various ornaments and vessels for their church or those of the diocese, 
under the superintendence of the architect, who of course would then 
have to be resident. By such means our cathedral towns would be- 
come the centres of art, and in a little time we should no longer hear 
disputes as to which of the crafts, that of the sculptor or that of the 
goldsmith, is at the lowest ebb. 

W. BuaoBS. 

^ If the Ten Commandments, Creed, and Lord^s Prajer are infisted upon, 
thej vaght be stamped on the sides of the border, where they would not interfere 
with the compotition ; or the letters might be enamelled and so form the deeontioa 
of the faces of the borders and divisions. 



{ConHmied/rom p. 355.) 

Having thus seen what was the Law of the Church of England in 
relati(M& to non-communicating attendance under the Firat Prayer Book» 
let ua consider whether that Law was altered by the Second Book. 
Our belief is that it not only was not, but was not intended to be altered : 
we are aware that in saying this we enunciate an opinion contrary to 
that held by many, if not by most, of those who think that the present 
Prayer Book does not exclude them : let us state, therefore, the grounds 
of our conviction. 

Now, so far as we know, there is only one passage in the Prayer 
Book of 1 552 which has ever been alleged (whether by the advocates 
or the opponents of non-communicating presence) to prove that the 
Revisers of that year designed to exclude ^om Celebrations those who 
did not purpose to communicate : that passage is the well-known one 
in the Exhortation, which was to be read immediately after the prayer 
for the Church Militant : its words are these : — 

" And whereas ye offend God so sore in refusing this holy Banquet, I 
admonish, exhort, and beseech you, that onto this unkmdness ye will not add 
any more. Which thing ye shall do, if ye stand by as gazers and lookers on 
them that do communicate, and be no partakers of the same yourselves. . . . 
Tnily it is a great unthankfiilness to say nay when ye be called : but the fault 
is much greater when men stand by, and yet will neither eat nor drink this 

Holy Communion Wherefore, rather than you should so do, depart 

you hence and give place to them that be godly disposed." 

But it seems to us that this passage is altogether inapplicable to the 
case for which it is cited : we are not concerned now to show, as we 
are persuaded might be done — ^that it was probably copied from the 
often quoted siimlar one of S. Chrysostom ; that, like that Father's 
exhortation, it was solely directed against habitual non-communicants ; 
and that it is just as much entitled to be regarded as '* an example of 
the h3rperbolical language so common with this Father," as is the pas- 
sage thus characterized by Mr. Scudamore (p. 88). It is abundantly 
plain indeed that Cranmer and his co-revisers were most desirous at 
that time to increase the frequency of individual communion : the very 
£BU!t that they made *' three times" instead of " once a year," (as the 
First Book prescribed) the mintmum of commvnieating attendance, proves 
this. The Exhortation, too, now under consideration, was to be used 
*' at certain times when the Curate shall see the people negligent to 
oome to the Holy Communion :" it repudiated, as excuses for being 
thus " negligent " of Sacramental mandncation, the pleas of being 
'* otherwise letted with worldly business," and of being *' a grievous sin- 
ner," — those who offered such, needed of course to be rebuked in strong 
terms, and to be told that they (whether continually or occasionaUy) 
coming to the Celebration of the Holy Sacrament, occupying themselves 

292 The Anglican Authority for 

as mere curious or idle spectators — " gazers and lookers on them that 
do communicate/* — with no sense of the sacredness of that service, and 
with no desire or endeavour so to frame their lives as to fit themsdves 
to be communicants, did nothing " else, but even to have the mysteries 
of Christ in derision.*' But what had all this to do with Clergy who 
(having celebrated or communicated at one Administration, whether 
public or private, or having to celebrate at one of these afterwards) were 
present, either as " Ministers*' or not, at another Celebration ? or again, 
how did it apply to " Clerks," (most likely Choristers also) whose duty 
it still was to remain throughout the Office ? — a duty obvious from the 
bare direction that the " Gloria in Excelsis," which now had been 
placed after the post-communion prayers, was ordered to "be said or 
8ung ?** What relation had it to those clergy or laity who, though habi- 
tutd communicants, yet, from a desire to comply with any such discipline 
as we have seen Bishop Ferrar regarded, or from what at times they 
considered lack of preparation, refrained from participating ? How 
could it have any bearing upon the case of children or young and older 
persons of whom a Rubric in the Confirmation Office of this very 
Second Prayer Book declared " there shall none be admitted to the Holy 
Communion, until such time as he can say the Catechism, and be con* 
firmed ?" Or, once more, could it even be meant for those who com- 
plied willingly with the prescribed minimum communions ? 

Probably, however, it will be said, — Why then was the Rubric 
omitted which, in the First Book (as you have been contending) or- 
dered all the non-communicants, except *' the Ministers and Clerks,*' to 
withdraw from the quire ? does not this very omission (especially coupled 
with the Exhortation) imply that they were to depart from the Church 
altogether? We unhesitatingly answer no. For (1) first, as we 
have already seen, the altered mode of collecting the offerings made the 
Rubric needless : (2) next, an Exhortation which was only to be said 
" at certain times," and then as an earnest admonition to the profanely 
indifferent or sinful, could never be regarded as a standing order against 
all non-communicating attendance : (3) thirdly, the mere omission of a 
Rubric is no necessary proof that a custom was abandoned, unless such 
custom was at variance with the spirit or the letter of the Office itself; 
and, indeed, as a comparison of the two Books would prove, if other- 
wise regarded it must have involved consequences the reverse of what 
could have been intended. 

Yet, though we have no wish to diminish the fiill authority which 
can be fairly claimed for either Rubric or Exhortation which may seem 
adverse to our view, we are entitled to demand that they be con- 
strued in conformity with other Rubrics and Exhortations: clearly 
upon no other principle can we ascertain the true idea of any Ancient 
Ctece, and especially of Offices which underwent changes in times so 
perplexing and trying as were those which witnessed the successive 
revisions of the Church of England's Services. What, then, do we 
find elsewhere in the Communion Office of 1552 that will confirm our 
own view or strengthen the opposite belief ? 

There is another Exhortation to be used, not " at certain times," but 
whenever the Holy Communion was celebrated ; it was retained in ex- 

the Presence of Non-Communicants at Holy Communion, 293 

actly the same form which it had in the First Book ; and it bade *' them 
that come to receive the Holy Communion" to make their *' humble 
confession" not only *• to Almighty God," but " before this Congrega- 
tion here gathered together in His holy Name." What could this 
direction mean if we are to construe the other Exhortation as a com- 
mand for the departure from the Church of all but themselves ? Ridley's 
Articles and Hooper* s Injunctions, already quoted, are an easy key to 
the " Draw near" which precedes this sentence, and they show that the 
Communicants were to come into the chancel or choir and thus to be 
distinguished from the rest of the people. 

So, too, the Rubric which immediately follows, remains as in the for- 
mer Book ; directing the " general confession to be made, in the name 
of all those that are minded to receive the Holy Communion ;" thus im- 
plying, as distinctly as words can imply, that others might be present 
who, from (what they accounted) a good and sufficient motive, would 
not be thus minded. The like is true of the Prayer of Access. 

Be it observed, moreover, that there is not the least indication of any 
pause, either after or before this " general confession," during which 
the non-communicants may be supposed to have withdrawn : the only 
fairly conceivable time would be during the Offertory : but in the case 
of neither Book would their doing so help the theory which we are op- 
posing ; for the First Book states where non-communicants are not to 
remain after the Offertory, the Second distinctly implies that some were 
still in the Church. The utmost, we think, which can be proved is 
(and it would coincide with evidence we have quoted) that probably 
those who did not intend to offer went away during the Offertory, but 
that those who offered, whether communicants or not, remained. Is 
it unlikely to be true that those who were disposed to offer were just 
those whose religious sentiments inclined them to practise more or less 
frequent Communion and therefore were not the " negligent " referred 
to in the first Exhortation ? 

We must leave it to those who deny our conclusions to reconcile this 
last Exhortation and Rubric to their theory of the other Exhortation : 
until this can be done satisfactorily we cannot see that they have any 
point from which to argue effectively. Nor must it be forgotten at the 
same time, that, though by this Book a more frequent reception was re- 
quired of the " many Priests and Deacons" attached to " Cathedral and 
Collegiate Churches," viz., ** every Sunday at the least," yet it was 
coupled with this qualification, '* except they have a reasonable cause 
to the contrary ;" and there is nothing to suggest that they must keep 
away from this Oiiice of Public Worship if they had such cause for not 

Let us only further add, with reference to this Book of 1 55% our 
belief that the Act of Uniformity which sanctioned it (5 and 6 Edw. 
VI. c. 1.) contemplated non-communicating attendance by requiring (in 
Sect. 2.) under the penalty of " the censures of the Church" that •' all 
and every person and persons .... shall diligently and faithfully (hav- 
ing no lawful or reasonable excuse to be absent) endeavour themselves 
to resort to their parish church or chapel accustomed .... upon every 
Sunday and other days ordained and used to be kept as holy-days ; and 


294 The Anglican Authority for 

then and there to abide orderly and soberly during the time of the com- 
mon prayer, preachings, or other service of God, there to be used and 

Passing now to what occurred in Elizabeth's reign we find our in- 
terpretation of Edward's Second Book fully corroborated : it will be 
remembered that the Exhortation and Rubrics we have just been 
noticing remained wholly imchanged in the Book of 1559; conse- 
quently if the rule which our opponents draw from the Book of 1 55^ 
be well founded, it must equally hold good of Elizabeth's Prayer Book. 
Now we suppose that a formal proposition to repeal a law or to aban- 
don a practice, is the best possible evidence of the existence of such 
law or practice. According to Strype such a proposal was made in 
1563, i.e. four years after Elizabeth's Prayer Book was enacted ; and 
it emanated from a body of persons who may fairly be considered as 
the best witnesses of the then existing custom : among the Twenty- 
one Articles intitled *' Requests and Petitions of the Lower House of Con- 
vocation," one is as follows : 

''VI. That no person abide within the church durinff the time of the 
Communion, unless he do oommuDicate. That is, they snail depart imme- 
diately after the Exhortation be ended, and before the confession of the Com- 
municants." — Annals, Vol. I. p. 340. 

But then, as this request (together with most of the others) was re- 
fused, the inference seems unavoidable — ^That the Ecclesiastical Legis- 
lature of England did not consider it needful to interfere : there does 
not, indeed, seem to be any record of their reasons for inaction ; but 
when we recollect that at that time the Bishops had to be continually 
defending their course, from attacks of both the Roman and the Puritan 
party, by appealing to the laws and practices of the Early Church, it 
is extremely improbable that they would have ignored such a point as 
this, if they thought that non- communicating attendance was a plain 
violation of an ancient general Rule ; or, if they considered that Rule 
to be still obligatory. 

Two years later, in 1565, we have direct testimony of the practice 
in Canterbury Cathedral, and that, too, under circumstances which 
preclude any supposition of the Dean and Chapter being, what would 
be called, " popishly affected.'' The Queen had addressed a Letter to 
Archbishop Parker, on the 25th of January, complaining in strong 
terms that owing to the neglect of the Bishops of his Province, 

" there is crept and brought into the Church by some few persons [alluding 
to the Genevan party] .... an open and manifest disorder and offence to the 
godly wise and obedient persons, oy diversity of opinions, and specially in the 
external, decent, and lawful rites and ceremonies to be used in the churches/' 

Whereupon the Archbishop addressed specific inquiries to his Suffra- 
gans, through Grindal, the Bishop of London, directing them to make 
certain returns to him relating to the varieties complained of. The 
Certificate from " the Vice-Dean of the Cathedral and Metropolitical 
Church of Chri6t in Canterbury, and the Prebendaries of the same 
Church," sets forth, among other things, that : 

" 'The Common Prayer daily through the year, though there be no Com- 

the Presence of Non-Communicants at Holy Communion. 295 

munion, is sung at the Communion Table, standing north and souths where the 
high altar did stand. The Minister, when there is no Communion, useth a 
surplice only, standing on the east side of the Table with his face toward 
the people. 

'' ' The holy Communion is ministered ordinarily the first Sunday of every 
month through the year. At what time the table is set east and west. The 
Priest which ministereth, the Pystoler and Gospeller, at that time wear copes. 
And none are suffered then to tarry within that chancel but the communi- 
cants.' "Stryp^s Parker J p. 183. 

The CTidence furnished by this latter paragraph is enough to prove 
the custom in the chief Provincial Cathedral six years after Elizabeth's 
Prayer Book came into use. But, ivithout laying much stress upon it, 
it is worth while to notice the expression ** Common Prayer " in the 
former paragraph : the context (especially if considered in connection 
with the amended Injunctions of 1561 which prescribe the " apparel" 
to be used in the Public Service) shows, we think, that it must mean 
The Communion Service. If this be so, it seems to be a proof that the 
term " Common Prayer,'' which occurs in the two Acts of Uniformity 
already noticed and in several sections of the Statute 1 Eliz. c. % (the 
14th of which follows the 2nd section of the 5 and 6 £dw. VI. c. 1,) 
is not limited to Matins and Evensong, but is a general expression to 
cover all the Offices of Public Worship ; and thus, the words of the 
Section *' then and thereto abide orderly and soberly during the time of 
the Common Prayer, preaching, or other service of God there to be Used 
and ministered " is, to our mind, anything but a command to the non- 
communicating portion of the congregation to depart. We may observe 
that upon the words " to abide orderly " Mr. Stephens, referring to a 
decision, (Eccl. Statutes, Vol. I. p. 368) has the following note : 

" It is not enough to come, unless he also abide ; nor enough to abide when 
he is come, unless he come so as to be present at the several parts of Divine 
Service, and also remain there throughout, orderly and soberly ; the clause 
being penned conjunctively, and so the guilt and forfeiture incurred by the 
violation of any one branch." — Vide Can. 1640, c. 5. Ann MannocVs case, 
Godb. 148. 

" The constitutions of Egbert, archbishop of York, enjoin, ' Sacerdote 
verbnm in ecelesi& fadente, qui egressus de auditorio fuerit, excommunicetur ;' 
and which is derived from the fourth council of Carthage. 1 Spel. 266. Agath. 
c. 47. 1 Aurelian, c. 26." 

It is true, indeed, that this Constitution is directed against those 
who go out during the preaching (whether that were by reading, or 
also expounding and applying the Scriptures :) but this being, as with 
us, part of the Eucharistic Office, the inhibition needs to be read in 
that light and as designed to guard against an interruption of its con- 
tinuity. In our judgment, the absence of any direction to non-com- 
municants to depart subsequent to the sermon at which, it will not be 
denied, they were presumed to be present, points to the same con- 

What has now been quoted from the time of Elizabeth seems to us 
a complete answer to Mr. Scudamore who (when citing a Letter of 
1551 from Bishop Guest, one of the revisers, informing Cecil, the Queen's 

296 The Anglican Authority for 

Secretary, of his reasons for advocating certain orders in the book then 
preparing) makes this comment : 

" This further change, as I have said, was not effected ; but from the lan- 
guage of Guest we may infer that the principle on which, the Elizabethan 
(ii vines continued [I] to exclude the non-communicants was the same on 
which the question had been decided by S. Chrysostom more than a thousand 
years before. And here let me ask whether, with this fact before ns, it would 
be too much to assume that their martyred predecessors had [2] introduced 
the custom because they knew that it was [3] in conformity with the ancient 
principle and rule."— P. 104. 

Apart from our opinion that Guest's Letter to Cecil (which it is not 
necessary for our purpose to examine here) has been somewhat mis- 
understood by Mr. Scudamore, and either makes for our case (as we 
think it does) or would prove a great deal too much — viz. that non> 
communicants must depart before the Creed; we are compelled to think 
that Mr. Scudamore's remarks would the rather have represented the 
case accurately had he inserted the word " not '* in the places we have 
marked 1 , 2. 3. 

Our limits will not permit us to examine in detail the remaiaing 
authorities quoted by Mr. Scudamore* viz., Bp. Jewel in 1560 and 
1565; the "Homily of the Worthy receiving," &c. part i. ; Cart- 
wright in 1573; Whitgift; Hooker; Whitaker; Overal ; Bp. An- 
drewes 16^0; Bp. Bedel 1630; Laud, Juxon. and Wren, as over- 
lookers of the Scottish Liturgy of 1637; Bp. Montague 1639; 
L'Estrange; the attack on the Clergy of Durham Cathedral 164^; 
Bp. Cosin ; Payne ; Bp. Beveridge ; Johnson ; Bingham ; Waterland. 
Nor is it needful, for they seem either inapplicable to disprove what we 
are contending for, or to be distinct witnesses in our favour : of the latter 
class are Bp. Montague, who orders that no non-communicant come 
into the Chancel and that *' no boys, girls, or gazers be suffered to look 
in as at a play " through the Chancel doors ; and Jewel} who (as Mr. 
Scudamore himself states) having been charged by the Romanist 
Harding with teaching in his sermon at S. Paul's Cross in 1560, '* that 
all the people ought to receive or to be driven out of the church." 
says in 1565, ^* yoti know this ia neither the doctrine nor the practice of 
our Church. Howbeit the ancient doctors have both taught so. and also 
practised the same. Anacletus saith, ' After the consecration is ended, 
let all receive, unless they will be thrust from the Church/ " The ut- 
most that the others do, is either to point out what was the practice 
of early times, under a state of discipline to which cdl analogy had 
long ceased ; or to indicate that a custom was growing up which, 
unhappily, was but of too kindred a character with the increasing 
diminution both in Celebrations and Communions. 

Having thus traced, as succinctly as we well could, the history of the 

* Mr. Scadamore is quite in error in speaking of Jewel (p. 105) as one *' who 
may be said to have been almost one of them *' who *' framed and sanctioned the 
exhortation to depart.'' It was his complaint to P. Martyr {Zurich Letters, Ist 
series, No. ix. p. 23) " we are not consulted " in reference to thp revision of 1559 : 
but, apart from this, his language above, in 1565, shows that he did not understand 
the Exhortation to be an order for all non •communicants to leave the church. 

the Presence of Non-Communicants at Holy Communion. 297 

question in dispate from 1549 to 1662» it now only remains to see 
whether any changes made by the revision at the latter date» should 
alter the conclusions to which we have already arrived. 

The first thing to be noticed is, — that in the Exhortation to be used 
when the Minister " shall see the people negligent to come to the Holy 
Communion," that whole passage is omitted which, in the Books of 
1552 and 1604, is held to have been meant to exclude non-communi- 
cants. It is no explanation of this, we think, to assume, as Mr. Scuda- 
more does, that '* it was no longer necessary,'' because *' the custom 
of staying without receiving had died out, and to all appearance, as we 
have seen, before the close of the sixteenth century .... even in the 
case of the choristers." For it seems to us that the evidence here 
appealed to, as proving the decease of the custom, fails to establish the 
allegation : indeed that, so far as the members of choirs are concerned, 
the introduction of the direction for the Sanctus to " be sung or said,'* 
and the retention of the rubric for the Gloria in Excelns to " be 
said or sung^" prove that they were intended to remain, whether com- 
municants or not, whatever lax practice might have generally prevailed, 
and so have obviously caused the more important part of the Office to 
be less solemnly and beautifully celebrated than the former portion of 
the Service. 

On the other hand, it might be thought, perhaps, that as the sen- 
tence in the shorter Exhortation, (urging the intending Communi- 
cants to *' make " their " humble confession .... before this con- 
gregation here gathered together in " Gon's " holy Name,") was also 
left out. so it would seem to imply that none were intended to be pre- 
sent save the Communicants themselves. But then as the Rubrics 
remained, ordering the Confession to '* be made in the name of all those 
that are minded to receive," and "the Priest" to say the Prayer of 
Access, '* in the name of all them that shall receive," it looks very much 
as though some non-communicants were considered likely, at all events, 
to be present. If not, and if these parts of the Office were thus re- 
arranged with the intention that only Communicants should be present, 
and upon the presumption that none else would stay ; then the Rubric 
directing the remains of the Sacrament to be consumed, by " the Priest 
and such other of the Communicants as he shall then caU unto him " is, 
to say the least, wholly superfluous. 

Moreover there is this important fact to be noticed (and we must 
press it upon any who may not be convinced by what we have just 
said) — that while the whole Congregation is meant to be and is pre- 
sent at the commencement of the service and certainly at the Nicene 
Creed, for after this all the public notices are to be given, there is not 
the very slightest hint that any one\» bound to leave before the conclu- 
sion of the ministration. 

After carefully considering these (only apparently confficting) acts, our 
conclusion is — that the reviewers of 1662 purposely so re-arranged these 
parts of the Communion Office, as neither to appear to drive away the 
well-disposed and good-intentioned, nor to seem to encourage the attend- 
ance of the ill-affected, or evil-minded non- communicants. They did 
not wish, we believe, to tighten the Traditional Rule of the English 

298 The Anglican Authority for 

Church, or to disregard the Canonical Discipline of the Catholic Church. 
They apparently had no intention of further enforcing attendance 
upon any of the Offices of Puhlic Worship hy inserting in their Act 
of Uniformity a clause similar to that we have noticed in the pre-' 
vious Statutes : but they were desirous of impressing most strongly 
upon the "negligent/* to whom those clauses clearly referred, the 
danger of habitually keeping from the Holy Sacrament ; and this may 
well account for their substituting in the longer Exhortation, in place 
of the alleged prohibitory warning, a sentence in which they addressed 
them as those who *'wUfully abstain from the Lord*s Table, and 
separate from your brethren, who come to feed on the banquet of that 
most heavenly food." 

This view of the intentions of the last revisers appears to us more in 
harmony with Mr. Scudamore*s various authorities, whether early or 
late, than are his own seeming conclusions : e, g„ Pseudo-Dionysius, 
whom he quotes (p. 8), in *' witness to the opinions and practice of the 
very first age," as saying that " those who were worthy of the sight 
and participation^ of the Divine things remained ;" or, again, (p. 74), S. 
Chrysostom who (*'in an ancient homily, formerly ascribed to this 
Father*') says, '* let not any one [be present] who is uninitiated, any 
one who is not able, with unclean lips, to touch the dread mysteries." 
Nor can we see how his ** analogy of certain sacrifices under the Law" 
(pp. 18 — ^l) applies, unless it can be shown that no "devout Israel- 
ite" was allowed to be present when others offered ; and that every one 
of the congregation was " under an obligation to eat" whether or not he 
was " the lay- worshipper, who provided the victim." Further, we fail to 
perceive that (p. 17,) ** the only prescribed mode, of that commemorative 
action," urged by S. Paul, (1 Cor. zi. 96.) on a Church, is any proof 
that every one present at the Eucharistic Sacrifice must " eat this bread 
and drink this cup" in order that an assembled Congregation may ** show 
the Lord's death till He come." 

But, more than this, Mr. Scudamore (citing a Sermo